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ps(1)

Name
     ps - report process status

Synopsis
     ps [-aAcdefjHlLPyZ] [-g grplist] [-h lgrplist]
          [-n namelist] [-o format]... [-p proclist]
          [-s sidlist] [-t term] [-u uidlist] [-U uidlist]
          [-G gidlist] [-z zonelist]

Description
     The ps command prints information  about  active  processes.
     Without  options, ps prints information about processes that
     have the same effective user ID  and  the  same  controlling
     terminal  as  the invoker. The output contains only the pro-
     cess ID, terminal identifier, cumulative execution time, and
     the   command  name.  Otherwise,  the  information  that  is
     displayed is controlled by the options.


     Some options accept lists as arguments. Items in a list  can
     be either separated by commas or else enclosed in quotes and
     separated by commas  or  spaces.  Values  for  proclist  and
     grplist must be numeric.


     The ps command tries  to  determine  whether  it  is  called
     natively  or  using   the command syntax expected by ps(1B).
     In the latter  case,  the  ps  command  behaves  exactly  as
     described in ps(1B).

Options
     The following options are supported:

     -a
         Lists information about all  processes  most  frequently
         requested:   all   those   except  session  leaders  and
         processes not associated with a terminal.


     -A
         Lists information for all processes.  Identical  to  -e,
         below.


     -c
         Prints information in a format that  reflects  scheduler
         properties  as  described  in priocntl(1). The -c option
         affects  the  output  of  the  -f  and  -l  options,  as
         described below.

     -d
         Lists information about  all  processes  except  session
         leaders.


     -e
         Lists information about every process now running.

         When the -eoption is specified, options -z, -t, -u,  -U,
         -g, -G, -p, -g, -s and -a options have no effect.


     -f
         Generates a full listing. (See below for significance of
         columns in a full listing.)


     -g grplist
         Lists  only  process  data  whose  group   leader's   ID
         number(s)  appears in grplist. (A group leader is a pro-
         cess whose process ID number is identical to its process
         group ID number.)


     -G gidlist
         Lists information for  processes  whose  real  group  ID
         numbers are given in gidlist. The gidlist must be a sin-
         gle argument in the form of a blank- or  comma-separated
         list.


     -h lgrplist
         Lists  only  the  processes  homed  to   the   specified
         lgrplist. Nothing is listed for any invalid group speci-
         fied in lgrplist.


     -H
         Prints the home lgroup of the  process  under  an  addi-
         tional column header, LGRP.


     -j
         Prints session ID and process group ID.


     -l
         Generates a long listing. (See below.)

     -L
         Prints information about each light weight process (lwp)
         in each selected process. (See below.)


     -n namelist
         Specifies the name of  an  alternative  system  namelist
         file  in  place  of the default. This option is accepted
         for compatibility, but is ignored.


     -o format
         Prints information according to the format specification
         given in format. This is fully described in DISPLAY FOR-
         MATS. Multiple -o options can be specified;  the  format
         specification  is  interpreted  as  the space-character-
         separated  concatenation  of  all  the  format   option-
         arguments.


     -p proclist
         Lists only process data whose  process  ID  numbers  are
         given in proclist.


     -P
         Prints the number of the processor to which the  process
         or  lwp  is  bound,  if  any, under an additional column
         header, PSR.


     -s sidlist
         Lists information  on  all  session  leaders  whose  IDs
         appear in sidlist.


     -t term
         Lists only process data associated with  term.  Terminal
         identifiers  are specified as a device file name, and an
         identifier. For example, term/a, or pts/0.


     -u uidlist
         Lists only process data whose effective user  ID  number
         or  login  name is given in uidlist. In the listing, the
         numerical user ID is printed  unless  you  give  the  -f
         option, which prints the login name.

     -U uidlist
         Lists information  for  processes  whose  real  user  ID
         numbers or login names are given in uidlist. The uidlist
         must be a single argument in the form  of  a  blank-  or
         comma-separated list.


     -y
         Under a long listing (-l), omits the obsolete F and ADDR
         columns  and  includes  an  RSS  column  to  report  the
         resident set size of the process. Under the  -y  option,
         both  RSS  and  SZ  (see  below) is reported in units of
         kilobytes instead of pages.


     -z zonelist
         Lists only processes in the specified zones.  Zones  can
         be  specified  either by name or ID. This option is only
         useful when executed in the global zone.


     -Z
         Prints the name of the zone with which  the  process  is
         associated  under an additional column header, ZONE. The
         ZONE column width is limited to 8 characters. Use ps -eZ
         for  a  quick way to see information about every process
         now running along with the associated zone name. Use

           ps -eo zone,uid,pid,ppid,time,comm,...


         to see zone names wider than 8 characters.



