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file(1)                          User Commands                         file(1)

       file - determine file type

       /usr/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] [-f ffile] file...

       /usr/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] -f ffile

       /usr/bin/file -i [-h] [-f ffile] file...

       /usr/bin/file -i [-h] -f ffile

       /usr/bin/file -c [-d] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] [-f ffile] file...

       /usr/xpg4/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] -f ffile

       /usr/xpg4/bin/file -i [-h] [-f ffile] file...

       /usr/xpg4/bin/file -i [-h] -f ffile

       /usr/xpg4/bin/file -c [-d] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile]

       The  file  utility  performs a series of tests on each file supplied by
       file and, optionally, on each file listed in ffile  in  an  attempt  to
       classify  it. If the file is not a regular file, its file type is iden‐
       tified. The file types directory, FIFO, block  special,  and  character
       special  are  identified as such. If the file is a regular file and the
       file is zero-length, it is identified as an empty file.

       If file appears to be a text file, file examines the  first  512  bytes
       and  tries to determine its programming language. If file is a symbolic
       link, by default the link is followed and file tests the file to  which
       the symbolic link refers.

       If  file  is  a  relocatable object, executable, or shared object, file
       prints out information about the file's  execution  requirements.  This
       information  includes  the machine class, byte-ordering, static/dynamic
       linkage, and any software or hardware capability requirements. If  file
       is  a runtime linking configuration file, file prints information about
       the target platform, including the machine class and byte-ordering.

       By  default,  file  will  try  to  use   the   localized   magic   file
       /usr/lib/locale/locale/LC_MESSAGES/magic,  if  it  exists,  to identify
       files that have a magic number. For example, in  the  Japanese  locale,
       file  will try to use /usr/lib/locale/ja/LC_MESSAGES/magic. If a local‐
       ized magic file does not exist, file will utilize /etc/magic.  A  magic
       number  is  a  numeric or string constant that indicates the file type.
       See magic(4) for an explanation of the format of /etc/magic.

       If file does not exist, cannot be read, or its file status could not be
       determined, it is not considered an error that affects the exit status.
       The output will indicate that the file was processed, but that its type
       could not be determined.

       The following options are supported:

       -c          Checks  the  magic  file  for format errors. For reasons of
                   efficiency, this validation is normally not carried out.

       -d          Applies  any   position-sensitive   and   context-sensitive
                   default system tests to the file.

       -f ffile    ffile contains a list of the files to be examined.

       -h          When a symbolic link is encountered, this option identifies
                   the file as a symbolic link. If -h  is  not  specified  and
                   file is a symbolic link that refers to a non-existent file,
                   the file utility identifies the file as a symbolic link, as
                   if -h had been specified.

       -i          If  a  file is a regular file, this option does not attempt
                   to classify the type of file further,  but  identifies  the
                   file as a "regular file".

       -m mfile
                   /usr/bin/file         Uses  mfile  as  an  alternate  magic
                                         file, instead of /etc/magic.

                   /usr/xpg4/bin/file    Specifies the name of a file contain‐
                                         ing position-sensitive tests that are
                                         applied to a file in order  to  clas‐
                                         sify  it  (see  magic(4)).  If the -m
                                         option is specified without  specify‐
                                         ing  the  -d option or the -M option,
                                         position-sensitive   default   system
                                         tests are applied after the position-
                                         sensitive tests specified by  the  -m

       -M Mfile    Specifies  the name of a file containing position-sensitive
                   tests that are applied to a file in order  to  classify  it
                   (see  magic(4)). No position-sensitive default system tests
                   nor context-sensitive  default  system  tests  are  applied
                   unless the -d option is also specified.

       If  the  -M  option  is specified with the -d option, the -m option, or
       both, or if the -m option is specified with the -d option, the concate‐
       nation  of  the  position-sensitive tests specified by these options is
       applied in the order specified by the appearance of these options.

       The following operands are supported:

       file    A path name of a file to be tested.

       See largefile(5) for the description  of  the  behavior  of  file  when
       encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

       Example 1 Determining if an Argument is a Binary Executable Files

       The  following  example determine if an argument is a binary executable

         file "$1" | grep −Fq executable &&
                   printf "%s is executable.\n" "$1"

       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that affect the execution of file: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.

       /etc/magic    file's magic number file

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()  box;  cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)   |lw(2.75i)   ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  _  Availabilitysystem/core-os  _  CSIEnabled _
       Interface StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee standards(5).

       crle(1), elfdump(1), elffile(1), ls(1), magic(4), attributes(5),  envi‐
       ron(5), largefile(5), standards(5)

       The  file  utility cannot examine archive members unless they are first
       extracted from the archive into a separate file.  The  elffile  utility
       can  examine  archive members in place, and is recommended for use with
       ELF objects and archives.

SunOS 5.11                        8 Dec 2010                           file(1)
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