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csh(1)                           User Commands                          csh(1)

       csh - shell command interpreter with a C-like syntax

       csh [-bcefinstvVxX] [argument]...

       csh, the C shell, is a command interpreter with a syntax reminiscent of
       the C language. It provides a number of convenient features for  inter‐
       active  use  that  are  not  available with the Bourne shell, including
       filename completion, command aliasing, history substitution,  job  con‐
       trol,  and a number of built-in commands. As with the Bourne shell, the
       C shell provides variable, command and filename substitution.

   Initialization and Termination
       When first started, the C shell normally  performs  commands  from  the
       .cshrc  file  in  your home directory, provided that it is readable and
       you either own it or your real group ID matches its group  ID.  If  the
       shell  is  invoked with a name that starts with `−', as when started by
       login(1), the shell runs as a login shell.

       If the shell is a login shell, this is  the  sequence  of  invocations:
       First,  commands  in  /etc/.login are executed. Next, commands from the
       .cshrc file your home directory are executed. Then the  shell  executes
       commands  from the .login file in your home directory; the same permis‐
       sion checks as those for .cshrc are applied to  this  file.  Typically,
       the  .login  file  contains  commands  to specify the terminal type and
       environment. (For an explanation of file interpreters, see Command Exe‐
       cution and exec(2).)

       As a login shell terminates, it performs commands from the .logout file
       in your home directory; the same permission checks as those for  .cshrc
       are applied to this file.

   Interactive Operation
       After  startup  processing  is  complete, an interactive C shell begins
       reading commands from the terminal, prompting with hostname% (or  host‐
       name#  for the privileged user). The shell then repeatedly performs the
       following actions: a line of command input  is  read  and  broken  into
       words.  This  sequence  of words is placed on the history list and then
       parsed, as described under USAGE. Finally, the shell executes each com‐
       mand in the current line.

   Noninteractive Operation
       When running noninteractively, the shell does not prompt for input from
       the terminal. A noninteractive C shell can execute a  command  supplied
       as  an argument on its command line, or interpret commands from a file,
       also known as a script.

       The following options are supported:

       -b    Forced a "break" from option processing. Subsequent command  line
             arguments are not interpreted as C shell options. This allows the
             passing of options to a script without confusion. The shell  does
             not run set-user-ID or set-group-ID scripts unless this option is

       -c    Executes the first argument, which  must  be  present.  Remaining
             arguments  are  placed  in  argv, the argument-list variable, and
             passed directly to csh.

       -e    Exits if a command terminates abnormally or yields a nonzero exit

       -f    Fast  start.  Reads  neither the .cshrc file, nor the .login file
             (if a login shell) upon startup.

       -i    Forced interactive. Prompts for command line input, even  if  the
             standard  input  does not appear to be a terminal (character-spe‐
             cial device).

       -n    Parses (interprets), but does not execute commands.  This  option
             can be used to check C shell scripts for syntax errors.

       -s    Takes commands from the standard input.

       -t    Reads  and  executes a single command line. A `\' (backslash) can
             be used to escape each newline for continuation  of  the  command
             line onto subsequent input lines.

       -v    Verbose.  Sets  the verbose predefined variable. Command input is
             echoed after history substitution, but before other substitutions
             and before execution.

       -V    Sets verbose before reading .cshrc.

       -x    Echo. Sets the echo variable. Echoes commands after all substitu‐
             tions and just before execution.

       -X    Sets echo before reading .cshrc.

       Except with the options -c, -i, -s, or -t, the first nonoption argument
       is  taken  to be the name of a command or script. It is passed as argu‐
       ment zero, and subsequent arguments are added to the argument list  for
       that command or script.

   Filename Completion
       When  enabled by setting the variable filec, an interactive C shell can
       complete a partially typed filename or user name. When  an  unambiguous
       partial  filename is followed by an ESC character on the terminal input
       line, the shell fills in the remaining characters of a  matching  file‐
       name from the working directory.

       If  a  partial filename is followed by the EOF character (usually typed
       as Control-d), the shell  lists  all  filenames  that  match.  It  then
       prompts  once  again, supplying the incomplete command line typed in so

       When the last (partial)  word  begins  with  a  tilde  (~),  the  shell
       attempts completion with a user name, rather than a file in the working

       The terminal bell signals errors or multiple matches. This bell  signal
       can  be inhibited by setting the variable nobeep. You can exclude files
       with certain suffixes by listing those suffixes in  the  variable  fig‐
       nore.  If,  however,  the only possible completion includes a suffix in
       the list, it is not ignored. fignore does not  affect  the  listing  of
       filenames by the EOF character.

