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process(4)

Name
     process - process contract type

Synopsis
     /system/contract/process

Description
     Process contracts allow processes to create a fault boundary
     around  a set of subprocesses and observe events which occur
     within that boundary.


     Process contracts are managed  using  the  contract(4)  file
     system  and  the libcontract(3LIB) library. The process con-
     tract type directory is /system/contract/process.

  CREATION
     A process contract is created when an LWP that has an active
     process  contract  template  calls  fork(2).  Initially, the
     child process created by fork() is the only resource managed
     by  the  contract.  When an LWP that does not have an active
     process contract template calls fork(),  the  child  process
     created by fork() is added as a resource to the process con-
     tract of which the parent was a member.

  EVENT TYPES
     The following events types are defined:

     CT_PR_EV_EMPTY
         The last member of the process contract exited.


     CT_PR_EV_FORK
         A new process has been added to the process contract.


     CT_PR_EV_EXIT
         A member of the process contract exited.


     CT_PR_EV_CORE
         A process failed and dumped core. This could also  occur
         if  the  process  would have dumped core had appropriate
         coreadm(1M) options been enabled and core file size  was
         unlimited.


     CT_PR_EV_SIGNAL
         A process received a fatal signal from a process,  other
         than the owner of the process contract, that is a member
         of a different process contract.


     CT_PR_EV_HWERR
         A  process  was  killed  because  of  an   uncorrectable
         hardware error.


  TERMS
     The following common contract terms, defined in contract(4),
     have process-contract specific attributes:

     critical event set
         The  default  value  for  the  critical  event  set   is
         (CT_PR_EV_EMPTY | CT_PR_EV_HWERR).

         An attempt by a user without  the  {PRIV_CONTRACT_EVENT}
         privilege  in  its  effective set to add an event, other
         than CT_PR_EV_EMPTY, to the critical event set which  is
         not  present  in  the  fatal set, or if the CT_PR_PGONLY
         parameter is set and the same user attempts to  add  any
         event,  other than CT_PR_EV_EMPTY, to the critical event
         set, fails.


     informative event set
         The default value  for  the  informative  event  set  is
         (CT_PR_EV_CORE | CT_PR_EV_SIGNAL).



     The following contract terms can be read from or written  to
     a    process    contract    template    using    the   named
     libcontract(3LIB) interfaces. These contract  terms  are  in
     addition to those described in contract(4).

     creator's aux
         Auxiliary contract  description.  The  purpose  of  this
         field  is  to provide the contract creator with a way to
         differentiate process contracts  it  creates  under  the
         same service FMRI. Use ct_pr_tmpl_set_svc_aux(3CONTRACT)
         to set this term. The default value is an empty  string.
         The  contents  of  this field should be limited to 7-bit
         ASCII values.


     fatal event set
         Defines a set of events which,  when  generated,  causes
         all  members  of  the process contract to be killed with

         SIGKILL, or the intersection of  the  contract  and  the
         containing process group if the CT_PR_PGRPONLY parameter
         is       set.       Set       this       term     with
         ct_pr_tmpl_set_fatal(3CONTRACT).  The fatal event set is
         restricted  to   CT_PR_EV_CORE,   CT_PR_EV_SIGNAL,   and
         CT_PR_EV_HWERR.  For  CT_PR_EV_CORE  and CT_PR_EV_SIGNAL
         events,  the  scope  of  SIGKILL  is  limited  to  those
         processes  which the contract author or the event source
         could have normally sent signals to.

         The  default  value  for  the   fatal   event   set   is
         CT_PR_EV_HWERR.

         If a user without the {PRIV_CONTRACT_EVENT} privilege in
         its  effective set removes an event from the fatal event
         set which is present in  the  critical  event  set,  the
         corresponding  event  is  automatically removed from the
         critical event set and added to  the  informative  event
         set.


     parameter set
         Defines    miscellaneous     other     settings.     Use
         ct_pr_tmpl_set_param(3CONTRACT) to set this term.

         The default parameter set is empty.

