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find(1)

find(1)                          User Commands                         find(1)



NAME
       find - find files

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/find [-H | -L] path... expression


       /usr/xpg4/bin/find [-H | -L] path... expression


DESCRIPTION
       The  find utility recursively descends the directory hierarchy for each
       path seeking files that match a Boolean expression written in the  pri‐
       maries specified below.


       find  is  able  to  descend to arbitrary depths in a file hierarchy and
       does not fail due to path length limitations  (unless  a  path  operand
       specified by the application exceeds PATH_MAX requirements).


       find  detects  infinite  loops;  that is, entering a previously visited
       directory that is an ancestor of the last file encountered.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -H    Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each sym‐
             bolic  link  encountered  on  the command line to be those of the
             file referenced by the link, and not the link itself. If the ref‐
             erenced file does not exist, the file information and type is for
             the link itself. File information for all symbolic links  not  on
             the command line is that of the link itself.


       -L    Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each sym‐
             bolic link to be those of the file referenced by  the  link,  and
             not the link itself. See NOTES.



       Specifying more than one of the mutually-exclusive options -H and -L is
       not considered an error.  The  last  option  specified  determines  the
       behavior of the utility.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       path          A  pathname  of a starting point in the directory hierar‐
                     chy.


       expression    The first argument that starts with a −, or is a !  or  a
                     (,  and  all  subsequent  arguments are interpreted as an
                     expression made up of the following primaries and  opera‐
                     tors.  In  the descriptions, wherever n is used as a pri‐
                     mary argument, it is interpreted  as  a  decimal  integer
                     optionally  preceded  by a plus (+) or minus (−) sign, as
                     follows:

                     +n    more than n


                     n     exactly n


                     -n    less than n



   Expressions
       Valid expressions are:

       -acl              True if the file have additional ACLs defined.


       -amin n           File was last accessed n minutes ago.


       -atime n          True if the file was accessed n days ago. The  access
                         time  of  directories  in  path  is  changed  by find
                         itself.


       -cmin n           File's status was last changed n minutes ago.


       -cpio device      Always true. Writes the current  file  on  device  in
                         cpio format (5120-byte records).


       -ctime n          True if the file's status was changed n days ago.


       -depth            Always  true. Causes descent of the directory hierar‐
                         chy to be done so that all entries in a directory are
                         acted  on  before  the  directory itself. This can be
                         useful when find is used  with  cpio(1)  to  transfer
                         files that are contained in directories without write
                         permission.


       -exec command     True if the executed command returns a zero value  as
                         exit status. The end of command must be punctuated by
                         an escaped semicolon (;). A command  argument  {}  is
                         replaced  by  the current pathname. If the last argu‐
                         ment to -exec is {} and you specify + rather than the
                         semicolon  (;),  the  command is invoked fewer times,
                         with {} replaced by groups of pathnames. If any invo‐
                         cation  of  the  command  returns a non-zero value as
                         exit status, find returns a non-zero exit status.


       -follow           Always true and always evaluated no matter  where  it
                         appears in expression. The behavior is unspecified if
                         -follow is used when the find command is invoked with
                         either the -H or the -L option. Causes symbolic links
                         to be followed. When following symbolic  links,  find
                         keeps track of the directories visited so that it can
                         detect infinite loops. For example, such a loop would
                         occur if a symbolic link pointed to an ancestor. This
                         expression should not be used with  the  find-type  l
                         expression. See NOTES.


       -fstype type      True  if  the filesystem to which the file belongs is
                         of type type.


       -group gname      True if the file belongs to the group gname. If gname
                         is  numeric and does not appear in the group(4) data‐
                         base, it is taken as a group ID.


       -iname pattern    Similar to -name, but the match between  the  pattern
                         and  the  base  name of the current file name is case
                         insensitive. (See EXAMPLES). Unlike the -name option,
                         there  is  no special treatment in leading period and
                         wildcard file name generation  characters  can  match
                         file    names   beginning   with   a   .   for   both
                         /usr/bin/find and /usr/xpg4/bin/find.


       -inum n           True if the file has inode number n.


       -links n          True if the file has n links.


       -local            True if the file system type is  not  a  remote  file
                         system  type as defined in the /etc/dfs/fstypes file.
                         nfs is used as the default remote filesystem type  if
                         the  /etc/dfs/fstypes file is not present. The -local
                         option descends the hierarchy of  non-local  directo‐
                         ries.  See  EXAMPLES  for an example of how to search
                         for local files without descending.


       -ls               Always true. Prints current  pathname  together  with
                         its  associated  statistics.  These  include (respec‐
                         tively):

                             o      inode number

                             o      size in kilobytes (1024 bytes)

                             o      protection mode

                             o      number of hard links

                             o      user

                             o      group

                             o      size in bytes

                             o      modification time.
                         If the file is a special file, the size field instead
                         contains the major and minor device numbers.

                         If  the  file is a symbolic link, the pathname of the
                         linked-to file is printed preceded by `→'. The format
                         is identical to that of ls -gilds (see ls(1B)).

