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man(1)                           User Commands                          man(1)



NAME
       man - find and display reference manual pages

SYNOPSIS
       man [-] [-adFlrt] [-M path] [-T macro-package] [-s section] name...


       man [-M path] [-s section] -k query...


       man [-M path] -f file...


       man [-M path] [-s section] -K query...

DESCRIPTION
       The  man  command  displays  information from the reference manuals. It
       displays complete manual pages that you select by  name,  or  summaries
       selected  either  by  query (-k or -K), or by the name of an associated
       file (-f). If no manual page is located, man prints an error message.

   Source Format
       Reference Manual pages are marked up with nroff. The man command recog‐
       nizes  the type of markup and processes the file accordingly. The vari‐
       ous source files are kept in separate directories depending on the type
       of markup. For more information, see the groff(1) man page.

   Location of Manual Pages
       The online Reference Manual page directories are conventionally located
       in   /usr/share/man.   The   nroff   sources   are   located   in   the
       /usr/share/man/man*  directories.  Each directory corresponds to a sec‐
       tion of the manual. Since these directories are  optionally  installed,
       they   might  not  reside  on  your  host.  You  might  have  to  mount
       /usr/share/man from the host on which they reside.


       If there are preformatted, up-to-date  versions  in  the  corresponding
       cat*  or  fmt*  directories,  the man command simply displays or prints
       those versions. If the preformatted version of interest is out of  date
       or  missing,  the  man command reformats it prior to display and stores
       the preformatted version if cat* or fmt* is writable. The  index  files
       are  not  updated. For more information, see the catman(8) man page. If
       directories for the preformatted versions are  not  provided,  the  man
       command reformats a page whenever it is requested. The man command uses
       a temporary file to store the formatted text during display.


       If the standard output is not a terminal, or if the `-' flag is  given,
       the  man  command  pipes  its output through cat(1). Otherwise, the man
       command pipes its output through less(1) to handle paging and underlin‐
       ing on the screen.

   Query Strings
       Using -k or -K options, manual pages can be searched with query, one or
       more terms, or phrases. It supports index-file-based, full text search‐
       ing, query expansion, stemming, and section matching. For more informa‐
       tion regarding how to generate the index files, see the  catman(8)  man
       page.


       A term is a sequence of characters from a valid character set that con‐
       tains all alpha characters, digits and underline, {a-z,A-Z,_}. It is  a
       useful semantic unit for full-text processing. But, in all valid terms,
       stop words or terms will not be indexed and searched.


       Stop words are some of the most common, short function terms, such  as,
       "the",  "is",  "at",  "which", and so on. In some cases, stop terms can
       cause problems, especially when the searched query contains  them.  For
       example,  "the  ZFS  system" and "take that". Therefore, whenever index
       building or query search is carried out, the stop words are removed  to
       improve the performance of the man command.


       A  phrase  is composed of multiple terms that are concatenated together
       by non-indexed characters, usually a space character.  In  a  terminal,
       when  a  user  searches  for a phrase, it is usually encompassed within
       double quote.


       Query expansion is a useful technique in full-text domain. It  is  used
       to  refactor  the  original  user input query string and reweight added
       query terms, avoiding the empty search result to improve man  full-text
       search performance.


       Term  query  expansion  is  aimed  to help users automatically complete
       incomplete input terms and give the corrected form.


       Acronym query expansion is used to help users complete  acronym  expan‐
       sion  when the user query contains some acronyms. It will automatically
       append the corresponding full name string to the user query.


       Stemming for English, for example, identifies the  string,  cats,  cat‐
       like, catty, and so on, based on the root word, cat. The strings, stem‐
       mer, stemming, and stemmed can be identified based on  the  root  word,
       stem.  A  stemming  algorithm reduces the words, fishing, fished, fish,
       and fisher to the root word, fish.