         The value is a bit vector comprised of some or all of:

         CT_PR_INHERIT
             If set, indicates that the process contract is to be
             inherited by the process contract the contract owner
             is a member of if the contract  owner  exits  before
             explicitly abandoning the process contract.

             If not set, the process  contract  is  automatically
             abandoned when the owner exits.


         CT_PR_NOORPHAN
             If set, all processes in a process contract are sent
             SIGKILL if the process contract is abandoned, either
             explicitly  or   because   the   holder   died   and
             CT_PR_INHERIT  was  not set. The scope of SIGKILL is
             limited to those processes which the contract author
             or the event source could have normally sent signals
             to.

             If this is not set and the process contract is aban-
             doned,  the  process  contract is orphaned, that is,
             continues to exist without owner.

         CT_PR_PGRPONLY
             If set, only those processes within the same process
             group   and  process  contract  as  a  fatal  error-
             generating process are killed.

             If not set, all processes within  the  process  con-
             tract  are  killed if a member process encounters an
             error specified in the fatal set.

             If  a   user   without   the   {PRIV_CONTRACT_EVENT}
             privilege  in  its effective set adds CT_PR_PGRPONLY
             to a template's parameter set, any events other than
             CT_PR_EV_EMPTY  are  automatically  removed from the
             critical event set  and  added  to  the  informative
             event set.


         CT_PR_REGENT
             If set, the process contract can inherit unabandoned
             contracts left by exiting member processes.

             If not set,  indicates  that  the  process  contract
             should  not inherit contracts from member processes.
             If a process exits before abandoning a  contract  it
             owns  and  is  a  member of a process contract which
             does not have CT_PR_REGENT set, the system automati-
             cally abandons the contract.

             If a regent process contract has inherited contracts
             and  is  abandoned  by its owner, its inherited con-
             tracts are abandoned.



     service FMRI
         Specifies the service FMRI associated with  the  process
         contract.  Use ct_pr_tmpl_set_svc_fmri(3CONTRACT) to set
         this term. The default is to inherit the value from  the
         creator's process contract. When this term is uninitial-
         ized,  ct_pr_tmpl_get_svc_fmri(3CONTRACT)  returns   the
         token  string  inherited:  to indicate the value has not
         been set and is inherited. Setting the service  FMRI  to
         inherited:  clears  the current (B value and the term is
         inherited from the creator's process  contract.  To  set
         this  term  a process must have {PRIV_CONTRACT_IDENTITY}
         in its effective set.


     transfer contract
         Specifies the ID of an empty process  contract  held  by
         the  caller  whose inherited process contracts are to be
         transferred  to  the   newly   created   contract.   Use
         ct_pr_tmpl_set_transfer(3CONTRACT)  to  set  the tranfer
         contract. Attempts to specify a contract not held by the
         calling process, or a contract which still has processes
         in it, fail.

         The default transfer term is 0, that is, no contract.


  STATUS
     In addition to the standard items, the  status  object  read
     from  a  status file descriptor contains the following items
     to obtain this information respectively:

     service contract ID
         Specifies the process contract id which defined the ser-
         vice FMRI term. Use ct_pr_status_get_svc_ctid(3CONTRACT)
         to read the term's value. It can be used to determine if
         the service FMRI was inherited as in the example below.

           ctid_t ctid;           /* our contract id */
           int fd;       /* fd of ctid's status file */

           ct_stathdl_(Bt status;
           ctid_t svc_ctid;

           if (ct_status_read(fd, CTD_FIXED, &status) == 0) {
                 if (ct_pr_status_get_svc_ctid(status, &svc_ctid) == 0) {
                       if (svc_ctid == ctid)
                           /* not inherited */
                       else
                           /* inherited */
                 }
                 ct_status_free(status);
           }





     If CTD_ALL is specified, the following items are also avail-
     able:

     Member list
         The PIDs of processes which are members of  the  process
         contract.  Use  ct_pr_status_get_members(3CONTRACT)  for
         this information.

     Inherited contract list
         The IDs of contracts which have been  inherited  by  the
         process                   contract.              Use
         ct_pr_status_get_contracts(3CONTRACT)  to  obtain   this
         information.


