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environ(5)

Standards, Environments, and Macros                                 environ(5)



NAME
       environ - user environment

DESCRIPTION
       When  a  process  begins execution, one of the exec family of functions
       makes available  an  array  of  strings  called  the  environment;  see
       exec(2). By convention, these strings have the form variable=value, for
       example, PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin. These environmental variables provide  a
       way to make information about a program's environment available to pro‐
       grams.


       A name can be placed in the  environment  by  the  export  command  and
       name=value  arguments  in sh(1), or by one of the exec functions. It is
       unwise to conflict with certain shell variables such as MAIL, PS1, PS2,
       and IFS that are frequently exported by .profile files; see profile(4).


       The  following  environmental variables can be used by applications and
       are expected to be set in the target run-time environment.

       HOME

           The name of the user's login directory, set by  login(1)  from  the
           password file; see passwd(4).


       LANG

           The  string  used  to specify internationalization information that
           allows users to work with different national conventions. The  set‐
           locale(3C) function checks the LANG environment variable when it is
           called with "" as the locale argument. LANG is used as the  default
           locale  if  the corresponding environment variable for a particular
           category is unset or null. If, however, LC_ALL is set to  a  valid,
           non-empty  value,  its  contents are used to override both the LANG
           and the other LC_* variables. For example, when invoked  as  setlo‐
           cale(LC_CTYPE,  ""),  setlocale()  queries the LC_CTYPE environment
           variable first to see if it is set and non-null. If LC_CTYPE is not
           set  or null, then setlocale() checks the LANG environment variable
           to see if it is set and non-null. If both  LANG  and  LC_CTYPE  are
           unset  or  NULL,  the  default C locale is used to set the LC_CTYPE
           category.

           Most commands invoke setlocale(LC_ALL, "") prior to any other  pro‐
           cessing. This allows the command to be used with different national
           conventions by setting the appropriate environment variables.

           The following environment variables correspond to each category  of
           setlocale(3C):

           LC_ALL

               If  set to a valid, non-empty string value, override the values
               of LANG and all the other LC_*variables.


           LC_COLLATE

               This category specifies the character collation sequence  being
               used.  The information corresponding to this category is stored
               in a database created by the localedef(1) command.  This  envi‐
               ronment variable affects strcoll(3C) and strxfrm(3C).


           LC_CTYPE

               This  category  specifies  character  classification, character
               conversion, and widths of multibyte characters.  When  LC_CTYPE
               is  set  to  a valid value, the calling utility can display and
               handle text and file names containing valid characters for that
               locale;  Extended Unix Code (EUC) characters where any individ‐
               ual character can be 1, 2, or 3 bytes wide; and EUC  characters
               of  1,  2, or 3 column widths. The default C locale corresponds
               to the 7-bit ASCII character  set;  only  characters  from  ISO
               8859-1  are  valid. The information corresponding to this cate‐
               gory is stored in a database created by  the  localedef()  com‐
               mand.   This   environment   variable  is  used  by  ctype(3C),
               mblen(3C), and many commands, such as cat(1), ed(1), ls(1), and
               vi(1).


           LC_MESSAGES

               This  category  specifies  the language of the message database
               being used. For example, an application can  have  one  message
               database with French messages, and another database with German
               messages. Message databases are created by the  mkmsgs(1)  com‐
               mand. This environment variable is used by exstr(1), gettxt(1),
               srchtxt(1), gettxt(3C), and gettext(3C).


           LC_MONETARY

               This category specifies the  monetary  symbols  and  delimiters
               used  for a particular locale. The information corresponding to
               this  category  is  stored  in  a  database  created   by   the
               localedef(1)  command.  This  environment  variable  is used by
               localeconv(3C).


           LC_NUMERIC

               This category specifies the decimal and  thousands  delimiters.
               The  information  corresponding to this category is stored in a
               database created by the  localedef()  command.  The  default  C
               locale corresponds to "." as the decimal delimiter and no thou‐
               sands delimiter. This environment variable is used  by  locale‐
               conv(3C), printf(3C), and strtod(3C).


