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ps(1)

ps(1)                            User Commands                           ps(1)



NAME
       ps - report process status

SYNOPSIS
       ps [-aAcdefjHlLPyZ] [-g grplist] [-h lgrplist]
            [-n namelist] [-o format]... [-p proclist]
            [-s sidlist] [-t term] [-u uidlist] [-U uidlist]
            [-G gidlist] [-z zonelist]


DESCRIPTION
       The  ps  command  prints  information  about  active processes. Without
       options, ps prints information  about  processes  that  have  the  same
       effective user ID and the same controlling terminal as the invoker. The
       output contains only the process ID,  terminal  identifier,  cumulative
       execution  time,  and the command name. Otherwise, the information that
       is displayed is controlled by the options.


       Some options accept lists as arguments. Items in a list can  be  either
       separated  by commas or else enclosed in quotes and separated by commas
       or spaces. Values for proclist and grplist must be numeric.


       The ps command tries to determine whether  it  is  called  natively  or
       using     the  command  syntax expected by ps(1B).  In the latter case,
       the     ps command behaves exactly as described in ps(1B).

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -a

           Lists information about all processes  most  frequently  requested:
           all  those except session leaders and processes not associated with
           a terminal.


       -A

           Lists information for all processes. Identical to -e, below.


       -c

           Prints information in a format that reflects  scheduler  properties
           as  described  in  priocntl(1). The -c option affects the output of
           the -f and -l options, as described below.


       -d

           Lists information about all processes except session leaders.


       -e

           Lists information about every process now running.

           When the -eoption is specified, options -z, -t, -u, -U, -g, -G, -p,
           -g, -s and -a options have no effect.


       -f

           Generates a full listing. (See below for significance of columns in
           a full listing.)


       -g grplist

           Lists only process data whose group leader's ID  number(s)  appears
           in grplist. (A group leader is a process whose process ID number is
           identical to its process group ID number.)


       -G gidlist

           Lists information for processes whose real  group  ID  numbers  are
           given in gidlist. The gidlist must be a single argument in the form
           of a blank- or comma-separated list.


       -h lgrplist

           Lists only the processes homed to the specified  lgrplist.  Nothing
           is listed for any invalid group specified in lgrplist.


       -H

           Prints  the  home  lgroup of the process under an additional column
           header, LGRP.


       -j

           Prints session ID and process group ID.


       -l

           Generates a long listing. (See below.)


       -L

           Prints information about each light weight process  (lwp)  in  each
           selected process. (See below.)


       -n namelist

           Specifies  the name of an alternative system namelist file in place
           of the default. This option is accepted for compatibility,  but  is
           ignored.


       -o format

           Prints  information  according to the format specification given in
           format. This is fully described in  DISPLAY  FORMATS.  Multiple  -o
           options  can  be specified; the format specification is interpreted
           as the space-character-separated concatenation of  all  the  format
           option-arguments.


       -p proclist

           Lists  only process data whose process ID numbers are given in pro‐
           clist.


       -P

           Prints the number of the processor to which the process or  lwp  is
           bound, if any, under an additional column header, PSR.


       -s sidlist

           Lists  information  on  all  session  leaders  whose  IDs appear in
           sidlist.


       -t term

           Lists only process data associated with term. Terminal  identifiers
           are  specified  as a device file name, and an identifier. For exam‐
           ple, term/a, or pts/0.


       -u uidlist

           Lists only process data whose effective user  ID  number  or  login
           name  is given in uidlist. In the listing, the numerical user ID is
           printed unless you give the -f option, which prints the login name.


       -U uidlist

           Lists information for processes whose real user ID numbers or login
           names  are  given in uidlist. The uidlist must be a single argument
           in the form of a blank- or comma-separated list.


       -y

           Under a long listing (-l), omits the obsolete F  and  ADDR  columns
           and  includes  an RSS column to report the resident set size of the
           process. Under the -y option,  both  RSS  and  SZ  (see  below)  is
           reported in units of kilobytes instead of pages.


       -z zonelist

           Lists only processes in the specified zones. Zones can be specified
           either by name or ID. This option is only useful when  executed  in
           the global zone.


       -Z

           Prints  the  name  of the zone with which the process is associated
           under an additional column header, ZONE. The ZONE column  width  is
           limited to 8 characters. Use ps -eZ for a quick way to see informa‐
           tion about every process now running along with the associated zone
           name. Use

             ps -eo zone,uid,pid,ppid,time,comm,...


           to see zone names wider than 8 characters.