   Lexical Structure
       The  shell  splits  input lines into words at space and tab characters,
       except as noted below. The characters &, |, ;, <, >, (, and ) form sep‐
       arate  words;  if  paired,  the  pairs  form  single words. These shell
       metacharacters can be made part of other words, and their special mean‐
       ing  can be suppressed by preceding them with a `\' (backslash). A new‐
       line preceded by a \ is equivalent to a space character.

       In addition, a string enclosed in matched pairs of  single-quotes  ('),
       double-quotes ("), or backquotes (`), forms a partial word. Metacharac‐
       ters in such a string, including any space or tab  characters,  do  not
       form  separate words. Within pairs of backquote (`) or double-quote (")
       characters, a newline preceded by a `\' (backslash) gives a  true  new‐
       line  character.  Additional  functions  of  each  type  of  quote  are
       described, below, under Variable  Substitution,  Command  Substitution,
       and Filename Substitution.

       When  the shell's input is not a terminal, the character # introduces a
       comment that continues to the end of the input line. Its special  mean‐
       ing is suppressed when preceded by a \ or enclosed in matching quotes.

   Command Line Parsing
       A  simple  command  is  composed of a sequence of words. The first word
       (that is not part of an I/O redirection) specifies the  command  to  be
       executed.  A simple command, or a set of simple commands separated by |
       or |& characters, forms a pipeline. With |, the standard output of  the
       preceding  command  is  redirected to the standard input of the command
       that follows. With |&, both the standard error and the standard  output
       are redirected through the pipeline.

       Pipelines  can  be  separated by semicolons (;), in which case they are
       executed sequentially. Pipelines that are separated by &&  or  ||  form
       conditional  sequences in which the execution of pipelines on the right
       depends upon the success or failure, respectively, of the  pipeline  on
       the left.

       A  pipeline or sequence can be enclosed within parentheses `()' to form
       a simple command that can be a component in a pipeline or sequence.

       A sequence of pipelines can be executed asynchronously or "in the back‐
       ground"  by  appending  an `&'; rather than waiting for the sequence to
       finish before issuing a prompt, the shell displays the job number  (see
       Job Control, below) and associated process IDs and prompts immediately.

   History Substitution
       History  substitution  allows  you  to  use words from previous command
       lines in the command line you are typing. This simplifies spelling cor‐
       rections  and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. Com‐
       mand lines are saved in the history list, the size  of  which  is  con‐
       trolled by the history variable. The most recent command is retained in
       any case. A history substitution begins with  a  !  (although  you  can
       change  this  with  the  histchars variable) and occurs anywhere on the
       command line; history substitutions do not nest. The ! can  be  escaped
       with \ to suppress its special meaning.

       Input lines containing history substitutions are echoed on the terminal
       after being expanded, but before any other substitutions take place  or
       the command gets executed.

   Event Designators
       An  event designator is a reference to a command line entry in the his‐
       tory list.


           Start a history substitution, except when followed by a space char‐
           acter, tab, newline, = or (.


           Refer to the previous command. By itself, this substitution repeats
           the previous command.


           Refer to command line n.


           Refer to the current command line minus n.


           Refer to the most recent command starting with str.


           Refer to the most recent command containing str.

       !?str? additional

           Refer to the most recent command containing str  and  append  addi‐
           tional to that referenced command.

       !{command} additional

           Refer  to the most recent command beginning with command and append
           additional to that referenced command.


           Repeat the previous command line replacing the string previous_word
           with the string replacement. This is equivalent to the history sub‐


           To re-execute a specific previous command AND make such a substitu‐
           tion, say, re-executing command #6,


   Word Designators
       A  `:' (colon) separates the event specification from the word designa‐
       tor. It can be omitted if the word designator begins with a ^, $, *,  −
       or %. If the word is to be selected from the previous command, the sec‐
       ond ! character can  be  omitted  from  the  event  specification.  For
       instance,  !!:1  and  !:1  both refer to the first word of the previous
       command, while !!$ and !$ both refer to the last word in  the  previous
       command. Word designators include:

       #         The entire command line typed so far.

       0         The first input word (command).

       n         The n'th argument.

       ^         The first argument, that is, 1.

       $         The last argument.

       %         The word matched by the ?s search.

       x−y       A range of words; −y abbreviates 0−y.

       *         All  the arguments, or a null value if there is just one word
                 in the event.

       x*        Abbreviates x−$.

       x−        Like x* but omitting word $.