           LC_TIME

               This  category specifies date and time formats. The information
               corresponding to this category is stored in a  database  speci‐
               fied  in  localedef(). The default C locale corresponds to U.S.
               date and time formats. This environment  variable  is  used  by
               many  commands  and functions; for example: at(1), calendar(1),
               date(1), strftime(3C), and getdate(3C).



       MSGVERB

           Controls which standard format message  components  fmtmsg  selects
           when   messages   are   displayed  to  stderr;  see  fmtmsg(1)  and
           fmtmsg(3C).


       NETPATH

           A colon-separated list of network identifiers. A network identifier
           is  a  character  string used by the Network Selection component of
           the system to provide application-specific default  network  search
           paths. A network identifier must consist of non-null characters and
           must have a length of at least 1. No maximum length  is  specified.
           Network  identifiers  are normally chosen by the system administra‐
           tor. A network identifier is also the first field in any  /etc/net‐
           config  file entry. NETPATH thus provides a link into the /etc/net‐
           config file and the information about a network contained  in  that
           network's  entry. /etc/netconfig is maintained by the system admin‐
           istrator. The library routines described in getnetpath(3NSL) access
           the NETPATH environment variable.


       NLSPATH

           Contains  a sequence of templates which catopen(3C) and gettext(3C)
           use when attempting to locate message catalogs. Each template  con‐
           sists  of  an  optional  prefix, one or more substitution fields, a
           filename and an optional suffix. For example:

             NLSPATH="/system/nlslib/%N.cat"


           defines that catopen() should look for all message catalogs in  the
           directory  /system/nlslib,  where  the  catalog name should be con‐
           structed from the name parameter passed to catopen(), %N, with  the
           suffix .cat.

           Substitution  fields  consist  of a % symbol, followed by a single-
           letter keyword. The following keywords are currently defined:

           %N

               The value of the name parameter passed to catopen().


           %L

               The value of LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


           %l

               The language element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


           %t

               The territory element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


           %c

               The codeset element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


           %%

               A single % character.

           An empty string is substituted if the specified value is  not  cur‐
           rently  defined.  The separators "_" and "." are not included in %t
           and %c substitutions.

           Templates defined in NLSPATH are separated by colons (:). A leading
           colon  or  two adjacent colons (::) is equivalent to specifying %N.
           For example:

             NLSPATH=":%N.cat:/nlslib/%L/%N.cat"


           indicates to catopen() that it should look for the  requested  mes‐
           sage catalog in name, name.cat and /nlslib/$LANG/name.cat. For get‐
           text(), %N automatically maps to messages.

           If NLSPATH is unset or NULL, catopen() and  gettext()  call  setlo‐
           cale(3C),  which  checks  LANG and the LC_* variables to locate the
           message catalogs.

           The extended interpretation of %L in Solaris includes  the  support
           for  accepted  locale name aliases as described in gettext(1), get‐
           text(3C), catopen(3C), setlocale(3C), and locale_alias(5).

           NLSPATH is normally be set up on a system wide basis (in  /etc/pro‐
           file) and thus makes the location and naming conventions associated
           with message catalogs transparent to both programs and users.


       PATH

           The sequence of directory prefixes that  sh(1),  time(1),  nice(1),
           nohup(1),  and  other utilities apply in searching for a file known
           by an incomplete path name. The prefixes are  separated  by  colons
           (:). login(1) sets PATH=/usr/bin. For more detail, see sh(1).


       SEV_LEVEL

           Define severity levels and associate and print strings with them in
           standard format error messages; see addseverity(3C), fmtmsg(1), and
           fmtmsg(3C).


       TERM

           The  kind  of  terminal  for  which  output is to be prepared. This
           information is used by commands, such as vi(1), which  can  exploit
           special capabilities of that terminal.


       TZ

           Timezone information. The contents of this environment variable are
           used by the functions ctime(3C), localtime(3C),  strftime(3C),  and
           mktime(3C)  to  override  the default timezone. The value of TZ has
           one of the two formats (spaces inserted for clarity):

             :characters

           or

             std offset dst offset, rule

           If TZ is of the first format (that is, if the first character is  a
           colon  (:)),  or  if TZ is not of the second format, then TZ desig‐
           nates  a  path  to   a   timezone   database   file   relative   to
           /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/, ignoring a leading colon if one exists.

