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find(1)

find(1)                          User Commands                         find(1)



NAME
       find - find files

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/find [-H | -L] path... expression


       /usr/xpg4/bin/find [-H | -L] path... expression

DESCRIPTION
       The  find utility recursively descends the directory hierarchy for each
       path seeking files that match a Boolean expression written in the  pri‐
       maries specified below.


       find  is  able  to  descend to arbitrary depths in a file hierarchy and
       does not fail due to path length limitations  (unless  a  path  operand
       specified by the application exceeds PATH_MAX requirements).


       find  detects  infinite  loops;  that is, entering a previously visited
       directory that is an ancestor of the last file encountered.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -H    Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each sym‐
             bolic  link  encountered  on  the command line to be those of the
             file referenced by the link, and not the link itself. If the ref‐
             erenced file does not exist, the file information and type is for
             the link itself. File information for all symbolic links  not  on
             the command line is that of the link itself.


       -L    Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each sym‐
             bolic link encountered as a path operand on the command  line  or
             encountered  during the traversal of a file hierarchy to be those
             of the file referenced by the link, and not the link  itself.  If
             the referenced file does not exist, the file information and type
             shall be for the link itself. See NOTES.



       Specifying more than one of the mutually-exclusive options -H and -L is
       not  considered  an  error.  The  last  option specified determines the
       behavior of the utility.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       path          A pathname of a starting point in the  directory  hierar‐
                     chy.


       expression    The  first  argument that starts with a −, or is a ! or a
                     (, and all subsequent arguments  are  interpreted  as  an
                     expression  made up of the following primaries and opera‐
                     tors. In the descriptions, wherever n is used as  a  pri‐
                     mary  argument,  it  is  interpreted as a decimal integer
                     optionally preceded by a plus (+) or minus (−)  sign,  as
                     follows:

                     +n    more than n


                     n     exactly n


                     -n    less than n



   Expressions
       Valid expressions are:

       -acl              True if the file have additional ACLs defined.


       -amin n           File was last accessed n minutes ago.


       -atime n          True  if the file was accessed n days ago. The access
                         time of  directories  in  path  is  changed  by  find
                         itself.


       -cmin n           File's status was last changed n minutes ago.


       -cpio device      Always  true.  Writes  the  current file on device in
                         cpio format (5120-byte records).


       -ctime n          True if the file's status was changed n days ago.


       -depth            Always true. Causes descent of the directory  hierar‐
                         chy to be done so that all entries in a directory are
                         acted on before the directory  itself.  This  can  be
                         useful  when  find  is  used with cpio(1) to transfer
                         files that are contained in directories without write
                         permission.


       -exec command     True  if the executed command returns a zero value as
                         exit status. The end of command must be punctuated by
                         an  escaped  semicolon  (;). A command argument {} is
                         replaced by the current pathname. If the  last  argu‐
                         ment to -exec is {} and you specify + rather than the
                         semicolon (;), the command is  invoked  fewer  times,
                         with {} replaced by groups of pathnames. If any invo‐
                         cation of the command returns  a  non-zero  value  as
                         exit status, find returns a non-zero exit status.


       -follow           Always  true  and always evaluated no matter where it
                         appears in expression. The behavior is unspecified if
                         -follow is used when the find command is invoked with
                         either the -H or the -L option. Causes symbolic links
                         to  be  followed. When following symbolic links, find
                         keeps track of the directories visited so that it can
                         detect infinite loops. For example, such a loop would
                         occur if a symbolic link pointed to an ancestor. This
                         expression  should  not  be used with the find-type l
                         expression. See NOTES.


       -fstype type      True if the filesystem to which the file  belongs  is
                         of type type.


       -group gname      True if the file belongs to the group gname. If gname
                         is numeric and does not appear in the group(5)  data‐
                         base, it is taken as a group ID.