       The following options are used by the /usr/ucb/ps command (see ps(1B)).
       They are supported in /usr/bin/ps, allowing the latter to  emulate  UCB
       behavior.  The  UCB  options  do not use a hyphen. You cannot mix these
       options with the options described above.

       r

           Restricts output to running and runnable processes.


       S

           Displays accumulated CPU time used by this process and all  of  its
           reaped  children.


       v

           Displays  a  version  of the output containing virtual memory. This
           includes fields SIZE, %CPU, %MEM, and RSS, described below.


       w

           Uses a wide output format, that is, 132 columns rather than 80.  If
           the option letter is repeated, that is, -ww, this option uses arbi‐
           trarily wide output. This information is used to decide how much of
           long  commands to print. Note: The wide output option can be viewed
           only by a superuser or the user who owns the process.


       x

           Includes processes with no controlling terminal.


       num

           A process number  may  be  given,  in  which  case  the  output  is
           restricted to that process. This option must be supplied last.



       Many  of the options shown are used to select processes to list. If any
       are specified, the default list is ignored and ps selects the processes
       represented by the inclusive OR of all the selection-criteria options.

DISPLAY FORMATS
       Under  the  -f option, ps tries to determine the command name and argu‐
       ments given when the process was created by examining the  user  block.
       Failing  this,  the  command name is printed, as it would have appeared
       without the -f option, in square brackets.


       The column headings and the meaning of the columns in a ps listing  are
       given  below;  the  letters  f and l indicate the option (full or long,
       respectively) that causes the  corresponding  heading  to  appear;  all
       means  that  the heading always appears. Note: These two options deter‐
       mine only what information is provided  for  a  process;  they  do  not
       determine which processes are listed.

       F(l)

           Flags (hexadecimal and additive) associated with the process. These
           flags are available for historical purposes; no meaning  should  be
           currently ascribed to them.


       S (l)

           The state of the process:

           O

               Process is running on a processor.


           S

               Sleeping: process is waiting for an event to complete.


           R

               Runnable: process is on run queue.


           T

               Process  is  stopped, either by a job control signal or because
               it is being traced.


           W

               Waiting: process is waiting for CPU usage to drop to  the  CPU-
               caps enforced limits.


           Z

               Zombie state: process terminated and parent not waiting.



       UID (f,l)

           The  effective  user  ID  number  of the process (the login name is
           printed under the -f option).


       PID(all)

           The process ID of the process (this datum is necessary in order  to
           kill a process).


       PPID(f,l)

           The process ID of the parent process.


       C(f,l)

           Processor  utilization  for scheduling (obsolete). Not printed when
           the -c option is used.


       CLS(f,l)

           Scheduling class. Printed only when the -c option is used.


       PRI(l)

           The priority of the process. Without the -c option, higher  numbers
           mean lower priority. With the -c option, higher numbers mean higher
           priority.


       NI(l)

           Nice value, used in priority computation. Not printed when  the  -c
           option  is  used.  Only processes in the certain scheduling classes
           have a nice value.


       ADDR(l)

           The memory address of the process, 0 unless running with all privi‐
           lege.


       SZ(l)

           The  total  size  of  the  process in virtual memory, including all
           mapped files and devices, in pages. See pagesize(1).


       WCHAN(l)

           The address of an event for which the  process  is  sleeping.  Only
           visible  when  running  with  all  privilege, otherwise it is 0. To
           determine if a process is sleeping, check the S column.


       STIME(f)

           The starting time of the process, given in hours, minutes, and sec‐
           onds.  (A  process  begun more than twenty-four hours before the ps
           inquiry is executed is given in months and days.)


       TTY(all)

           The controlling terminal  for  the  process  (the  message,  ?,  is
           printed when there is no controlling terminal).


       TIME(all)

           The cumulative execution time for the process.


       LTIME(all)

           The execution time for the lwp being reported.


       CMD(all)

           The  command name (the full command name and its arguments, up to a
           limit of 80 characters, are printed under the -f option).



       The following two additional columns are printed when the -j option  is
       specified:

       PGID

           The process ID of the process group leader.


       SID

           The process ID of the session leader.



       The  following two additional columns are printed when the -L option is
       specified:

       LWP

           The lwp ID of the lwp being reported.


       NLWP

           The number of lwps in the process (if -f is also specified).