       Section matching allows users to specify a section name in query string
       to  limit  the  searched  scope  in  each manual page. The section name
       refers to the section title in each manual page to help define a manual
       page  layout  or structure, such as NAME, SYNOPSIS, DESCRIPTION, and so
       on.


       Matching is done in case-insensitive manner. Stemming is done for  Eng‐
       lish manual pages only.


       Matched manual pages are sorted and presented based on the score of the
       query matches in ascending order.


       Oracle Solaris manual pages are divided into  sections  such  as  NAME,
       SYNOPSIS, DESCRIPTION, and so on. Users can specify the scope of search
       into a section as details described in the -K option.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -a

           Shows all manual pages matching  name  within  the  MANPATH  search
           path. Manual pages are displayed in the order found.


       -d

           Debugs.  Displays what a section-specifier evaluates to, the method
           used for searching, and the paths searched by the man command.


       -f file ...

           The man command attempts to locate manual pages related to  any  of
           the given files. It prints summaries containing the resulting base‐
           name or names. The same action is performed by the whatis command.

           This option uses index files. For details about how index files are
           generated, see the catman(8) man page.


       -F

           Forces  the man command to search all directories specified by MAN‐
           PATH or the man.cf file, rather than using the index lookup  files.
           This  option  is  useful  if the index files are not up to date and
           have been made the default behavior of the man command. The  option
           therefore  does  not  have to be invoked and is documented here for
           reference only.


       -k query ...

           Searches for the specified query from the index  files  and  prints
           out  summaries.  Only the NAME section is searched. The same action
           is performed by the apropos command.

           For information about how the index files are generated, see the -K
           option.


       -K query ...

           Searches  for  the  specified query from the index files and prints
           out summaries. All of the sections are searched by default.

           If you supply a section name ending with a colon (:) at  the  query
           option  argument as the first text from left, just as section name:
           query, the search for the query string is  done  on  the  specified
           section only. If the specified section name does not exist, it will
           list all the supported section names for the users.

           The index files in /usr/share/man and  /usr/gnu/share/man  used  by
           -f,  -k,  and  -K  are automatically generated when manual pages in
           those directories are installed or updated, and the packages deliv‐
           ering  them  have  tagged the files with restart_fmri=svc:/applica‐
           tion/man-index:default. They  may  also  be  generated  by  running
           svcadm  restart  application/man-index  manually, or by running the
           catman command with the -w option.


       -l

           Lists all manual pages within the search path, found  matching  the
           specified name.


       -M path

           Specifies  an  alternate  search  path  for manual pages. path is a
           colon-separated list of directories that contain manual page direc‐
           tory      subtrees.      For      example,      if      path     is
           /usr/share/man:/usr/local/man, the man command searches for name in
           the  standard  location,  and then in the /usr/local/man directory.
           When used with the -f, -k or -K options, the -M option must  appear
           first. Each directory in the path is assumed to contain subdirecto‐
           ries of the form man* or sman*, one for each section.  This  option
           overrides the MANPATH environment variable.


       -r

           Reformats  the  manual  page,  but does not display it. This option
           replaces the man  -  -t  name combination.


       -s section ...

           Specifies sections of the  manual  page  for  the  man  command  to
           search.  The  directories  searched  for  name are limited to those
           specified by section. section can be  a  numerical  digit,  perhaps
           followed by one or more letters to match the desired section of the
           manual, for example, "3lib". section can also be a word, for  exam‐
           ple,  local,  new, old, public, and so on, or can also be a letter.
           To specify multiple sections, separate each section with  a  comma.
           This  option  overrides  the  MANPATH  environment variable and the
           man.cf file. For an explanation on how the man command conducts its
           search, see the Search  Path below.

           A  major section name, for example, "9", can act as an abbreviation
           for the subsections of that name, such as "9e", "9f", or "9s".  For
           more details, see the Manual Page Sections below.

           Some  section  names  were  changed in Oracle Solaris 11.4, and the
           subsections of these sections were changed too.