       -iname pattern    Similar  to  -name, but the match between the pattern
                         and the base name of the current file  name  is  case
                         insensitive. (See EXAMPLES). Unlike the -name option,
                         there is no special treatment in leading  period  and
                         wildcard  file  name  generation characters can match
                         file names beginning with a . for both  /usr/bin/find
                         and /usr/xpg4/bin/find.


       -inum n           True if the file has inode number n.


       -links n          True if the file has n links.


       -local            True  if  the  file  system type is not a remote file
                         system type as defined in the /etc/dfs/fstypes  file.
                         nfs  is used as the default remote filesystem type if
                         the /etc/dfs/fstypes file is not present. The  -local
                         option  descends  the hierarchy of non-local directo‐
                         ries. See EXAMPLES for an example of  how  to  search
                         for local files without descending.


       -ls               Always  true.  Prints  current pathname together with
                         its associated  statistics.  These  include  (respec‐
                         tively):


                             o      inode number


                             o      size in kilobytes (1024 bytes)


                             o      protection mode


                             o      number of hard links


                             o      user


                             o      group


                             o      size in bytes


                             o      modification time.

                         If the file is a special file, the size field instead
                         contains the major and minor device numbers.

                         If the file is a symbolic link, the pathname  of  the
                         linked-to file is printed preceded by `→'. The format
                         is identical to that of ls  -gilds.

                         Formatting is done internally, without executing  the
                         ls program.


       -mmin n           File's data was last modified n minutes ago.


       -mount            Always  true. Restricts the search to the file system
                         containing the directory  specified.  Does  not  list
                         mount points to other file systems.


       -mtime n          True if the file's data was modified n days ago.


       -name pattern     True  if  pattern matches the basename of the current
                         file name. Normal shell file name generation  charac‐
                         ters (see sh(1)) can be used. A backslash (\) is used
                         as an escape character within the pattern.  The  pat‐
                         tern should be escaped or quoted when find is invoked
                         from the shell.

                         Unless the character '.' is explicitly  specified  in
                         the  beginning of pattern, a current file name begin‐
                         ning with '.'  does  not  match  pattern  when  using
                         /usr/bin/find.  /usr/xpg4/bin/find does not make this
                         distinction; wildcard file name generation characters
                         can match file names beginning with '.'.


       -ncpio device     Always  true.  Writes  the  current file on device in
                         cpio  -c format (5120 byte records).


       -newer file       True if the  current  file  has  been  modified  more
                         recently than the argument file.


       -nogroup          True  if  the  file  belongs  to  a  group not in the
                         group(5) database.


       -nouser           True if the  file  belongs  to  a  user  not  in  the
                         passwd(5) database.


       -ok command       Like -exec, except that the generated command line is
                         printed with a question mark first, and  is  executed
                         only if the response is affirmative.


       -path pattern     True  if  pattern matches the pathname of the current
                         file name. Normal shell file name generation  charac‐
                         ters (see sh(1)) can be used. A backslash (\|\e\|) is
                         used as an escape character within the  pattern.  The
                         pattern  should  be  escaped  or  quoted when find is
                         invoked from the shell. There is no special treatment
                         in  leading  period.  Wildcard  file  name generation
                         characters can match file names beginning  with  a  .
                         for both /usr/bin/find and /usr/xpg4/bin/find.


       -perm [-]mode     The  mode  argument  is  used  to represent file mode
                         bits. It is identical in format to the symbolic  mode
                         operand,  symbolic_mode_list,  described in chmod(1),
                         and is interpreted as follows. To start,  a  template
                         is  assumed  with  all  file mode bits cleared. An op
                         symbol of:


                         +       Set the appropriate mode bits in the template


                         −       Clear the appropriate bits


                         =       Set the appropriate mode bits, without regard
                                 to  the  contents  of  the file mode creation
                                 mask of the process

                         The op symbol of − cannot be the first  character  of
                         mode,  to  avoid  ambiguity with the optional leading
                         hyphen. Since the initial mode is all bits off, there
                         are no symbolic modes that need to use − as the first
                         character.