       Under the -L option, one line is printed for each lwp  in  the  process
       and  the  time-reporting fields STIME and LTIME show the values for the
       lwp, not the process. A traditional  single-threaded  process  contains
       only one lwp.


       A process that has exited and has a parent, but has not yet been waited
       for by the parent, is marked <defunct>.

   -o format
       The -o option allows the output format to be specified under user  con‐
       trol.


       The  format specification must be a list of names presented as a single
       argument, blank-  or  comma-separated.  Each  variable  has  a  default
       header.  The  default  header  can be overridden by appending an equals
       sign and the new text of the header. The rest of the characters in  the
       argument  is  used as the header text. The fields specified are written
       in the order specified on the command line, and should be  arranged  in
       columns  in  the output. The field widths are selected by the system to
       be at least as wide as the header text (default or  overridden  value).
       If  the  header  text  is null, such as -o user=, the field width is at
       least as wide as the default header text. If all header text fields are
       null, no header line is written.


       The following names are recognized in the POSIX locale:

       user

           The  effective user ID of the process. This is the textual user ID,
           if it can be obtained and the field width  permits,  or  a  decimal
           representation otherwise.


       ruser

           The real user ID of the process. This is the textual user ID, if it
           can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal represen‐
           tation otherwise.


       group

           The  effective  group  ID of the process. This is the textual group
           ID, if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
           representation otherwise.


       rgroup

           The  real group ID of the process. This is the textual group ID, if
           it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal repre‐
           sentation otherwise.


       pid

           The decimal value of the process ID.


       ppid

           The decimal value of the parent process ID.


       pgid

           The decimal value of the process group ID.


       pcpu

           The  ratio  of  CPU time used recently to CPU time available in the
           same period, expressed as a percentage. The meaning of ``recently''
           in  this  context  is unspecified. The CPU time available is deter‐
           mined in an unspecified manner.


       vsz

           The total size of the process in virtual memory, in kilobytes.


       nice

           The decimal value of the system scheduling priority of the process.
           See nice(1).


       etime

           The  elapsed  time  since  the  process  was  started. In the POSIX
           locale, has the form:

           [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss

           where

           dd

               is the number of days


           hh

               is the number of hours


           mm

               is the number of minutes


           ss

               is the number of seconds

           The dd field is a decimal integer. The hh, mm and ss fields is two-
           digit decimal integers padded on the left with zeros.


       time

           The  cumulative  CPU  time of the process. In the POSIX locale, has
           the form:

           [dd-]hh:mm:ss

           The dd, hh, mm, and ss fields is as described in the  etime  speci‐
           fier.


       tty

           The name of the controlling terminal of the process (if any) in the
           same format used by the who(1) command.


       comm

           The name of the command being executed (argv[0] value) as a string.


       args

           The command with all its arguments as a string. The  implementation
           might truncate this value to the field width; it is implementation-
           dependent whether any further truncation occurs. It is  unspecified
           whether the string represented is a version of the argument list as
           it was passed to the command when it started, or is  a  version  of
           the  arguments as they might have been modified by the application.
           Applications cannot depend on being able to modify  their  argument
           list and having that modification be reflected in the output of ps.
           The Solaris implementation limits  the  string  to  80  bytes;  the
           string  is the version of the argument list as it was passed to the
           command when it started.



       The following names are recognized in the Solaris implementation:

       f

           Flags (hexadecimal and additive) associated with the process.


       s

           The state of the process.


       c

           Processor utilization for scheduling (obsolete).


       uid

           The effective user ID number of the process as a decimal integer.


       ruid

           The real user ID number of the process as a decimal integer.


       gid

           The effective group ID number of the process as a decimal integer.


       rgid

           The real group ID number of the process as a decimal integer.


       projid

           The project ID number of the process as a decimal integer.


       project

           The project ID of the process as a textual value if that value  can
           be obtained; otherwise, as a decimal integer.


       zoneid

           The zone ID number of the process as a decimal integer.


       zone

           The  zone ID of the process as a textual value if that value can be
           obtained; otherwise, as a decimal integer.


       sid

           The process ID of the session leader.


       taskid

           The task ID of the process.


       class

           The scheduling class of the process.


       pri

           The priority of the process. Higher numbers mean higher priority.


       opri

           The obsolete priority of the process.  Lower  numbers  mean  higher
           priority.


       lwp

           The  decimal value of the lwp ID. Requesting this formatting option
           causes one line to be printed for each lwp in the process.


