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System Administration Commands                                    mkfs_ufs(1M)

       mkfs_ufs - construct a UFS file system

       mkfs -F ufs [generic_options] [-o FSType_specific_options] raw_device_file

       The  UFS-specific  module  of mkfs builds a UFS file system with a root
       directory and a lost+found directory (see fsck(1M)).

       The UFS-specific mkfs is rarely run directly. Use the newfs(1M) command

       raw_device_file indicates the disk partition on which to create the new
       file system. If the  -o  N,  -V,  or  -m  options  are  specified,  the
       raw_device_file  is not actually modified. size specifies the number of
       disk sectors in the file system, where a disk  sector  is  usually  512
       bytes.  This  argument  must follow the raw_device_file argument and is
       required (even with -o N), unless the -V  or  -m  generic  options  are

       generic_options are supported by the generic mkfs command. See mkfs(1M)
       for a description of these options.

       The following generic options are supported:

       -m    Print the command line that was used to create the existing  file

       -V    Print the current mkfs command line.

       The following UFS-specific options are supported:

       -o    Use one or more of the following values separated by commas (with
             no intervening spaces) to specify UFS-specific options:

             apc=n          The number of alternate sectors  per  cylinder  to
                            reserve for bad block replacement for SCSI devices
                            only. The default is 0.

                            This option is not applicable for disks  with  EFI
                            labels and is ignored.

             bsize=n        The  logical  block  size  of  the  file system in
                            bytes, either 4096 or 8192. The default  is  8192.
                            The  sun4u  architecture does not support the 4096
                            block size.

             calcbinsb      Sends to stdout a binary  (machine-readable)  ver‐
                            sion  of the superblock that would be used to cre‐
                            ate a file system with the specified configuration

             calcsb         Sends  to  stdout  a human-readable version of the
                            superblock that would be used  to  create  a  file
                            system  with  the  specified configuration parame‐

             cgsize=n       The number of cylinders per cylinder group,  rang‐
                            ing  from  16 to 256. The default is calculated by
                            dividing the number of sectors in the file  system
                            by  the number of sectors in a gigabyte. Then, the
                            result is multiplied by 32. The default  value  is
                            always between 16 and 256.

                            The  per-cylinder-group  meta  data  must fit in a
                            space no larger than what is available in one log‐
                            ical  file  system block. If too large a cgsize is
                            requested, it is changed  by  the  minimum  amount

             fragsize=n     The  smallest  amount  of disk space in bytes that
                            can be allocated to a file.  fragsize  must  be  a
                            power of 2 divisor of bsize, where:

                            bsize / fragsize is 1, 2, 4, or 8.

                            This means that if the logical block size is 4096,
                            legal values for fragsize are 512, 1024, 2048, and
                            4096.  When  the logical block size is 8192, legal
                            values are 1024, 2048, 4096, and 8192. The default
                            value is 1024.

                            For  file  systems  greater than 1 terabyte or for
                            file systems created with the mtb=y option,  frag‐
                            size is forced to match block size (bsize).

             free=n         The  minimum  percentage of free space to maintain
                            in the file system  between  0%  and  99%,  inclu‐
                            sively.  This  space  is off-limits to users. Once
                            the file system is filled to this threshold,  only
                            the  superuser  can  continue  writing to the file

                            The default is ((64 Mbytes/partition size) * 100),
                            rounded  down  to  the nearest integer and limited
                            between 1% and 10%, inclusively.

                            This parameter can be subsequently  changed  using
                            the tunefs(1M) command.

             gap=n          Rotational  delay.  This option is obsolete in the
                            Solaris 10 release. The value is always set to  0,
                            regardless of the input value.

             maxcontig=n    The maximum number of logical blocks, belonging to
                            one file, that  are  allocated  contiguously.  The
                            default is calculated as follows:

                              maxcontig = disk drive maximum transfer size / disk block size

                            If  the  disk drive's maximum transfer size cannot
                            be determined, the default value for maxcontig  is
                            calculated from kernel parameters as follows:

                            If  maxphys  is less than ufs_maxmaxphys, which is
                            typically 1 Mbyte, then maxcontig is set  to  max‐
                            phys.  Otherwise,  maxcontig is set to ufs_maxmax‐

                            You can set  maxcontig  to  any  positive  integer

                            The  actual  value  will be the lesser of what has
                            been specified and what the hardware supports.