             Solaris 2 through 11.3        Solaris 11.4
             ----------------------          ------------
             1m                      ->        8
             4                       ->        5
             5                       ->        7
             7                       ->        4

           If no manual page was found in the specified section name, and  the
           section  name  used  in Solaris 2 through 11 was specified, the man
           command further searches in the section name used in Oracle Solaris
           11.4.  For  example, the manual page, ip(4P) can be found by any of
           the following ways:


             man -s 4p ip
             man -s 4 ip
             man -s 7p ip
             man -s 7 ip



       -t

           The man command outputs postscript to stdout. If both the - and  -t
           flags  are  given,  the man command updates the troffed versions of
           each named name (if necessary), but does not display them.


       -T macro-package

           Formats manual pages using macro-package rather than  the  standard
           -mandoc  macros. If it starts with the '-m' option, the macro pack‐
           age is specified as an option in groff. For more information  about
           these  options, see the groff(1) man pages. You can continue to add
           the '-r' option to specify the macros's option. If it  starts  with
           '/',  it  signifies  that  a macro package is directly specified. A
           macro under /usr/share/lib/tmac can be specified by this. See Exam‐
           ple 5.


OPERANDS
       The following operand is supported:

       name

           The name of a standard utility or a keyword.


USAGE
       The usage of man is described below:

   Manual Page Sections
       Entries in the reference manuals are organized into sections. A section
       name consists of a  major  section  name,  typically  a  single  digit,
       optionally  followed  by  a subsection name, typically one or more let‐
       ters. An unadorned major section name, for example,  "9",  acts  as  an
       abbreviation  for  the subsections of that name, such as "9e", "9f", or
       "9s". That is, if 'man -s 9 name' is specified, and  the  name  is  not
       found  in  subsection "9", then the "9e", "9f" and "9s" subsections are
       searched. Each section contains descriptions  concerning  a  particular
       reference  category,  with subsections refining these distinctions. For
       an explanation of the classifications used in  this  release,  see  the
       intro man pages.


       The  following  list  contains  a brief description of each manual page
       section and the information it references:

           o      Section 1 describes commands available  with  the  operating
                  system.


           o      Section  2  describes all of the system calls. Most of these
                  calls have one or more error returns. An error condition  is
                  indicated by an otherwise impossible returned value.


           o      Section 2D describes DTrace Providers.


           o      Section  3  describes  functions found in various libraries,
                  other than those functions that directly invoke UNIX  system
                  primitives, which are described in Section 2.


           o      Section 3* describes collections of related libraries.


           o      Section  4  describes  various device and network interfaces
                  available on the system.


           o      Section 4D describes special files that  refer  to  specific
                  hardware  peripherals  and  device  drivers.  STREAMS device
                  drivers are also described.


           o      Section 4FS describes the programmatic interface for several
                  file systems supported by Oracle Solaris.


           o      Section  4I  describes ioctl requests which apply to a class
                  of drivers or subsystems.


           o      Section 4M describes STREAMS modules.


           o      Section 4P describes various network protocols available  in
                  Oracle Solaris.


           o      Section  5  outlines  the  formats  of  various files. The C
                  structure declarations for the file formats are given  where
                  applicable.


           o      Section 6 describes games and screensavers.


           o      Section 7 contains miscellaneous documentation such as char‐
                  acter-set tables.


           o      Section 8 describes commands that  are  primarily  used  for
                  system maintenance and administration purposes.


           o      Section 8S describes SMF services.


           o      Section  9  describes  reference information needed to write
                  device drivers for the Oracle Solaris operating environment.


           o      Section 9E describes the DDI (Device  Driver  Interface)/DKI
                  (Driver/Kernel  Interface),  DDI-only,  and  DKI-only entry-
                  point routines a developer can include in a device driver.


           o      Section 9F describes the kernel functions available for  use
                  by device drivers.


           o      Section 9P describes driver properties.


           o      Section  9S describes the data structures used by drivers to
                  share information between the driver and the kernel.