       nlwp

           The number of lwps in the process.


       psr

           The number of the processor to which the process or lwp is bound.


       pset

           The ID of the processor set to which the process or lwp is bound.


       addr

           The memory address of the process.


       osz

           The total size of the process in virtual memory, in pages.


       wchan

           The address of an event for which the process is  sleeping  (if  −,
           the process is running).


       stime

           The starting time or date of the process, printed with no blanks.


       rss

           The  resident  set size of the process, in kilobytes. The rss value
           reported by ps is an estimate provided by proc(4) that might under‐
           estimate  the  actual resident set size. Users who wish to get more
           accurate usage information for capacity planning should use pmap(1)
           -x instead.


       pmem

           The ratio of the process's resident set size to the physical memory
           on the machine, expressed as a percentage.


       fname

           The first 8 bytes of the base  name  of  the  process's  executable
           file.


       ctid

           The  contract ID of the process contract the process is a member of
           as a decimal integer.


       lgrp

           The home lgroup of the process.



       Only comm and args are allowed to contain blank characters; all others,
       including the Solaris implementation variables, are not.


       The  following  table  specifies  the  default header to be used in the
       POSIX locale corresponding to each format specifier.




       tab() box; cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i)
       cw(1.38i)      cw(1.38i)      FormatDefaultFormatDefault      Speci‐
       fierHeaderSpecifierHeader   _    argsCOMMANDppidPPID    commCOM‐
       MANDrgroupRGROUP    etimeELAPSEDruserRUSER   groupGROUPtimeTIME
       niceNIttyTT pcpu%CPUuserUSER pgidPGIDvszVSZ pidPID



       The following table lists the Solaris implementation format  specifiers
       and the default header used with each.




       tab() box; cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i) cw(1.38i)
       cw(1.38i)      cw(1.38i)      FormatDefaultFormatDefault      Speci‐
       fierHeaderSpecifierHeader          _         addrADDRprojidPROJID
       cCprojectPROJECT    classCLSpsrPSR    fFrgidRGID    fnameCOM‐
       MANDrssRSS     gidGIDruidRUID     lgrpLGRPsS    lwpLWPsidSID
       nlwpNLWPstimeSTIME       opriPRItaskidTASKID       oszSZuidUID
       pmem%MEMwchanWCHAN priPRIzoneZONE ctidCTIDzoneidZONEID


EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Using ps Command


       The command:


         example% ps -o user,pid,ppid=MOM -o args




       writes the following in the POSIX locale:


          USER  PID   MOM   COMMAND
         helene  34    12   ps -o uid,pid,ppid=MOM -o args




       The  contents of the COMMAND field need not be the same due to possible
       truncation.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect  the execution of ps: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.

       COLUMNS

           Override the system-selected horizontal screen size, used to deter‐
           mine the number of text columns to display.


EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0

           Successful completion.


       >0

           An error occurred.


FILES
       /dev/pts/*




       /dev/term/*

           terminal (``tty'') names searcher files


       /etc/passwd

           UID information supplier


       /proc/*

           process control files


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:




       tab()   box;   cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)  |lw(2.75i)  ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os _  CSIEnabled  (see
       USAGE) _ Interface StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee standards(5).


SEE ALSO
       kill(1),   lgrpinfo(1),  nice(1),  pagesize(1),  pmap(1),  priocntl(1),
       who(1), ps(1B), getty(1M), proc(4),  ttysrch(4),  attributes(5),  envi‐
       ron(5), resource-controls (5), standards(5), zones(5)

NOTES
       Things  can  change  while ps is running. The snapshot it gives is true
       only for a split-second, and it might not be accurate by the  time  you
       see it. Some data printed for defunct processes is irrelevant.


       If  no  options  to select processes are specified, ps reports all pro‐
       cesses associated with the controlling terminal. If there  is  no  con‐
       trolling terminal, there is no report other than the header.


       ps  -ef or ps -o stime might not report the actual start of a tty login
       session, but rather an earlier time, when a getty was last respawned on
       the tty line.


       On  prior  releases  the ADDR and WCHAN fields might have contained the
       kernel memory address of the process and/or event it  was  waiting  on.
       These  fields  are  now  always 0 unless requested by a process running
       with all privilege. The values can still be obtained using the ::ps and
       ::thread dcmds within mdb.


       ps is CSI-enabled except for login names (usernames).



SunOS 5.11                        29 Jan 2014                            ps(1)
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