     Service FMRI (term)
         Values equal to the terms used  when  the  contract  was
         written.  The  Service FMRI term of the process contract
         of  a  process  en(Btering  a  zone   has    the   value
         svc:/system/zone_enter:default  when  read from the non-
         global zone. This is  not  the  case  for  zlogin  to  a
         solaris-kz brand zone.


     contract creator
         Specifies the process that created the process contract.
         Use  ct_pr_status_get_svc_creator(3CONTRACT) to read the
         term's value.


     creator's aux (term)
         Values equal to the terms used  when  the  contract  was
         written.



     The following standard status items have different  meanings
     in some situations:

     Ownership state
         If the process contract has  a  state  of  CTS_OWNED  or
         CTS_INHERITED  and  is  held  by an entity in the global
         zone, but contains processes in a  non-global  zone,  it
         appears  to  have  the  state CTS_OWNED when observed by
         processes in the non-global zone.


     Contract holder
         If the process contract has  a  state  of  CTS_OWNED  or
         CTS_INHERITED  and  is  held  by an entity in the global
         zone, but contains processes in a  non-global  zone,  it
         appears  to be held by the non-global zone's zsched when
         observed by processes in the non-global zone.


  EVENTS

     In addition to the standard items, an event generated  by  a
     process contract contains the following information:

     Generating PID
         The process ID of the member process  which  experienced
         the  event, or caused the contract event to be generated
         (in     the     case     of     CT_PR_EV_EMPTY).     Use
         ct_pr_event_get_pid(3CONTRACT)  to  obtain this informa-
         tion.



     If the event type is CT_PR_EV_FORK, the event contains:

     Parent PID
         The  process  ID  which  forked  [Generating  PID].  Use
         ct_pr_event_get_ppid(3CONTRACT)  to obtain this informa-
         tion.



     If the event type is CT_PR_EV_EXIT, the event contains:

     Exit status
         The    exit    status    of     the     process.     Use
         ct_pr_event_get_exitstatus(3CONTRACT)   to  obtain  this
         information.



     If the event type is CT_PR_EV_CORE, the event can contain:

     Process core name
         The   name   of   the   per-process   core   file.   Use
         ct_pr_event_get_pcorefile(3CONTRACT)   to   obtain  this
         information.


     Global core name
         The name of the process's zone's global core  file.  Use
         ct_pr_event_get_gcorefile(3CONTRACT)   to   obtain  this
         information.


     Zone core name
         The name of the system-wide  core  file  in  the  global
         zone. Use ct_pr_event_get_zcorefile(3CONTRACT) to obtain
         this information.

     See coreadm(1M) for more information about per-process, glo-
     bal, and system-wide core files.


     If the event type is CT_PR_EV_SIGNAL, the event contains:

     Signal
         The number of the signal which killed the  process.  Use
         ct_pr_event_get_signal(3CONTRACT)  to obtain this infor-
         mation.



     It can contain:

     sender
         The PID of  the  process  which  sent  the  signal.  Use
         ct_pr_event_get_sender(3CONTRACT)  to obtain this infor-
         mation.

Files
     /usr/include/sys/contract/process.h
         Contains definitions of event-type macros.

See Also
     ctrun(1),  ctstat(1),  ctwatch(1),  coreadm(1M),   close(2),
     fork(2),         ioctl(2),         open(2),         poll(2),
     ct_pr_event_get_exitstatus(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_event_get_gcorefile(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_event_get_pcorefile(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_event_get_pid(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_event_get_ppid(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_event_get_signal(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_event_get_zcorefile(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_status_get_contracts(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_status_get_members(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_status_get_param(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_tmpl_set_fatal(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_tmpl_set_param(3CONTRACT),
     ct_pr_tmpl_set_transfer(3CONTRACT),
     ct_tmpl_set_cookie(3CONTRACT),
     ct_tmpl_set_critical(3CONTRACT),
     ct_tmpl_set_informative(3CONTRACT),  libcontract(3LIB), contract(4),
     privileges(5)
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