                         If the hyphen is omitted, the  primary  evaluates  as
                         true  when the file permission bits exactly match the
                         value of the resulting template.

                         Otherwise, if mode is prefixed by a hyphen, the  pri‐
                         mary  evaluates  as  true if at least all the bits in
                         the resulting template are set in the file permission
                         bits.


       -perm [-]onum     True  if  the file permission flags exactly match the
                         octal number onum (see chmod(1)). If onum is prefixed
                         by  a  minus  sign (−), only the bits that are set in
                         onum are compared with the file permission flags, and
                         the expression evaluates true if they match.


       -print            Always  true.  Causes  the  current  pathname  to  be
                         printed.


       -print0           Always  true.  Causes  the  current  pathname  to  be
                         printed followed by a null character, rather than the
                         NEWLINE character that -printuses.

                         This allows file names that contain NEWLINEs or other
                         types  of  white space to be correctly interpreted by
                         programs that process the find  output.  This  option
                         corresponds to the -0 option of cpio and xargs.


       -prune            Always  yields true. Does not examine any directories
                         or files in the directory structure below the pattern
                         just matched. (See EXAMPLES). If -depth is specified,
                         -prune has no effect.


       -size n[c]        True if the file is n  blocks  long  (512  bytes  per
                         block).  If  n  is  followed  by  a c, the size is in
                         bytes.


       -type c           True if the type of the file is c, where c is  b,  c,
                         d, D, f, l, p, or s for block special file, character
                         special file, directory, door, plain  file,  symbolic
                         link, fifo (named pipe), or socket, respectively.


       -user uname       True  if the file belongs to the user uname. If uname
                         is numeric and does not appear as a login name in the
                         passwd(5) database, it is taken as a user ID.


       -xdev             Same as the -mount primary.


       -xattr            True if the file has extended attributes.


   Complex Expressions
       The  primaries  can be combined using the following operators (in order
       of decreasing precedence):

       1)(expression)

           True if the parenthesized expression is true (parentheses are  spe‐
           cial to the shell and must be escaped).


       2)!expression

           The negation of a primary (! is the unary not operator).


       3) expression[-a] expression

           Concatenation  of  primaries  (the  and operation is implied by the
           juxtaposition of two primaries).


       4) expression-oexpression

           Alternation of primaries (-o is the or operator).



       When you use find in conjunction with cpio, if you use  the  -L  option
       with  cpio,  you  must  use the -L option or the -follow primitive with
       find and vice versa. Otherwise the results are unspecified.


       If no expression is present, -print is used as the  expression.  Other‐
       wise, if the specified expression does not contain any of the primaries
       -exec, -ok, -ls, or -print, the  specified  expression  is  effectively
       replaced by:


       (specified) -print


       The  -user, -group, and -newer primaries each evaluate their respective
       arguments only once. Invocation of command specified by  -exec  or  -ok
       does not affect subsequent primaries on the same file.

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Writing Out the Hierarchy Directory



       The following commands are equivalent:


         example% find .
         example% find . -print




       They  both  write  out  the entire directory hierarchy from the current
       directory.

       Example 2 Removing Files



       The following command removes all files in your  home  directory  named
       a.out or *.o that have not been accessed for a week:


         example% find $HOME \( -name a.out -o -name '*.o' \) \
                -atime +7 -exec rm {} \;


       Example 3 Printing All File Names But Skipping SCCS Directories



       The  following  command recursively print all file names in the current
       directory and below, but skipping SCCS directories:


         example% find . -name SCCS -prune -o -print


       Example 4 Printing all file names and the SCCS directory name



       Recursively print all file names in the current  directory  and  below,
       skipping  the  contents  of SCCS directories, but printing out the SCCS
       directory name:


         example% find . -print -name SCCS -prune


       Example 5 Testing for the Newer File



       The following command is basically equivalent to the -nt  extension  to
       test(1):



         example $ if [ -n "$(find file1 -prune -newer file2)" ]; then
            echo "file1 is newer than file2"
         fi


