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System Administration Commands                                       newfs(1M)

       newfs - construct a UFS file system

       newfs [-NSBTv] [mkfs-options] raw-device

       newfs  is  a  friendly front-end to the mkfs(1M) program for making UFS
       file systems on  disk  partitions.  newfs  calculates  the  appropriate
       parameters to use and calls mkfs.

       If  run interactively (that is, standard input is a tty), newfs prompts
       for confirmation before making the file system.

       If the -N option is not specified and the inodes of the device are  not
       randomized, newfs calls fsirand(1M).

       You must be super-user or have appropriate write privileges to use this

   Creating a Multiterabyte UFS File System
       Keep the following limitations in mind when  creating  a  multiterabyte
       UFS file system:

           o      nbpi  is  set  to  1  Mbyte  unless  you specifically set it
                  higher. You cannot set nbpi lower than 1 Mbyte on a  multit‐
                  erabyte UFS file system.

           o      fragsize is set equal to bsize.

       The following options are supported:


           Print  out  the file system parameters that would be used to create
           the file system without actually creating the  file  system.  fsir‐
           and(1M) is not called here.


           Sends  to  stdout  a  human-readable version of the superblock that
           would be used to create a filesystem with the specified  configura‐
           tion parameters.


           Sends   to  stdout  a  binary  (machine-readable)  version  of  the
           superblock that would be used to create a filesystem with the spec‐
           ified configuration parameters.


           Set  the  parameters of the file system to allow eventual growth to
           over a terabyte in total file system size. This option  sets  frag‐
           size  to be the same as bsize, and sets nbpi to 1 Mbyte, unless the
           -i option is used to make it even larger. If you use the -f  or  -i
           options  to  specify  a  fragsize or nbpi that is incompatible with
           this option,  the  user-supplied  value  of  fragsize  or  nbpi  is


           Verbose.  newfs  prints  out  its actions, including the parameters
           passed to mkfs.


           Options that override the default parameters are:

           -a apc

               The number of alternate sectors per cylinder to reserve for bad
               block replacement for SCSI devices only. The default is 0.

               This  option is not applicable for disks with EFI labels and is

           -b bsize

               The logical block size of the file system in bytes, either 4096
               or  8192.  The default is 8192. The sun4u architecture does not
               support the 4096 block size.

           -c cgsize

               The number of cylinders per cylinder group, ranging from 16  to
               256.  The  default is calculated by dividing the number of sec‐
               tors in the file system by the number of sectors in a gigabyte.
               Then,  the  result  is  multiplied  by 32. The default value is
               always between 16 and 256.

               mkfs can override this value. See mkfs_ufs(1M) for details.

               This option is not applicable for disks with EFI labels and  is

           -C maxcontig

               The  maximum  number  of logical blocks, belonging to one file,
               that are allocated contiguously. The default is  calculated  as

                 maxcontig = disk drive maximum transfer size / disk block size

               If the disk drive's maximum transfer size cannot be determined,
               the default value  for  maxcontig  is  calculated  from  kernel
               parameters as follows:

               If  maxphys  is  less than ufs_maxmaxphys, which is typically 1
               Mbyte, then maxcontig is set to maxphys.  Otherwise,  maxcontig
               is set to ufs_maxmaxphys.

               You can set maxcontig to any positive integer value.

               The  actual value will be the lesser of what has been specified
               and what the hardware supports.

               You can subsequently change this parameter by using tunefs(1M).

           -d gap

               Rotational delay. This option is obsolete  in  the  Solaris  10
               release.  The value is always set to 0, regardless of the input

           -f fragsize

               The smallest amount of disk space in bytes that  can  be  allo‐
               cated  to  a  file.  fragsize  must  be a power of 2 divisor of
               bsize, where:

               bsize / fragsize is 1, 2, 4, or 8.

               This means that if the logical block size is 4096, legal values
               for  fragsize  are  512, 1024, 2048, and 4096. When the logical
               block size is 8192, legal values  are  1024,  2048,  4096,  and
               8192. The default value is 1024.

               For  file  systems  greater than 1 terabyte or for file systems
               created with the -T option, fragsize is forced to  match  block
               size (bsize).