       After the optional word designator, you can add one  of  the  following
       modifiers, preceded by a :.

       h         Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head.

       r         Remove  a  trailing  suffix  of  the form `.xxx', leaving the

       e         Remove all but the suffix, leaving the Extension.

       s/l/r/    Substitute r for l.

       t         Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.

       &         Repeat the previous substitution.

       g         Apply the change to the first occurrence of a match  in  each
                 word, by prefixing the above (for example, g&).

       p         Print the new command but do not execute it.

       q         Quote the substituted words,escaping further substitutions.

       x         Like  q, but break into words at each space character, tab or

       Unless preceded by a g, the modification is applied only to  the  first
       string that matches l; an error results if no string matches.

       The  left-hand  side  of substitutions are not regular expressions, but
       character strings. Any character can be used as the delimiter in  place
       of  /.  A backslash quotes the delimiter character. The character &, in
       the right hand side, is replaced by the text from  the  left-hand-side.
       The & can be quoted with a backslash. A null l uses the previous string
       either from a l or from a contextual scan string s from  !?s.  You  can
       omit  the  rightmost  delimiter if a newline immediately follows r; the
       rightmost ? in a context scan can similarly be omitted.

       Without an event specification, a history reference  refers  either  to
       the previous command, or to a previous history reference on the command
       line (if any).

   Quick Substitution
       ^l^r^    This is equivalent to the history substitution:


       The C shell maintains a list of aliases that you can  create,  display,
       and  modify  using the alias and unalias commands. The shell checks the
       first word in each command to see if it matches the name of an existing
       alias. If it does, the command is reprocessed with the alias definition
       replacing its name; the history substitution mechanism is  made  avail‐
       able  as  though that command were the previous input line. This allows
       history substitutions, escaped with a backslash in the  definition,  to
       be  replaced with actual command line arguments when the alias is used.
       If  no  history  substitution  is  called  for,  the  arguments  remain

       Aliases  can  be  nested.  That is, an alias definition can contain the
       name of another alias. Nested aliases are expanded before  any  history
       substitutions is applied. This is useful in pipelines such as

         alias lm 'ls -l \!* | more'

       which when called, pipes the output of ls(1) through more(1).

       Except  for the first word, the name of the alias can not appear in its
       definition, nor in any alias referred to by its definition. Such  loops
       are detected, and cause an error message.

   I/O Redirection
       The  following  metacharacters indicate that the subsequent word is the
       name of a file to which the command's standard input, standard  output,
       or  standard  error  is redirected; this word is variable, command, and
       filename expanded separately from the rest of the command.

       <              Redirect the standard input.

       <<word         Read the standard input, up to a line that is  identical
                      with  word, and place the resulting lines in a temporary
                      file. Unless word is escaped  or  quoted,  variable  and
                      command  substitutions  are  performed  on  these lines.
                      Then, the pipeline is invoked with the temporary file as
                      its  standard  input. word is not subjected to variable,
                      filename, or command substitution, and each line is com‐
                      pared  to  it  before any substitutions are performed by
                      the shell.

       > >! >& >&!    Redirect the standard output to a file. If the file does
                      not  exist, it is created. If it does exist, it is over‐
                      written; its previous contents are lost.

                      When set, the variable noclobber prevents destruction of
                      existing  files.  It also prevents redirection to termi‐
                      nals and /dev/null, unless one of the ! forms  is  used.
                      The  & forms redirect both standard output and the stan‐
                      dard error (diagnostic output) to the file.

       >> >>& >>! >>&!            Append the  standard  output.  Like  >,  but
                                  places  output at the end of the file rather
                                  than overwriting it. If noclobber is set, it
                                  is  an  error  for  the  file  not to exist,
                                  unless one of the ! forms  is  used.  The  &
                                  forms  append  both  the  standard error and
                                  standard output to the file.

   Variable Substitution
       The C shell maintains a set of variables, each of which is composed  of
       a  name  and a value. A variable name consists of up to 128 letters and
       digits, and starts with a letter. An underscore  (_)  is  considered  a
       letter).  A  variable's value is a space-separated list of zero or more
       words. If the shell supports a variable name upto  128  characters  the
       variable  SUNW_VARLEN is defined. If a variable name of up to 128 char‐
       acters is not supported, then an older version of the  shell  is  being
       used, and the shell variable name length has a maximum length of 20.

       To  refer  to  a variable's value, precede its name with a `$'. Certain
       references (described below) can be used to select specific words  from
       the  value,  or to display other information about the variable. Braces
       can be used to insulate the  reference  from  other  characters  in  an
       input-line word.