                         Formatting  is done internally, without executing the
                         ls program.


       -mmin n           File's data was last modified n minutes ago.


       -mount            Always true. Restricts the search to the file  system
                         containing  the  directory  specified.  Does not list
                         mount points to other file systems.


       -mtime n          True if the file's data was modified n days ago.


       -name pattern     True if pattern matches the basename of  the  current
                         file  name. Normal shell file name generation charac‐
                         ters (see sh(1)) can be used. A backslash (\) is used
                         as  an  escape character within the pattern. The pat‐
                         tern should be escaped or quoted when find is invoked
                         from the shell.

                         Unless  the  character '.' is explicitly specified in
                         the beginning of pattern, a current file name  begin‐
                         ning  with  '.'  does  not  match  pattern when using
                         /usr/bin/find. /usr/xpg4/bin/find does not make  this
                         distinction; wildcard file name generation characters
                         can match file names beginning with '.'.


       -ncpio device     Always true. Writes the current  file  on  device  in
                         cpio -c format (5120 byte records).


       -newer file       True  if  the  current  file  has  been modified more
                         recently than the argument file.


       -nogroup          True if the file  belongs  to  a  group  not  in  the
                         group(4) database.


       -nouser           True  if  the  file  belongs  to  a  user  not in the
                         passwd(4) database.


       -ok command       Like -exec, except that the generated command line is
                         printed  with  a question mark first, and is executed
                         only if the response is affirmative.


       -perm [-]mode     The mode argument is  used  to  represent  file  mode
                         bits.  It is identical in format to the symbolic mode
                         operand, symbolic_mode_list, described  in  chmod(1),
                         and  is  interpreted as follows. To start, a template
                         is assumed with all file mode  bits  cleared.  An  op
                         symbol of:

                         +       Set the appropriate mode bits in the template


                         −       Clear the appropriate bits


                         =       Set the appropriate mode bits, without regard
                                 to the contents of  the  file  mode  creation
                                 mask of the process

                         The  op  symbol of − cannot be the first character of
                         mode, to avoid ambiguity with  the  optional  leading
                         hyphen. Since the initial mode is all bits off, there
                         are no symbolic modes that need to use − as the first
                         character.

                         If  the  hyphen  is omitted, the primary evaluates as
                         true when the file permission bits exactly match  the
                         value of the resulting template.

                         Otherwise,  if mode is prefixed by a hyphen, the pri‐
                         mary evaluates as true if at least all  the  bits  in
                         the resulting template are set in the file permission
                         bits.


       -perm [-]onum     True if the file permission flags exactly  match  the
                         octal number onum (see chmod(1)). If onum is prefixed
                         by a minus sign (−), only the bits that  are  set  in
                         onum are compared with the file permission flags, and
                         the expression evaluates true if they match.


       -print            Always  true.  Causes  the  current  pathname  to  be
                         printed.


       -print0           Always  true.  Causes  the  current  pathname  to  be
                         printed followed by a null character, rather than the
                         NEWLINE character that -printuses.

                         This allows file names that contain NEWLINEs or other
                         types of white space to be correctly  interpreted  by
                         programs  that  process the find output.  This option
                         corresponds to the -0 option of cpio and xargs.


       -prune            Always yields true. Does not examine any  directories
                         or files in the directory structure below the pattern
                         just matched. (See EXAMPLES). If -depth is specified,
                         -prune has no effect.


       -size n[c]        True  if  the  file  is  n blocks long (512 bytes per
                         block). If n is followed by  a  c,  the  size  is  in
                         bytes.


       -type c           True  if  the type of the file is c, where c is b, c,
                         d, D, f, l, p, or s for block special file, character
                         special  file,  directory, door, plain file, symbolic
                         link, fifo (named pipe), or socket, respectively.


       -user uname       True if the file belongs to the user uname. If  uname
                         is numeric and does not appear as a login name in the
                         passwd(4) database, it is taken as a user ID.


       -xdev             Same as the -mount primary.


       -xattr            True if the file has extended attributes.


   Complex Expressions
       The primaries can be combined using the following operators  (in  order
       of decreasing precedence):

       1)(expression)

           True  if the parenthesized expression is true (parentheses are spe‐
           cial to the shell and must be escaped).


       2)!expression

           The negation of a primary (! is the unary not operator).


       3) expression[-a] expression

           Concatenation of primaries (the and operation  is  implied  by  the
           juxtaposition of two primaries).


       4) expression-oexpression

           Alternation of primaries (-o is the or operator).



       When  you  use  find in conjunction with cpio, if you use the -L option
       with cpio, you must use the -L option or  the  -follow  primitive  with
       find and vice versa. Otherwise the results are unspecified.


       If  no  expression is present, -print is used as the expression. Other‐
       wise, if the specified expression does not contain any of the primaries
       -exec,  -ok,  -ls,  or  -print, the specified expression is effectively
       replaced by:


       (specified) -print


       The -user, -group, and -newer primaries each evaluate their  respective
       arguments  only  once.  Invocation of command specified by -exec or -ok
       does not affect subsequent primaries on the same file.