     The following options are used by  the  /usr/ucb/ps  command
     (see  ps(1B)).  They  are supported in /usr/bin/ps, allowing
     the latter to emulate UCB behavior. The UCB options  do  not
     use  a hyphen. You cannot mix these options with the options
     described above.

     r
         Restricts output to running and runnable processes.


     S
         Displays accumulated CPU time used by this  process  and
         all of its reaped  children.

     v
         Displays a version  of  the  output  containing  virtual
         memory.  This includes fields SIZE, %CPU, %MEM, and RSS,
         described below.


     w
         Uses a wide output format, that is, 132  columns  rather
         than 80. If the option letter is repeated, that is, -ww,
         this option uses arbitrarily wide output. This  informa-
         tion  is  used  to  decide  how much of long commands to
         print. Note: The wide output option can be  viewed  only
         by a superuser or the user who owns the process.


     x
         Includes processes with no controlling terminal.


     num
         A process number may be given, in which case the  output
         is  restricted to that process. This option must be sup-
         plied last.



     Many of the options shown are used to  select  processes  to
     list.  If any are specified, the default list is ignored and
     ps selects the processes represented by the inclusive OR  of
     all the selection-criteria options.

Display Formats
     Under the -f option, ps tries to determine the command  name
     and  arguments given when the process was created by examin-
     ing the user  block.  Failing  this,  the  command  name  is
     printed, as it would have appeared without the -f option, in
     square brackets.


     The column headings and the meaning of the columns in  a  ps
     listing  are  given  below; the letters f and l indicate the
     option  (full  or  long,  respectively)  that   causes   the
     corresponding  heading to appear; all means that the heading
     always appears. Note: These two options determine only  what
     information is provided for a process; they do not determine
     which processes are listed.

     F(l)
         Flags (hexadecimal and  additive)  associated  with  the
         process.   These  flags  are  available  for  historical
         purposes; no meaning should  be  currently  ascribed  to
         them.


     S (l)
         The state of the process:

         O
             Process is running on a processor.


         S
             Sleeping: process is waiting for an  event  to  com-
             plete.


         R
             Runnable: process is on run queue.


         T
             Process is stopped, either by a job  control  signal
             or because it is being traced.


         W
             Waiting: process is waiting for CPU usage to drop to
             the CPU-caps enforced limits.


         Z
             Zombie state:  process  terminated  and  parent  not
             waiting.



     UID (f,l)
         The effective user ID number of the process  (the  login
         name is printed under the -f option).


     PID(all)
         The process ID of the process (this datum  is  necessary
         in order to kill a process).

     PPID(f,l)
         The process ID of the parent process.


     C(f,l)
         Processor utilization  for  scheduling  (obsolete).  Not
         printed when the -c option is used.


     CLS(f,l)
         Scheduling class. Printed only when  the  -c  option  is
         used.


     PRI(l)
         The priority of the  process.  Without  the  -c  option,
         higher  numbers mean lower priority. With the -c option,
         higher numbers mean higher priority.


     NI(l)
         Nice value, used in priority  computation.  Not  printed
         when  the  -c option is used. Only processes in the cer-
         tain scheduling classes have a nice value.


     ADDR(l)
         The memory address of the process, 0 unless running with
         all privilege.


     SZ(l)
         The total size of the process in virtual memory, includ-
         ing   all  mapped  files  and  devices,  in  pages.  See
         pagesize(1).


     WCHAN(l)
         The address of an event for which the process is  sleep-
         ing.  Only visible when running with all privilege, oth-
         erwise it is 0. To determine if a process  is  sleeping,
         check the S column.


     STIME(f)
         The starting  time  of  the  process,  given  in  hours,
         minutes,   and  seconds.  (A  process  begun  more  than
         twenty-four hours before the ps inquiry is  executed  is
         given in months and days.)


     TTY(all)
         The controlling terminal for the process  (the  message,
         ?, is printed when there is no controlling terminal).


     TIME(all)
         The cumulative execution time for the process.


     LTIME(all)
         The execution time for the lwp being reported.


     CMD(all)
         The command name (the full command name  and  its  argu-
         ments, up to a limit of 80 characters, are printed under
         the -f option).



     The following two additional columns are printed when the -j
     option is specified:

     PGID
         The process ID of the process group leader.


     SID
         The process ID of the session leader.



     The following two additional columns are printed when the -L
     option is specified:

     LWP
         The lwp ID of the lwp being reported.


     NLWP
         The number of lwps in the process (if -f is also  speci-
         fied).