       Variable  substitution  takes  place  after the input line is analyzed,
       aliases are resolved, and I/O redirections are applied.  Exceptions  to
       this  are  variable  references in I/O redirections (substituted at the
       time the redirection is made), and backquoted strings (see Command Sub‐

       Variable  substitution  can  be suppressed by preceding the $ with a \,
       except within double-quotes where it always occurs. Variable  substitu‐
       tion  is suppressed inside of single-quotes. A $ is escaped if followed
       by a space character, tab or newline.

       Variables can be created, displayed, or destroyed  using  the  set  and
       unset commands. Some variables are maintained or used by the shell. For
       instance, the argv variable contains an image of the  shell's  argument
       list.  Of  the  variables  used by the shell, a number are toggles; the
       shell does not care what their value is, only whether they are  set  or

       Numerical  values can be operated on as numbers (as with the @ built-in
       command). With numeric operations, an empty value is considered  to  be
       zero.  The second and subsequent words of multiword values are ignored.
       For instance, when the verbose variable is set to any value  (including
       an empty value), command input is echoed on the terminal.

       Command  and filename substitution is subsequently applied to the words
       that result from the variable substitution, except when  suppressed  by
       double-quotes,  when noglob is set (suppressing filename substitution),
       or when the reference is quoted with the :q  modifier.  Within  double-
       quotes, a reference is expanded to form (a portion of) a quoted string;
       multiword values are expanded to a string with embedded  space  charac‐
       ters.  When the :q modifier is applied to the reference, it is expanded
       to a list of space-separated words, each of which is quoted to  prevent
       subsequent command or filename substitutions.

       Except  as  noted  below, it is an error to refer to a variable that is
       not set.

       $var             These are replaced by words from  the  value  of  var,
       ${var}           each  separated  by  a  space  character. If var is an
                        environment variable, its value is returned  (but  `:'
                        modifiers  and  the  other  forms  given below are not

       $var[index]      These select only the indicated words from  the  value
       ${var[index]}    of  var.  Variable  substitution  is applied to index,
                        which can consist of (or result in)  a  either  single
                        number,  two  numbers separated by a `−', or an aster‐
                        isk. Words are indexed starting from 1; a `*'  selects
                        all  words.  If the first number of a range is omitted
                        (as with $argv[−2]), it defaults to  1.  If  the  last
                        number  of  a range is omitted (as with $argv[1−]), it
                        defaults to $#var (the word count). It is not an error
                        for  a  range  to  be  empty if the second argument is
                        omitted (or within range).

       $#name           These give the number of words in the variable.

       $0               This substitutes the name of the file from which  com‐
                        mand  input  is  being  read  except  for setuid shell
                        scripts. An error occurs if the name is not known.

       $n               Equivalent to $argv[n].

       $*               Equivalent to $argv[*].

       The modifiers :e, :h, :q, :r, :t, and :x can be  applied  (see  History
       Substitution),  as can :gh, :gt, and :gr. If {} (braces) are used, then
       the modifiers must appear within the braces. The current implementation
       allows only one such modifier per expansion.

       The following references can not be modified with : modifiers.

       $?var      Substitutes  the  string  1  if var is set or 0 if it is not
       ${?var}    set.

       $?0        Substitutes 1 if the current input filename is known or 0 if
                  it is not.

       $$         Substitutes the process number of the (parent) shell.

       $<         Substitutes  a line from the standard input, with no further
                  interpretation thereafter. It can be used to read  from  the
                  keyboard in a C shell script.

   Command and Filename Substitutions
       Command and filename substitutions are applied selectively to the argu‐
       ments of built-in commands. Portions of expressions that are not evalu‐
       ated are not expanded. For non-built-in commands, filename expansion of
       the command name is done separately from that  of  the  argument  list;
       expansion occurs in a subshell, after I/O redirection is performed.

   Command Substitution
       A  command  enclosed  by backquotes (`...`) is performed by a subshell.
       Its standard output is broken into separate words at each space charac‐
       ter,  tab and newline; null words are discarded. This text replaces the
       backquoted string on the current command  line.  Within  double-quotes,
       only  newline  characters force new words; space and tab characters are
       preserved. However, a final newline is ignored. It is therefore  possi‐
       ble for a command substitution to yield a partial word.

   Filename Substitution
       Unquoted  words  containing any of the characters *, ?, [ or {, or that
       begin with ~, are expanded (also known as globbing)  to  an  alphabeti‐
       cally sorted list of filenames, as follows:

       *                       Match any (zero or more) characters.

       ?                       Match any single character.