   Search Path
       Before searching for a given name, the man command constructs a list of
       candidate  directories  and sections. The man command searches for name
       in the directories specified by the MANPATH environment variable.


       In the absence of MANPATH, the man command constructs its  search  path
       based  on  the PATH environment variable, primarily by substituting the
       man command for the last component of the PATH element. Special  provi‐
       sions  are  added to the account for unique characteristics of directo‐
       ries such as /sbin, /usr/xpg4/bin, and others. If the file argument  is
       an  absolute path, the dirname portion of the argument is used in place
       of PATH elements to construct the search path.


       Within the manual page directories, the man command confines its search
       to the sections specified in the following order:

           o      sections specified on the command line with the -s option


           o      sections embedded in the MANPATH environment variable


           o      sections  specified  in  the  man.cf file for each directory
                  specified in the MANPATH environment variable



       If none of the above exist, the man command searches each directory  in
       the  manual  page  path,  and  displays  the first matching manual page
       found.


       The man.cf file has the following format:

         MANSECTS=section[,section]...




       Lines beginning with `#' and blank lines are considered  comments,  and
       are  ignored.  Each directory specified in MANPATH can contain a manual
       page configuration file, specifying the default search order  for  that
       directory.

   Hierarchical Manual Page Name
       The  man  command supports hierarchical manual page name which contains
       one or more slashes. <name> can be abbreviated by specifying the trail‐
       ing  portion of the manual page name, like when specifying FMRI to com‐
       mands for smf(7).


       For instance, system/name-service/switch.8s would show the manual  page
       from  /usr/share/man/man8s/system/name-service/switch.8s. The following
       examples show same results.


         man system/name-service/switch
         man name-service/switch
         man -s 8s switch
         man -s 8 switch
         man switch.8s


FORMATTING MANUAL PAGES
       Manual pages are marked up in the groff command. nroff manual pages are
       processed  by  groff  with  the  -mandoc macro package. For information
       about macro usage, see the groff(1) man page.

   Preprocessing nroff Manual Pages
       When formatting an nroff manual page,  the  man  command  examines  the
       first  line to determine whether it requires special processing. If the
       first line is a string of the form:

         ´\" X



       where X is separated from the `"' by a single SPACE,  and  consists  of
       any  combination of characters from the following list. The man command
       then pipes its input to groff(1) through the  corresponding  preproces‐
       sors.

       e

           geqn(1)


       r

           grefer(1)


       t

           gtbl(1)


       v

           vgrind(1)


   Referring to Other nroff Manual Pages
       If  the  first  line of the nroff manual page is a reference to another
       manual page entry fitting the patterns:


         .so man*/sourcefile
         .so sourcefile



       Then, the man command processes the indicated file in place of the cur‐
       rent  one.  The  reference must be expressed as a path name relative to
       the root of the manual page directory subtree when a shadow file is  in
       different  subdirectories  with its reference, just like the first pat‐
       tern. If they are in the same section subdirectory(man*), the reference
       can be expressed as a filename, like the second pattern.


       When the second or any subsequent line starts with .so, the man command
       ignores it. Then, the related roff processes the request in  the  usual
       manner.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       For  information  about the LANG_LC_ALL_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH
       environment variables that affect the execution of the man command, see
       the environ(7) man page.

       MANPATH

           A  colon-separated  list of directories; each directory can be fol‐
           lowed by a comma-separated list of  sections.  If  set,  its  value
           overrides                             /usr/share/man as the default
           directory search path, and the man.cf file as the  default  section
           search path. The -M and -s flags, in turn, override these values.


       PAGER

           A  program  to  use  for interactively delivering the man command's
           output to the screen. If not set, `less -ins' is used.


       TCAT

           The name of the program used to display troffed manual pages.


