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Device and Network Interfaces                                         Intro(4)



NAME
       Intro, intro - introduction to special files

DESCRIPTION
       This  section describes various device and network interfaces available
       on the system. The types of interfaces described include character  and
       block  devices,  STREAMS  modules, network protocols, file systems, and
       ioctl requests for driver subsystems and classes.


       This section contains the following major collections:

       (4D)     The system provides drivers for a variety of hardware devices,
                such  as  disk,  magnetic  tapes,  serial communication lines,
                mice, and frame buffers, as well as virtual  devices  such  as
                pseudo-terminals and windows.

                This  section  describes  special files that refer to specific
                hardware peripherals and device drivers. STREAMS device  driv‐
                ers  are  also described. Characteristics of both the hardware
                device and the corresponding device driver are discussed where
                applicable.

                An application accesses a device through that device's special
                file. This section specifies the device  special  file  to  be
                used  to  access the device as well as application programming
                interface (API) information relevant to the use of the  device
                driver.

                All device special files are located under the /devices direc‐
                tory. The /devices directory hierarchy attempts to mirror  the
                hierarchy  of  system busses, controllers, and devices config‐
                ured on the system. Logical device names for special files  in
                /devices  are  located  under the /dev directory. Although not
                every special file under /devices will  have  a  corresponding
                logical  entry  under  /dev, whenever possible, an application
                should reference a device  using  the  logical  name  for  the
                device.  Logical  device names are listed in the FILES section
                of the page for the device in question.

                This section also describes driver configuration where  appli‐
                cable. Many device drivers have a driver configuration file of
                the  form   driver_name.conf   associated   with   them   (see
                driver.conf(5)).  The  configuration information stored in the
                driver configuration file is used to configure the driver  and
                the  device.  Driver  configuration files are located in /ker‐
                nel/drv and /usr/kernel/drv. Driver  configuration  files  for
                platform  dependent  drivers  are  located in /platform/`uname
                -i`/kernel/drv where `uname  -i` is the output of the uname(1)
                command with the -i option.

                Some  driver configuration files may contain user configurable
                properties. These properties may be set  in  user-administered
                driver.conf  files,  which  may be added in /etc/driver/drv to
                supplement the vendor driver configuration. To inform the sys‐
                tem   of   a   change   to   a   driver's  configuration,  use
                update_drv(8). This utility can reread a  driver's  configura‐
                tion and detach all instances of the driver so the new config‐
                uration can be applied on attach. If not all instances can  be
                detached,  it can selectively detach those that can be. Alter‐
                natively, a driver can be removed and re-added (see rem_drv(8)
                and add_drv(8)) or rebooted to effect the driver configuration
                change.


       (4FS)    This section describes the programmatic interface for  several
                file systems supported by Oracle Solaris.


       (4I)     This  section  describes ioctl requests which apply to a class
                of drivers or subsystems. For example,  ioctl  requests  which
                apply  to  most  tape devices are discussed in mtio(4I). Ioctl
                requests relevant to only a specific device are  described  on
                the man page for that device. The page for the device in ques‐
                tion should still be examined for  exceptions  to  the  ioctls
                listed in section 4I.


       (4M)     This  section  describes  STREAMS  modules.  Note that STREAMS
                drivers are discussed in section 4D. streamio(4I)  contains  a
                list  of ioctl requests used to manipulate STREAMS modules and
                interface with the STREAMS framework. Ioctl requests  specific
                to a STREAMS module will be discussed on the man page for that
                module.


       (4P)     This section describes various network protocols available  in
                Oracle Solaris.

                Oracle  Solaris  supports  both socket-based and STREAMS-based
                network  communications.   The   Internet   protocol   family,
                described  in  inet(4P),  is  the primary protocol family sup‐
                ported by Oracle Solaris, although the system  can  support  a
                number  of  others.  The raw interface provides low-level ser‐
                vices, such as packet fragmentation and  reassembly,  routing,
                addressing,  and  basic transport for socket-based implementa‐
                tions. Facilities for communicating using  an  Internet-family
                protocol  are  generally  accessed  by  specifying the AF_INET
                address family when  binding  a  socket;  see  socket(3C)  for
                details.

                Major protocols in the Internet family include:

                    o      The  Internet  Protocol (IP) itself, which supports
                           the universal  datagram  format,  as  described  in
                           ip(4P).  This  is the default protocol for SOCK_RAW
                           type sockets within the AF_INET domain.


                    o      The  Transmission  Control  Protocol   (TCP);   see
                           tcp(4P).   This   is   the   default  protocol  for
                           SOCK_STREAM type sockets.


                    o      The User Datagram Protocol (UDP); see udp(4P). This
                           is  the  default protocol for SOCK_DGRAM type sock‐
                           ets.


                    o      The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP); see arp(4P).


                    o      The Internet Control Message Protocol  (ICMP);  see
                           icmp(4P).



SEE ALSO
       add_drv(8),  update_drv(8), rem_drv(8), Intro(3), ioctl(2), socket(3C),
       driver.conf(5), arp(4P), icmp(4P), inet(4P), ip(4P), mtio(4I),  st(4D),
       streamio(4I), tcp(4P), udp(4P)


       Managing System Services in Oracle Solaris 11.4


       STREAMS Programming Guide


       Writing Device Drivers in Oracle Solaris 11.4



Oracle Solaris 11.4               31 Jan 2018                         Intro(4)
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