       [...]                   Match  any  single  character  in  the enclosed
                               list(s) or range(s). A  list  is  a  string  of
                               characters. A range is two characters separated
                               by a dash (−), and includes all the  characters
                               in between in the ASCII collating sequence (see

       {str, str, ... }        Expand to  each  string  (or  filename-matching
                               pattern)  in  the  comma-separated list. Unlike
                               the  pattern-matching  expressions  above,  the
                               expansion  of this construct is not sorted. For
                               instance, {b,a} expands to `b'  `a',  (not  `a'
                               `b'). As special cases, the characters { and },
                               along with the string  {},  are  passed  undis‐

       ~[user]                 Your  home directory, as indicated by the value
                               of the variable home, or that of user, as indi‐
                               cated by the password entry for user.

       Only  the  patterns  *,  ?  and  [...] imply pattern matching; an error
       results if no filename matches a pattern that contains  them.  The  `.'
       (dot  character), when it is the first character in a filename or path‐
       name component, must be matched explicitly. The / (slash) must also  be
       matched explicitly.

   Expressions and Operators
       A  number of C shell built-in commands accept expressions, in which the
       operators are similar to those of C and have the same precedence. These
       expressions  typically  appear  in  the @, exit, if, set and while com‐
       mands, and are often used to regulate the flow of control for executing
       commands. Components of an expression are separated by white space.

       Null  or missing values are considered 0. The result of all expressions
       is a string, which can represent decimal numbers.

       The following C shell operators are grouped in order of precedence:

       (...)              grouping

       >~                 one's complement

       !                  logical negation

       * / %              multiplication, division, remainder. These are right
                          associative,  which  can lead to unexpected results.
                          Combinations  should  be  grouped  explicitly   with

       + −                addition, subtraction (also right associative)

       << >>              bitwise shift left, bitwise shift right

       < > <= >=          less  than,  greater  than,  less  than or equal to,
                          greater than or equal to

       == != =~ !~        equal to, not equal to,  filename-substitution  pat‐
                          tern  match (described below), filename-substitution
                          pattern mismatch

       &                  bitwise AND

       ^                  bitwise XOR (exclusive or)

       |                  bitwise inclusive OR

       &&                 logical AND

       ||                 logical OR

       The operators: ==, !=, =~, and !~ compare their arguments  as  strings;
       other operators use numbers. The operators =~ and !~ each check whether
       or not a string to the left matches a filename substitution pattern  on
       the  right.  This  reduces the need for switch statements when pattern-
       matching between strings is all that is required.

       Also available are file inquiries:

       -rfilename     Return true, or 1 if the user has read access. Otherwise
                      it returns false, or 0.

       -wfilename     True if the user has write access.

       -xfilename     True  if the user has execute permission (or search per‐
                      mission on a directory).

       -efilename     True if filename exists.

       -ofilename     True if the user owns filename.

       -z filename    True if filename is of zero length (empty).

       -ffilename     True if filename is a plain file.

       -dfilename     True if filename is a directory.

       If filename does not exist  or  is  inaccessible,  then  all  inquiries
       return false.

       An inquiry as to the success of a command is also available:

       { command}    If command runs successfully, the expression evaluates to
                     true, 1. Otherwise, it evaluates to false, 0. Note:  Con‐
                     versely,  command itself typically returns 0 when it runs
                     successfully, or some other  value  if  it  encounters  a
                     problem.  If  you want to get at the status directly, use
                     the value of the status variable rather than this expres‐

   Control Flow
       The shell contains a number of commands to regulate the flow of control
       in scripts and within limits, from the terminal. These commands operate
       by forcing the shell either to reread input (to loop), or to skip input
       under certain conditions (to branch).

       Each occurrence of a foreach, switch, while, if...then and else  built-
       in command must appear as the first word on its own input line.

       If  the  shell's  input  is not seekable and a loop is being read, that
       input is buffered. The shell performs seeks within the internal  buffer
       to  accomplish  the  rereading implied by the loop. (To the extent that
       this allows, backward goto commands succeeds on nonseekable inputs.)

   Command Execution
       If the command is a C shell built-in command,  the  shell  executes  it
       directly.  Otherwise,  the  shell searches for a file by that name with
       execute access. If the command name contains a /, the shell takes it as
       a pathname, and searches for it. If the command name does not contain a
       /, the shell attempts to resolve  it  to  a  pathname,  searching  each
       directory  in  the  path variable for the command. To speed the search,
       the shell uses its hash table (see  the  rehash  built-in  command)  to
       eliminate  directories  that have no applicable files. This hashing can
       be disabled with the -c or -t, options, or the unhash built-in command.