       TROFF

           The name of the formatter used when the -t flag is specified.


EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Creating a Text Version of a Manual Page



       The following example creates the pipe(2) manual page in ASCII text:


         % man pipe.2 | col -x -b > pipe.text




       This method is an alternative using the man  -t  command,  which  sends
       the  manual  page to the default printer, if the user wants a text file
       version of the manual page.


       Example 2 Getting a List of Manual Pages that Match One or More Terms



       The following example gets a list of manual pages that match either the
       term zfs or the term create:


         % man -K zfs create



       Example 3 Getting a List of Manual Pages that Match One or More Phrases



       The  following  example  gets a list of manual pages that match for the
       quote-enclosed phrases, "zfs create" or "storage pool".


         % man -K "zfs create" "storage pool"



       Example 4 Getting a List of Manual Pages that Match Terms or Phrases in
       a Section



       The following example gets a list of manual pages that has the term zfs
       in the SEE ALSO section:


         % man -K see also: zfs




       The following example gets a list of manual pages that have the  phrase
       "zfs create" in the Examples section:


         % man -K examples: "zfs create"



       Example 5 Changing the Default Macro Package



       The  following  example  sets the line width to 67 columns and delivers
       the output in multiple pages instead of single long page.  This  action
       provides the look and feel that is similar to the output generated with
       the man(7) macro.


         % man -T '-mandoc -rLL=67n -rcR=0' zfs




       The following example uses the  actual  man(7)  macro  instead  of  the
       default mandoc macro.


         % man -T /usr/share/lib/tmac/an zfs



EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:


       0

           Successful completion.


       >0

           An error occurred.



FILES
       /usr/share/man

           Root of the standard manual page directory subtree


       /usr/share/man/man?/*

           Unformatted nroff manual entries


       /usr/share/man/man_index/*

           Table of Contents and keyword database.

           Generated files include:

               o      /usr/share/man/man-index/term.idx


               o      /usr/share/man/man-index/term.dic


               o      /usr/share/man/man-index/term.req


               o      /usr/share/man/man-index/term.pos


               o      /usr/share/man/man-index/term.doc


               o      /usr/share/man/man-index/term.exp



       /usr/share/man/cat?/*

           nroffed manual entries


       /usr/share/man/fmt?/*

           troffed manual entries


       /usr/share/groff/<version>/tmac/mandoc.tmac

           Standard -mandoc macro package used by default


       man.cf

           Default search order by section


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)


       ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitytext/doctools _ CSIEnabled,
       see NOTES.  _ Interface StabilityCommitted with exception _ StandardSee
       standards(7).



       The  mapping behavior in -s option, from Oracle Solaris 11 section num‐
       ber, is Uncommitted.

SEE ALSO
       apropos(1), cat(1),  col(1),  groff(1),  gtbl(1),  less(1),  vgrind(1),
       whatis(1), attributes(7), environ(7), standards(7), catman(8)

NOTES
       The -f, -k, and -K options use the index files which are created by the
       SMF service by manually using the catman command with the -w option.


       The windex database file is no longer used. The  windex  database  file
       has been replaced with the new index files.


       The  man command is CSI-capable. However, some utilities invoked by the
       man command are not verified to be CSI-capable. Due to  this,  the  man
       command  with  the  -t option cannot handle non ASCII-data. Also, using
       the man command to display manual pages that require special processing
       through  geqn,  grefer,  gtbl,  or  vgrind are not CSI-capable. Default
       PAGER program, less cannot handle non-UTF-8 multibyte  characters.  You
       should  set  the  PAGER  to '/usr/xpg4/bin/more' if your environment is
       non-UTF-8 locale.

BUGS
       The manual is supposed to be reproducible either on  a  phototypesetter
       or  on  an  ASCII  terminal.  However,  on a terminal, some information
       (indicated by font changes, for instance) is lost.



Oracle Solaris 11.4               27 Nov 2017                           man(1)
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