     Under the -L option, one line is printed for each lwp in the
     process  and  the time-reporting fields STIME and LTIME show
     the values for the  lwp,  not  the  process.  A  traditional
     single-threaded process contains only one lwp.


     A process that has exited and has a parent, but has not  yet
     been waited for by the parent, is marked <defunct>.

  -o format
     The -o option allows the output format to be specified under
     user control.


     The format specification must be a list of  names  presented
     as  a single argument, blank- or comma-separated. Each vari-
     able has a default header. The default header can  be  over-
     ridden  by  appending an equals sign and the new text of the
     header. The rest of the characters in the argument  is  used
     as  the header text. The fields specified are written in the
     order specified on the command line, and should be  arranged
     in  columns  in the output. The field widths are selected by
     the system to be  at  least  as  wide  as  the  header  text
     (default  or  overridden value). If the header text is null,
     such as -o user=, the field width is at least as wide as the
     default  header text. If all header text fields are null, no
     header line is written.


     The following names are recognized in the POSIX locale:

     user
         The effective user ID of the process. This is  the  tex-
         tual  user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
         permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.


     ruser
         The real user ID of the process.  This  is  the  textual
         user  ID, if it can be obtained and the field width per-
         mits, or a decimal representation otherwise.


     group
         The effective group ID of the process. This is the  tex-
         tual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
         permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

     rgroup
         The real group ID of the process. This  is  the  textual
         group ID, if it can be obtained and the field width per-
         mits, or a decimal representation otherwise.


     pid
         The decimal value of the process ID.


     ppid
         The decimal value of the parent process ID.


     pgid
         The decimal value of the process group ID.


     pcpu
         The ratio of CPU time used recently to CPU  time  avail-
         able  in the same period, expressed as a percentage. The
         meaning of ``recently'' in this context is  unspecified.
         The  CPU  time available is determined in an unspecified
         manner.


     vsz
         The total size of the  process  in  virtual  memory,  in
         kilobytes.


     nice
         The decimal value of the system scheduling  priority  of
         the process. See nice(1).


     etime
         The elapsed time since the process was started.  In  the
         POSIX locale, has the form:

         [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss

         where

         dd
             is the number of days

         hh
             is the number of hours


         mm
             is the number of minutes


         ss
             is the number of seconds

         The dd field is a decimal integer. The  hh,  mm  and  ss
         fields  is two-digit decimal integers padded on the left
         with zeros.


     time
         The cumulative CPU time of the  process.  In  the  POSIX
         locale, has the form:

         [dd-]hh:mm:ss

         The dd, hh, mm, and ss fields is  as  described  in  the
         etime specifier.


     tty
         The name of the controlling terminal of the process  (if
         any) in the same format used by the who(1) command.


     comm
         The name of the command being executed  (argv[0]  value)
         as a string.


     args
         The command with all its  arguments  as  a  string.  The
         implementation  might  truncate  this value to the field
         width;  it  is  implementation-dependent   whether   any
         further truncation occurs. It is unspecified whether the
         string represented is a version of the argument list  as
         it  was  passed  to the command when it started, or is a
         version of the arguments as they might have  been  modi-
         fied  by  the application. Applications cannot depend on
         being able to modify their argument list and having that
         modification  be  reflected  in  the  output  of ps. The
         Solaris implementation limits the string  to  80  bytes;
         the string is the version of the argument list as it was
         passed to the command when it started.



     The following names are recognized in the Solaris  implemen-
     tation:

     f
         Flags (hexadecimal and  additive)  associated  with  the
         process.


     s
         The state of the process.


     c
         Processor utilization for scheduling (obsolete).


     uid
         The effective user ID number of the process as a decimal
         integer.


     ruid
         The real user ID number of  the  process  as  a  decimal
         integer.


     gid
         The effective group  ID  number  of  the  process  as  a
         decimal integer.


     rgid
         The real group ID number of the  process  as  a  decimal
         integer.


     projid
         The project ID  number  of  the  process  as  a  decimal
         integer.


     project
         The project ID of the process as a textual value if that
         value can be obtained; otherwise, as a decimal integer.

     zoneid
         The zone ID number of the process as a decimal integer.


     zone
         The zone ID of the process as a textual  value  if  that
         value can be obtained; otherwise, as a decimal integer.


     sid
         The process ID of the session leader.


     taskid
         The task ID of the process.


     class
         The scheduling class of the process.


     pri
         The priority of the process. Higher numbers mean  higher
         priority.


     opri
         The obsolete priority of the process. Lower numbers mean
         higher priority.


     lwp
         The decimal value of the lwp ID. Requesting this format-
         ting  option  causes one line to be printed for each lwp
         in the process.