       As a special case, if there is no / in the name of the script and there
       is  an  alias  for  the word shell, the expansion of the shell alias is
       prepended (without  modification)  to  the  command  line.  The  system
       attempts  to  execute  the  first word of this special (late-occurring)
       alias, which should be a full pathname. Remaining words of the  alias's
       definition, along with the text of the input line, are treated as argu‐

       When a pathname is found that has proper execute permissions, the shell
       forks  a  new  process  and passes it, along with its arguments, to the
       kernel using the execve() system call (see exec(2)).  The  kernel  then
       attempts  to  overlay  the new process with the desired program. If the
       file is an executable binary (in a.out(4) format) the  kernel  succeeds
       and  begins  executing  the new process. If the file is a text file and
       the first line begins with #!, the next word is taken to be  the  path‐
       name of a shell (or command) to interpret that script. Subsequent words
       on the first line are taken as  options  for  that  shell.  The  kernel
       invokes (overlays) the indicated shell, using the name of the script as
       an argument.

       If neither of the above conditions holds, the kernel cannot overlay the
       file  and  the  execve()  call  fails  (see  exec(2)). The C shell then
       attempts to execute the file by spawning a new shell, as follows:

           o      If the first character of the file is a  #,  a  C  shell  is

           o      Otherwise, a Bourne shell is invoked.

   Signal Handling
       The  shell normally ignores QUIT signals. Background jobs are immune to
       signals generated from the keyboard,  including  hangups  (HUP).  Other
       signals  have  the  values that the C shell inherited from its environ‐
       ment. The shell's handling of interrupt and  terminate  signals  within
       scripts  can be controlled by the onintr built-in command. Login shells
       catch the TERM signal. Otherwise, this signal is  passed  on  to  child
       processes.  In  no  case  are  interrupts allowed when a login shell is
       reading the .logout file.

   Job Control
       The shell associates a numbered job with each command sequence to  keep
       track of those commands that are running in the background or have been
       stopped with TSTP signals (typically Control-z). When a command or com‐
       mand  sequence  (semicolon separated list) is started in the background
       using the & metacharacter, the shell displays a line with the job  num‐
       ber in brackets and a list of associated process numbers:

         [1] 1234

       To see the current list of jobs, use the jobs built-in command. The job
       most recently stopped (or put into the background if none are  stopped)
       is referred to as the current job and is indicated with a `+'. The pre‐
       vious job is indicated with a `−'. When the current job  is  terminated
       or  moved  to the foreground, this job takes its place (becomes the new
       current job).

       To manipulate jobs, refer to the bg, fg, kill,  stop,  and  %  built-in

       A  reference  to  a  job begins with a `%'. By itself, the percent-sign
       refers to the current job.

       % %+ %%     The current job.

       %−          The previous job.

       %j          Refer to job j as in: `kill -9 %j'. j can be a job  number,
                   or  a  string  that  uniquely specifies the command line by
                   which it was started; `fg %vi' might bring a stopped vi job
                   to the foreground, for instance.

       %?string    Specify  the  job  for which the command line uniquely con‐
                   tains string.

       A job running in the background stops when it attempts to read from the
       terminal.  Background jobs can normally produce output, but this can be
       suppressed using the `stty tostop' command.

   Status Reporting
       While running interactively, the shell tracks the status  of  each  job
       and  reports  whenever the job finishes or becomes blocked. It normally
       displays a message to this effect as it issues a prompt,  in  order  to
       avoid  disturbing  the  appearance  of your input. When set, the notify
       variable indicates that the shell is to report status  changes  immedi‐
       ately.  By default, the notify command marks the current process; after
       starting a background job, type notify to mark it.

       Built-in commands are executed within the C shell. If a  built-in  com‐
       mand  occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last, it is exe‐
       cuted in a subshell.

       :                         Null command. This  command  is  interpreted,
                                 but performs no action.

       alias [ name [ def ] ]    Assign  def  to the alias name. def is a list
                                 of words that can  contain  escaped  history-
                                 substitution  metasyntax. name is not allowed
                                 to be alias or unalias. If  def  is  omitted,
                                 the  current definition for the alias name is
                                 displayed. If both name and def are  omitted,
                                 all  aliases are displayed with their defini‐

       bg [ %job ... ]           Run the current  or  specified  jobs  in  the

       break                     Resume execution after the end of the nearest
                                 enclosing foreach or while loop. The  remain‐
                                 ing  commands  on  the  current line are exe‐
                                 cuted. This allows multilevel  breaks  to  be
                                 written  as  a list of break commands, all on
                                 one line.