       Example 6 Selecting a File Using 24-hour Mode



       The  descriptions  of  -atime, -ctime, and -mtime use the terminology n
       ``24-hour periods''. For example, a file accessed at 23:59 is  selected
       by:


         example% find . -atime -1 -print




       at  00:01 the next day (less than 24 hours later, not more than one day
       ago). The midnight boundary between days has no effect on  the  24-hour
       calculation.

       Example 7 Printing Files Matching a User's Permission Mode



       The following command recursively print all file names whose permission
       mode exactly matches read, write, and execute access for user, and read
       and execute access for group and other:


         example% find . -perm u=rwx,g=rx,o=rx




       The above could alternatively be specified as follows:


         example% find . -perm a=rwx,g-w,o-w


       Example 8 Printing Files with Write Access for other



       The following command recursively print all file names whose permission
       includes, but is not limited to, write access for other:


         example% find . -perm -o+w


       Example 9 Printing Local Files without Descending Non-local Directories


         example% find . ! -local -prune -o -print


       Example 10 Printing the Files in the  Name  Space  Possessing  Extended
       Attributes


         example% find . -xattr


       Example 11 Printing all PDF Filenames Regardless of Case



       The  following  example finds all file names with an extension of .pdf,
       .PDF, .Pdf, and so forth.


         example% find . -iname '*.pdf'


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(7) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect the execution of find: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE,
       LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

       PATH    Determine the location of the utility_name for  the  -exec  and
               -ok primaries.



       Affirmative  responses are processed using the extended regular expres‐
       sion defined for the yesexpr keyword in the LC_MESSAGES category of the
       user's  locale. The locale specified in the LC_COLLATE category defines
       the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and  multi-character  col‐
       lating  elements used in the expression defined for yesexpr. The locale
       specified in LC_CTYPE  determines  the  locale  for  interpretation  of
       sequences of bytes of text data a characters, the behavior of character
       classes used in the expression defined for the yesexpr. See locale(7).

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     All path operands were traversed successfully.


       >0    An error occurred.


FILES
       /etc/passwd         Password file


       /etc/group          Group file


       /etc/dfs/fstypes    File that registers distributed file  system  pack‐
                           ages


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()  box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i) ATTRIBUTE TYPEAT‐
       TRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os  _  CSIEnabled  _  Interface
       StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee standards(7).


SEE ALSO
       chmod(1), cpio(1), sh(1), test(1), acl(2), stat(2), umask(2), group(5),
       passwd(5),  attributes(7),  environ(7),  fsattr(7),  locale(7),   stan‐
       dards(7)

WARNINGS
       The  following options are obsolete and will not be supported in future
       releases:

       -cpio device     Always true. Writes the current file on device in cpio
                        format (5120-byte records).


       -ncpio device    Always true. Writes the current file on device in cpio
                        -c format (5120-byte records).


NOTES
       When using find to determine files modified within a range of time, use
       the  -mtime  argument before the -print argument. Otherwise, find gives
       all files.


       Some files that might be under the Solaris root file system  are  actu‐
       ally  mount  points  for virtual file systems, such as mntfs or namefs.
       When comparing against a ufs file system, such files are  not  selected
       if -mount or -xdev is specified in the find expression.


       Using  the  -L  or  -follow option is not recommended when descending a
       file-system hierarchy that is under the control of other users. In par‐
       ticular, when using -exec, symbolic links can lead the find command out
       of the hierarchy in which it started. Using -type is not sufficient  to
       restrict the type of files on which the -exec command operates, because
       there is an inherent race condition between the type-check performed by
       the find command and the time the executed command operates on the file
       argument.



Oracle Solaris 11.4               27 Nov 2017                          find(1)
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