                            You can  subsequently  change  this  parameter  by
                            using tunefs(1M).

             mtb=y          Set  the  parameters  of  the file system to allow
                            eventual growth to over a terabyte in  total  file
                            system  size.  This option sets fragsize to be the
                            same as bsize, and sets nbpi to  1  Mbyte,  unless
                            the  -i  option is used to make it even larger. If
                            you explicitly set the fragsize or nbpi parameters
                            to  values that are incompatible with this option,
                            the user-supplied value of  fragsize  or  nbpi  is

             N              Print out the file system parameters that would be
                            used to create the file  system  without  actually
                            creating the file system.

             nbpi=n         The number of bytes per inode, which specifies the
                            density of inodes in the file system.  The  number
                            is  divided into the total size of the file system
                            to determine the number of inodes to create.

                            This value should  reflect  the  expected  average
                            size  of files in the file system. If fewer inodes
                            are desired, a larger number should  be  used.  To
                            create  more  inodes,  a  smaller number should be
                            given. The default is 2048.

                            The number of inodes can increase if the file sys‐
                            tem is expanded with the growfs command.

             nrpos=n        The  number  of  different rotational positions in
                            which to divide a cylinder group. The  default  is

                            This  option  is not applicable for disks with EFI
                            labels and is ignored.

             nsect=n        The number of sectors per track on the  disk.  The
                            default is 32.

             ntrack=n       The number of tracks per cylinder on the disk. The
                            default is 16.

                            This option is not applicable for disks  with  EFI
                            labels and is ignored.

             opt=s|t        The file system can either be instructed to try to
                            minimize the time spent allocating blocks,  or  to
                            try  to  minimize  the  space fragmentation on the
                            disk. The default is time.

                            This parameter can be  subsequently  changed  with
                            the tunefs(1M) command.

             rps=n          The  rotational  speed of the disk, in revolutions
                            per second. The default is 60.

                            Note that you specify rps for  mkfs  and  rpm  for

                            This  option  is not applicable for disks with EFI
                            labels and is ignored.

             Alternatively, parameters can be entered as a list of space-sepa‐
             rated  values  (without keywords) whose meaning is positional. In
             this case, the -o option is omitted and the list follows the size
             operand. This is the way newfs passes the parameters to mkfs.

       The following operands are supported:

       raw_device_file    The disk partition on which to write.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()   box;   cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)  |lw(2.75i)  ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os

       fsck(1M), mkfs(1M), newfs(1M), tunefs(1M),  dir_ufs(4),  attributes(5),

       The  following  error  message  typically occurs with very high density
       disks. On such disks, the  file  system  structure  cannot  encode  the
       proper disk layout information. However, such disks have enough onboard
       intelligence to make up for any layout deficiencies,  so  there  is  no
       actual  impact  on  performance.  The warning that performance might be
       impaired can be safely ignored.

         Warning: insufficient space in super block for
         rotational layout tables with nsect sblock.fs_nsect
         and ntrak sblock.fs_ntrak. (File system performance may be impaired.)

       The following error message occurs when the disk geometry results in  a
       situation  where  the  last truncated cylinder group cannot contain the
       correct number of data blocks. Some disk space is wasted.

         Warning: inode blocks/cyl group (grp) >= data blocks (num) in last cylinder

       If there is only one cylinder group and if the  above  condition  holds
       true, mkfs fails with the following error:

         File system creation failed. There is only one cylinder group and that is
         not even big enough to hold the inodes.

       The following error message occurs when the best calculated file system
       layout is unable to include the last few sectors in the  last  cylinder
       group.  This  is  due to the interaction between how much space is used
       for various pieces of meta data and the total  blocks  available  in  a
       cylinder group. Modifying nbpi and cpg might reduce this number, but it
       is rarely worth the effort.

         Warning: num sector(s) in last cylinder group unallocated

       You can use lofiadm to create a file that appears to the  mkfs  command
       (for  example, mkfs_pcfs or mkfs_ufs) as a raw device. You can then use
       the mkfs command to create a file system  on  that  device.  See  lofi‐
       adm(1M)  for examples of creating a UFS and a PC (FAT) file system on a
       device created by lofiadm.

       Both the block and character devices, such as devices in  /dev/dsk  and
       /dev/rdsk, must be available prior to running the mkfs command.

SunOS 5.11                        8 Mar 2006                      mkfs_ufs(1M)
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