       breaksw                   Break  from  a  switch,  resuming  after  the

       case label:               A label in a switch statement.

       cd [dir ]                 Change   the  shell's  working  directory  to
       chdir [dir ]              directory  dir.  If  no  argument  is  given,
                                 change  to the home directory of the user. If
                                 dir is a relative pathname not found  in  the
                                 current  directory,  check  for  it  in those
                                 directories listed in the cdpath variable. If
                                 dir  is  the  name  of a shell variable whose
                                 value starts with a /, change to  the  direc‐
                                 tory named by that value.

       continue                  Continue  execution  of the next iteration of
                                 the nearest enclosing while or foreach loop.

       default:                  Labels the default case in  a  switch  state‐
                                 ment.  The default should come after all case
                                 labels. Any remaining commands on the command
                                 line are first executed.

       dirs [-l]                 Print the directory stack, most recent to the
                                 left. The first directory shown is  the  cur‐
                                 rent directory. With the -l argument, produce
                                 an unabbreviated printout; use of the ~ nota‐
                                 tion is suppressed.

       echo [-n] list            The  words in list are written to the shell's
                                 standard output, separated by  space  charac‐
                                 ters. The output is terminated with a newline
                                 unless  the  -n  option  is  used.  csh,   by
                                 default,  invokes  its built-in echo, if echo
                                 is called without the full pathname of a Unix
                                 command,  regardless  of the configuration of
                                 your PATH (see echo(1)).

       eval argument...          Reads the arguments as input to the shell and
                                 executes  the  resulting  command(s). This is
                                 usually used to execute commands generated as
                                 the  result  of command or variable substitu‐
                                 tion. See tset(1B) for an example of  how  to
                                 use eval.

       exec command              Execute  command  in  place  of  the  current
                                 shell, which terminates.

       exit [(expr)]             The calling  shell  or  shell  script  exits,
                                 either  with the value of the status variable
                                 or with the value specified by the expression

       fg [%job ]                Bring  the  current or specified job into the

       foreach var(wordlist)     The variable var is successively set to  each
       ...                       member  of wordlist. The sequence of commands
       end                       between this command and the matching end  is
                                 executed  for  each  new  value  of var. Both
                                 foreach and end must appear alone on separate

                                 The  built-in command continue can be used to
                                 terminate the execution of the current itera‐
                                 tion  of  the  loop  and the built-in command
                                 break can be used to terminate  execution  of
                                 the  foreach  command.  When  this command is
                                 read from the terminal, the loop is read once
                                 prompting with ? before any statements in the
                                 loop are executed.

       glob wordlist

           Perform filename expansion on wordlist. Like echo, but no \ escapes
           are  recognized. Words are delimited by NULL characters in the out‐


           The specified label is a filename and a command expanded to yield a
           label. The shell rewinds its input as much as possible and searches
           for a line of the form label: possibly preceded  by  space  or  tab
           characters.  Execution continues after the indicated line. It is an
           error to jump to a label that occurs between a while or for  built-
           in command and its corresponding end.


           Print  a statistics line indicating how effective the internal hash
           table for the path variable has  been  at  locating  commands  (and
           avoiding  execs).  An  exec  is attempted for each component of the
           path where the hash function indicates a possible hit and  in  each
           component  that  does  not  begin with a `/'. These statistics only
           reflect the effectiveness of the  path  variable,  not  the  cdpath

       history [-hr] [n]

           Display  the  history  list; if n is given, display only the n most
           recent events.

           -r    Reverse the order of printout to be most recent first  rather
                 than oldest first.

           -h    Display  the  history  list  without leading numbers. This is
                 used to produce files suitable  for  sourcing  using  the  -h
                 option to source.

       if (expr )command

           If  the  specified expression evaluates to true, the single command
           with arguments is executed. Variable substitution on  command  hap‐
           pens  early,  at  the same time it does for the rest of the if com‐
           mand. command must be a simple command, not a pipeline,  a  command
           list, or a parenthesized command list. Note: I/O redirection occurs
           even if expr is false, when command is  not  executed  (this  is  a

       if (expr) then
       else if (expr2) then

           If expr is true, commands up to the first else are executed. Other‐
           wise, if expr2 is true, the commands between the else  if  and  the
           second  else are executed. Otherwise, commands between the else and
           the endif are executed. Any number of else if  pairs  are  allowed,
           but  only  one  else. Only one endif is needed, but it is required.
           The words else and endif must be the first nonwhite characters on a
           line. The if must appear alone on its input line or after an else.

       jobs [-l]

           List the active jobs under job control.