           -i nbpi

               The  number  of bytes per inode, which specifies the density of
               inodes in the file system. The number is divided into the total
               size  of  the  file system to determine the number of inodes to

               This value should reflect the expected average size of files in
               the  file  system. If fewer inodes are desired, a larger number
               should be used. To create more inodes, a smaller number  should
               be given. The default for nbpi is as follows:

                 Disk size                 Density

                 Less than 1GB             2048
                 Less than 2GB             4096
                 Less than 3GB             6144
                 3GB to 1 Tbyte            8192
                 Greater than 1 Tbyte
                    or created with -T     1048576

               The  number  of  inodes  can  increase  if  the  file system is
               expanded with the growfs command.

           -m free

               The minimum percentage of free space to maintain  in  the  file
               system, between 0% and 99%, inclusively. This space is off-lim‐
               its to users. Once the file system is filled to this threshold,
               only the super-user can continue writing to the file system.

               The default is ((64 Mbytes/partition size) * 100), rounded down
               to the nearest integer and limited between 1% and  10%,  inclu‐

               This parameter can be subsequently changed using the tunefs(1M)

           -n nrpos

               The number of different rotational positions in which to divide
               a cylinder group. The default is 8.

               This  option is not applicable for disks with EFI labels and is

           -o space|time

               The file system can either be instructed to try to minimize the
               time  spent  allocating blocks, or to try to minimize the space
               fragmentation on the disk. The default is time.

               This parameter can subsequently be changed with the  tunefs(1M)

           -r rpm

               The rotational speed of the disk in revolutions per minute. The
               default is driver- or device-specific.

               Note that you specify rpm for newfs and rps for mkfs.

               This option is not applicable for disks with EFI labels and  is

           -s size

               The  size  of the file system in sectors. The default is to use
               the entire partition.

           -t ntrack

               The number of tracks per cylinder on the disk. The  default  is
               taken from the disk label.

               This  option is not applicable for disks with EFI labels and is

       The following operands are supported:


           The name of a raw special device residing  in  the  /dev  directory
           (for  example, /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6) on which to create the file sys‐

       See largefile(5) for the description of  the  behavior  of  newfs  when
       encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

       Example 1 Displaying the Parameters for the Raw Special Device

       The  following  example  verbosely  displays the parameters for the raw
       special device, c0t0d0s6. It does not actually create a new  file  sys‐

         example# newfs -Nv /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6
         mkfs -F ufs -o N /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6 1112940 54 15 8192 1024 16 10 60
         2048 t 0 −1 8 /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6: 1112940 sectors in
         1374 cylinders of 15 tracks, 54 sectors 569.8MB in 86 cyl
         groups (16 c/g, 6.64MB/g, 3072 i/g) super-block backups
         (for fsck -b #) at:
         32, 13056, 26080, 39104, 52128, 65152, 78176, 91200, 104224, ...

       Example 2 Creating a UFS File System That Will Eventually Be Grown to a
       Multiterabyte UFS File System

       The following example creates a UFS file system that will eventually be
       grown to a multiterabyte UFS file system.

       This   command   creates   a  800-Gbyte  file  system  on  the  volume,

         # newfs -T /dev/md/rdsk/d99
         newfs: construct a new file system /dev/md/rdsk/d99: (y/n)? y
            /dev/md/rdsk/d99: 1677754368 sectors in 45512 cylinders of
            144 tracks, 256 sectors
            819216.0MB in 1821 cyl groups (25 c/g, 450.00MB/g, 448 i/g) ...

       Then, if you increase the volume size for this file system, you can use
       the  growfs command to expand the file system. The file system is grown
       to 1.2 terabytes in this example:

         # growfs -v /dev/md/rdsk/d99
         /usr/lib/fs/ufs/mkfs -G /dev/md/rdsk/d99 2516631552 /dev/md/rdsk/d99:
            2516631552 sectors in 68268 cylinders of 144 tracks, 256  sectors
            1228824.0MB in 2731 cyl groups (25 c/g, 450.00MB/g, 448 i/g)...

       The following exit values are returned:


           The operation was successful.

       1, 10

           Usage error or internal  error.  A  message  is  output  to  STDERR
           explaining the error.

       Other  exit  values  may  be  returned  by mkfs(1M), which is called by

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()  box;  cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)   |lw(2.75i)   ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os

       fsck(1M),    fsck_ufs(1M),    fsirand(1M),    mkfs(1M),   mkfs_ufs(1M),
       tunefs(1M), attributes(5), largefile(5), ufs(7FS)

       newfs: No such file or directory

           The device specified does not exist, or a disk  partition  was  not

       special: cannot open

           You must write access to the device to use this command.

SunOS 5.11                        6 Jul 2011                         newfs(1M)
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