     nlwp
         The number of lwps in the process.


     psr
         The number of the processor to which the process or  lwp
         is bound.

     pset
         The ID of the processor set to which the process or  lwp
         is bound.


     addr
         The memory address of the process.


     osz
         The total size of the  process  in  virtual  memory,  in
         pages.


     wchan
         The address of an event for which the process is  sleep-
         ing (if -, the process is running).


     stime
         The starting time or date of the process,  printed  with
         no blanks.


     rss
         The resident set size of the process, in kilobytes.  The
         rss  value  reported  by  ps  is an estimate provided by
         proc(4) that might underestimate the actual resident set
         size. Users who wish to get more accurate usage informa-
         tion  for  capacity  planning  should  use  pmap(1)   -x
         instead.


     pmem
         The ratio of the process's resident set size to the phy-
         sical memory on the machine, expressed as a percentage.


     fname
         The first 8 bytes of the base name of the process's exe-
         cutable file.


     ctid
         The contract ID of the process contract the process is a
         member of as a decimal integer.

     lgrp
         The home lgroup of the process.



     Only comm and args are allowed to contain blank  characters;
     all  others, including the Solaris implementation variables,
     are not.


     The following table specifies the default header to be  used
     in the POSIX locale corresponding to each format specifier.



     tab() box; cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i)
     cw(1.38i)   cw(1.38i)  cw(1.38i)  FormatDefaultFormatDefault
     SpecifierHeaderSpecifierHeader     _     argsCOMMANDppidPPID
     commCOMMANDrgroupRGROUP               etimeELAPSEDruserRUSER
     groupGROUPtimeTIME       niceNIttyTT        pcpu%CPUuserUSER
     pgidPGIDvszVSZ pidPID



     The following table lists the Solaris implementation  format
     specifiers and the default header used with each.



     tab() box; cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i)
     cw(1.38i)   cw(1.38i)  cw(1.38i)  FormatDefaultFormatDefault
     SpecifierHeaderSpecifierHeader    _     addrADDRprojidPROJID
     cCprojectPROJECT          classCLSpsrPSR          fFrgidRGID
     fnameCOMMANDrssRSS  gidGIDruidRUID  lgrpLGRPsS  lwpLWPsidSID
     nlwpNLWPstimeSTIME      opriPRItaskidTASKID      oszSZuidUID
     pmem%MEMwchanWCHAN priPRIzoneZONE ctidCTIDzoneidZONEID

Examples
     Example 1 Using ps Command


     The command:


       example% ps -o user,pid,ppid=MOM -o args

     writes the following in the POSIX locale:


        USER  PID   MOM   COMMAND
       helene  34    12   ps -o uid,pid,ppid=MOM -o args




     The contents of the COMMAND field need not be the  same  due
     to possible truncation.

Environment Variables
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the  execution of ps: LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.

     COLUMNS
         Override the  system-selected  horizontal  screen  size,
         used to determine the number of text columns to display.

Exit Status
     The following exit values are returned:

     0
         Successful completion.


     >0
         An error occurred.

Files
     /dev/pts/*



     /dev/term/*
         terminal (``tty'') names searcher files


     /etc/passwd
         UID information supplier


     /proc/*
         process control files

Attributes
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:



     tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)  ATTRI-
     BUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  _  Availabilitysystem/core-os  _
     CSIEnabled (see  USAGE)  _  Interface  StabilityCommitted  _
     StandardSee standards(5).

See Also
     kill(1),   lgrpinfo(1),   nice(1),   pagesize(1),   pmap(1),
     priocntl(1), who(1), ps(1B), getty(1M), proc(4), ttysrch(4),
     attributes(5),  environ(5),  resource-controls  (5),   standards(5),
     zones(5)

Notes
     Things can change while ps is running. The snapshot it gives
     is  true  only for a split-second, and it might not be accu-
     rate by the time you see it. Some data printed  for  defunct
     processes is irrelevant.


     If no options to select processes are specified, ps  reports
     all  processes  associated with the controlling terminal. If
     there is no controlling terminal, there is no  report  other
     than the header.


     ps -ef or ps -o stime might not report the actual start of a
     tty  login session, but rather an earlier time, when a getty
     was last respawned on the tty line.


     On prior releases the ADDR and WCHAN fields might have  con-
     tained the kernel memory address of the process and/or event
     it was waiting on. These fields  are  now  always  0  unless
     requested  by  a  process  running  with  all privilege. The
     values can still be obtained using  the  ::ps  and  ::thread
     dcmds within mdb.


     ps is CSI-enabled except for login names (usernames).
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