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System Administration Commands                                    fsck_ufs(1M)

       fsck_ufs - file system consistency check and interactive repair

       fsck -F ufs [generic-options] [special]...

       fsck -F ufs [generic-options] [-o specific-options]

       The  fsck  utility audits and interactively repairs inconsistent condi‐
       tions on file systems. A file system to be checked may be specified  by
       giving  the  name of the block or character special device or by giving
       the name of its mount point if a matching entry exists in /etc/vfstab.

       The special parameter represents  the  character  special  device,  for
       example,  /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0s7,  on  which  the  file system resides. The
       character special device, not the block special device should be  used.
       The  fsck  utility will not work if the block device is mounted, unless
       the file system is error-locked.

       If no special device is specified, all ufs file  systems  specified  in
       the  vfstab with a fsckdev entry will be checked. If the -p (``preen'')
       option is specified, ufs file systems with an fsckpass  number  greater
       than 1 are checked in parallel. See fsck(1M).

       In  the  case  of  correcting serious inconsistencies, by default, fsck
       asks for confirmation before making a repair and waits for the operator
       to  respond  either yes or no. If the operator does not have write per‐
       mission on the file system, fsck will default to a -n (no  corrections)
       action. See fsck(1M).

       Repairing  some file system inconsistencies can result in loss of data.
       The amount and severity of data loss can be determined from  the  diag‐
       nostic output.

       The  fsck utility automatically corrects innocuous inconsistencies such
       as unreferenced inodes, too-large link counts in inodes, missing blocks
       in  the free list, blocks appearing in the free list and also in files,
       or incorrect counts in the super block. It displays a message for  each
       inconsistency corrected that identifies the nature of the correction on
       the file system which took place. After successfully correcting a  file
       system, fsck prints the number of files on that file system, the number
       of used and free blocks, and the percentage of fragmentation.

       Inconsistencies checked include:

           o      Blocks claimed by more than one inode or the free list.

           o      Blocks claimed by an inode or  the  free  list  outside  the
                  range of the file system.

           o      Incorrect link counts.

           o      Incorrect directory sizes.

           o      Bad inode format.

           o      Blocks not accounted for anywhere.

           o      Directory  checks, file pointing to unallocated inode, inode
                  number out of range, and absence of  `.'  and  `..'  as  the
                  first two entries in each directory.

           o      Super Block checks: more blocks for inodes than there are in
                  the file system.

           o      Bad free block list format.

           o      Total free block and/or free inode count incorrect.

       Orphaned files and directories (allocated but unreferenced)  are,  with
       the   operator's  concurrence,  reconnected  by  placing  them  in  the
       lost+found directory. The name assigned is the  inode  number.  If  the
       lost+found  directory does not exist, it is created. If there is insuf‐
       ficient space in the lost+found directory, its size is increased.

       An attempt to mount a ufs file system with the -o  nolargefiles  option
       will  fail  if  the file system has ever contained a large file (a file
       whose size is greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte). Invoking  fsck  resets
       the file system state if no large files are present in the file system.
       A successful mount of the file system after invoking fsck indicates the
       absence  of  large  files  in  the  file  system. An unsuccessful mount
       attempt indicates  the  presence  of  at  least  one  large  file.  See

       The generic-options consist of the following options:

       -m          Check  but  do not repair. This option checks that the file
                   system is suitable for mounting, returning the  appropriate
                   exit status. If the file system is ready for mounting, fsck
                   displays a message such as:

                       ufs fsck: sanity check: /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s1 okay

       -n|N        Assume a no response to all questions asked by fsck; do not
                   open the file system for writing.

       -V          Echo the expanded command line, but do not execute the com‐
                   mand. This option may be used to verify and to validate the
                   command line.

       -v          Enables  verbose  output.  Might  not  be  supported by all
                   filesystem-specific fsck implementations.

       -y|Y        Assume a yes response to all questions asked by fsck.

       See generic fsck(1M) for the details for specifying special.

       -o specific-options    Specify ufs file system specific options.  These
                              options  can be any combination of the following
                              separated by commas (with  no  intervening  spa‐

                              b=n    Use  block  n  as the super block for the
                                     file system. Block 32 is  always  one  of
                                     the alternate super blocks. Determine the
                                     location of other super blocks by running
                                     newfs(1M) with the -Nv options specified.

                              f      Force checking of file systems regardless
                                     of the state of their super  block  clean

                              p      Check  and fix the file system non-inter‐
                                     actively ("preen"). Exit  immediately  if
                                     there  is  a  problem requiring interven‐
                                     tion. This option is required  to  enable
                                     parallel file system checking.

                              w      Check writable file systems only.

       /etc/vfstab    list of default parameters for each file system

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()   box;   cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)  |lw(2.75i)  ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os

       clri(1M), fsck(1M),  fsdb_ufs(1M),  fsirand(1M),  fstyp(1M),  mkfs(1M),
       mkfs_ufs(1M),   mount_ufs(1M),   mountall(1M),  newfs(1M),  reboot(1M),
       vfstab(4), attributes(5), largefile(5), ufs(7FS)

       The operating system buffers  file  system  data.  Running  fsck  on  a
       mounted  file system can cause the operating system's buffers to become
       out of date with respect to the disk. For this reason, the file  system
       should  be  unmounted  when fsck is used. If this is not possible, care
       should be taken that the system is quiescent and that  it  is  rebooted
       immediately  after  fsck is run. Quite often, however, this will not be
       sufficient. A panic will probably occur if running fsck on a file  sys‐
       tem modifies the file system.

       It  is  usually  faster  to check the character special device than the
       block special device.

       Running fsck on file systems larger than 2 Gb fails if the user chooses
       to use the block interface to the device:

       fsck /dev/dsk/c?t?d?s?

       rather than the raw (character special) device:

       fsck /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s?

SunOS 5.11                        2 Aug 2005                      fsck_ufs(1M)
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