           Otherwise, TZ is of the second form, which when expanded is as fol‐
           lows:

             stdoffset[dst[offset][,start[/time],end[/time]]]


           std and dst

               Indicate no less than three, nor more than {TZNAME_MAX},  bytes
               that are the designation for the standard (std) or the alterna‐
               tive (dst, such as Daylight Savings Time) timezone. Only std is
               required; if dst is missing, then the alternative time does not
               apply in this timezone. Each  of  these  fields  can  occur  in
               either of two formats, quoted or unquoted:

                   o      In the quoted form, the first character is the less-
                          than ('<') character and the last character  is  the
                          greater-than ('>') character. All characters between
                          these quoting characters are alphanumeric characters
                          from  the  portable  character  set  in  the current
                          locale, the plus-sign ('+') character, or the minus-
                          sign ('-') character. The std and dst fields in this
                          case do not include the quoting characters.

                   o      In the unquoted form, all characters in these fields
                          are  alphabetic characters from the portable charac‐
                          ter set in the current locale.
               The interpretation of these fields  is  unspecified  if  either
               field is less than three bytes (except for the case when dst is
               missing), more than {TZNAME_MAX}  bytes,  or  if  they  contain
               characters other than those specified.


           offset

               Indicate  the value one must add to the local time to arrive at
               Coordinated Universal Time. The offset has the form:

                 hh[:mm[:ss]]


               The minutes (mm) and seconds (ss) are optional. The  hour  (hh)
               is required and can be a single digit. The offset following std
               is required. If no offset follows dst, daylight savings time is
               assumed to be one hour ahead of standard time. One or more dig‐
               its can be used. The value is always interpreted as  a  decimal
               number. The hour must be between 0 and 24, and the minutes (and
               seconds), if present, must be between 0 and 59.  Out  of  range
               values  can  cause  unpredictable behavior. If preceded by a -,
               the time zone is east of the Prime Meridian. Otherwise,  it  is
               west  of  the  Prime  Meridian  (which  can  be indicated by an
               optional preceding "+" sign).


           start/time,end/time

               Indicate when to change to and back from daylight savings time,
               where  start/time  describes when the change from standard time
               to daylight savings time occurs, and  end/time  describes  when
               the change back occurs. Each time field describes when, in cur‐
               rent local time, the change is made.

               The formats of start and end are one of the following:

               Jn

                   The Julian day n (1 ≤ n ≤ 365). Leap days are not  counted.
                   That is, in all years, February 28 is day 59 and March 1 is
                   day 60. It is impossible to refer to the occasional  Febru‐
                   ary 29.


               n

                   The  zero-based  Julian  day  (0  ≤ n ≤ 365). Leap days are
                   counted, and it is possible to refer to February 29.


               Mm.n.d

                   The d^th day, (0 ≤ d ≤ 6) of week n of month m of the  year
                   (1 ≤ n ≤ 5, 1 ≤ m ≤ 12), where week 5 means "the last d-day
                   in month m" which can occur in either  the  fourth  or  the
                   fifth week). Week 1 is the first week in which the d^th day
                   occurs. Day zero is Sunday.

               Implementation specific defaults are used for start and end  if
               these optional fields are not specified.

               The  time  has the same format as offset except that no leading
               sign ("-" or "+" ) is allowed. If time is  not  specified,  the
               default value is 02:00:00.



SEE ALSO
       cat(1),  date(1),  ed(1),  fmtmsg(1),  localedef(1),  login(1),  ls(1),
       mkmsgs(1), nice(1), nohup(1), sh(1), sort(1), time(1), vi(1),  exec(2),
       addseverity(3C),  catopen(3C),  ctime(3C),  ctype(3C), fmtmsg(3C), get‐
       date(3C), getnetpath(3NSL),  gettext(3C),  gettxt(3C),  localeconv(3C),
       mblen(3C),  mktime(3C),  printf(3C),  setlocale(3C), strcoll(3C), strf‐
       time(3C),   strtod(3C),   strxfrm(3C),    TIMEZONE(4),    netconfig(4),
       passwd(4), profile(4), locale_alias(5)



SunOS 5.11                        7 May 2011                        environ(5)
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