USAGE
       See largefile(5) for the description  of  the  behavior  of  find  when
       encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (2^31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Writing Out the Hierarchy Directory


       The following commands are equivalent:


         example% find .
         example% find . -print




       They  both  write  out  the entire directory hierarchy from the current
       directory.


       Example 2 Removing Files


       The following comand removes all files in  your  home  directory  named
       a.out or *.o that have not been accessed for a week:


         example% find $HOME \( -name a.out -o -name '*.o' \) \
                -atime +7 -exec rm {} \;



       Example 3 Printing All File Names But Skipping SCCS Directories


       The  following  command recursively print all file names in the current
       directory and below, but skipping SCCS directories:


         example% find . -name SCCS -prune -o -print



       Example 4 Printing all file names and the SCCS directory name


       Recursively print all file names in the current  directory  and  below,
       skipping  the  contents  of SCCS directories, but printing out the SCCS
       directory name:


         example% find . -print -name SCCS -prune



       Example 5 Testing for the Newer File


       The following command is basically equivalent to the -nt  extension  to
       test(1):


         example$ if [ -n "$(find
         file1 -prune -newer file2)" ]; then

         printf %s\\n "file1 is newer than file2"



       Example 6 Selecting a File Using 24-hour Mode


       The  descriptions  of  -atime, -ctime, and -mtime use the terminology n
       ``24-hour periods''. For example, a file accessed at 23:59 is  selected
       by:


         example% find . -atime -1 -print




       at  00:01 the next day (less than 24 hours later, not more than one day
       ago). The midnight boundary between days has no effect on  the  24-hour
       calculation.


       Example 7 Printing Files Matching a User's Permission Mode


       The following command recursively print all file names whose permission
       mode exactly matches read, write, and execute access for user, and read
       and execute access for group and other:


         example% find . -perm u=rwx,g=rx,o=rx




       The above could alternatively be specified as follows:


         example% find . -perm a=rwx,g-w,o-w



       Example 8 Printing Files with Write Access for other


       The following command recursively print all file names whose permission
       includes, but is not limited to, write access for other:


         example% find . -perm -o+w



       Example 9 Printing Local Files without Descending Non-local Directories

         example% find . ! -local -prune -o -print



       Example 10 Printing the Files in the  Name  Space  Possessing  Extended
       Attributes

         example% find . -xattr



       Example 11 Printing all PDF Filenames Regardless of Case


       The  following  example finds all file names with an extension of .pdf,
       .PDF, .Pdf, and so forth.


         example% find . -iname '*.pdf'



ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect the execution of find: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE,
       LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

       PATH    Determine the location of the utility_name for  the  -exec  and
               -ok primaries.



       Affirmative  responses are processed using the extended regular expres‐
       sion defined for the yesexpr keyword in the LC_MESSAGES category of the
       user's  locale. The locale specified in the LC_COLLATE category defines
       the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and  multi-character  col‐
       lating  elements used in the expression defined for yesexpr. The locale
       specified in LC_CTYPE  determines  the  locale  for  interpretation  of
       sequences of bytes of text data a characters, the behavior of character
       classes used in the expression defined for the yesexpr. See locale(5).

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     All path operands were traversed successfully.


       >0    An error occurred.


FILES
       /etc/passwd         Password file


       /etc/group          Group file


       /etc/dfs/fstypes    File that registers distributed file  system  pack‐
                           ages


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:




       tab()   box;   cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)  |lw(2.75i)  ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE  _  Availabilitysystem/core-os  _  CSIEnabled  _
       Interface StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee standards(5).


SEE ALSO
       chmod(1),  cpio(1),  sh(1), test(1), ls(1B), acl(2), stat(2), umask(2),
       group(4),  passwd(4),  attributes(5),  environ(5),  fsattr(5),   large‐
       file(5), locale(5), standards(5)

WARNINGS
       The  following options are obsolete and will not be supported in future
       releases:

       -cpio device     Always true. Writes the current file on device in cpio
                        format (5120-byte records).


       -ncpio device    Always true. Writes the current file on device in cpio
                        -c format (5120-byte records).


NOTES
       When using find to determine files modified within a range of time, use
       the  -mtime  argument before the -print argument. Otherwise, find gives
       all files.


       Some files that might be under the Solaris root file system  are  actu‐
       ally  mount  points  for virtual file systems, such as mntfs or namefs.
       When comparing against a ufs file system, such files are  not  selected
       if -mount or -xdev is specified in the find expression.


       Using  the  -L  or  -follow option is not recommended when descending a
       file-system hierarchy that is under the control of other users. In par‐
       ticular, when using -exec, symbolic links can lead the find command out
       of the hierarchy in which it started. Using -type is not sufficient  to
       restrict the type of files on which the -exec command operates, because
       there is an inherent race condition between the type-check performed by
       the find command and the time the executed command operates on the file
       argument.



SunOS 5.11                        5 Mar 2012                           find(1)
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