           -l    List process IDs, in addition to the normal information.

       kill [sig ] [ pid ] [ %job ] ...
       kill -l

           Send  the TERM (terminate) signal, by default, or the signal speci‐
           fied, to the specified process ID, the job indicated, or  the  cur‐
           rent  job.  Signals are either given by number or by name. There is
           no default. Typing kill does not send a signal to the current  job.
           If  the signal being sent is TERM (terminate) or HUP (hangup), then
           the job or process is sent a CONT (continue) signal as well.

           -l    List the signal names that can be sent.

       limit [-h] [resource [max-use ] ]

           Limit the consumption by the current  process  or  any  process  it
           spawns,  each  not to exceed max-use on the specified resource. The
           string unlimited requests  that  the  current  limit,  if  any,  be
           removed.  If  max-use  is  omitted,  print  the  current  limit. If
           resource is omitted, display all limits. Run the sysdef(1M) command
           to  obtain  the maximum possible limits for your system. The values
           reported by sysdef are in hexadecimal, but can be  translated  into
           decimal numbers using the bc(1) command.

           -h    Use  hard  limits  instead of the current limits. Hard limits
                 impose a ceiling on the values of the  current  limits.  Only
                 the privileged user can raise the hard limits.

           resource is one of:

           cputime                Maximum CPU seconds per process.

           filesize               Largest  single file allowed. Limited by the
                                  size and capabilities of the filesystem. See

           datasize (heapsize)    Maximum  data size (including stack) for the
                                  process. This is the size  of  your  virtual
                                  memory See swap(1M).

           stacksize              Maximum  stack  size  for  the  process. The
                                  default stack size is 2^64  bytes.  You  can
                                  use limit(1) to change this default within a

           coredumpsize           Maximum size of a  core  dump  (file).  This
                                  limited to the size of the filesystem.

           descriptors            Maximum number of file descriptors. Run sys‐

           memorysize             Maximum size of virtual memory.

           max-use is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

           nh       Hours (for cputime).

           nk       n kilobytes. This is the default for all but cputime.

           nm       n megabytes or minutes (for cputime).

           mm:ss    Minutes and seconds (for cputime).

           Example of limit: To limit the size  of  a  core  file  dump  to  0
           Megabytes, type the following:

             limit coredumpsize 0M

       login [username| -p ]

           Terminate  a  login  shell and invoke login(1). The .logout file is
           not processed. If username is omitted, login prompts for  the  name
           of a user.

           -p    Preserve the current environment (variables).


           Terminate a login shell.

       nice [+n |-n ] [command ]

           Increment  the  process priority value for the shell or for command
           by n. The higher the priority value, the lower the  priority  of  a
           process,  and the slower it runs. When given, command is always run
           in a subshell, and the restrictions placed on commands in simple if
           commands  apply.  If  command is omitted, nice increments the value
           for the current shell. If no increment is specified, nice sets  the
           process  priority  value to 4. The range of process priority values
           is from −20 to 20. Values of n outside this range set the value  to
           the lower, or to the higher boundary, respectively.

           +n    Increment the process priority value by n.

           -n    Decrement  by n. This argument can be used only by the privi‐
                 leged user.

       nohup [command ]

           Run command with HUPs  ignored.  With  no  arguments,  ignore  HUPs
           throughout the remainder of a script. When given, command is always
           run in a subshell, and the restrictions placed on commands in  sim‐
           ple  if  statements apply. All processes detached with & are effec‐
           tively nohup'd.

       notify [%job] ...

           Notify the user asynchronously when the status of the  current  job
           or specified jobs changes.

       onintr [−| label]

           Control  the  action of the shell on interrupts. With no arguments,
           onintr restores the default action of the shell on interrupts. (The
           shell  terminates shell scripts and returns to the terminal command
           input level). With the − argument, the  shell  ignores  all  inter‐
           rupts.  With a label argument, the shell executes a goto label when
           an interrupt is received or a child process terminates  because  it
           was interrupted.

       popd [+n ]

           Pop  the  directory stack and cd to the new top directory. The ele‐
           ments of the directory stack are numbered from 0  starting  at  the

           +n    Discard the n'th entry in the stack.

       pushd [+n |dir]

           Push  a  directory  onto  the  directory  stack. With no arguments,
           exchange the top two elements.

           +n     Rotate the n'th entry to the top of the stack and cd to it.

           dir    Push the current working directory onto the stack and change
                  to dir.


           Recompute  the  internal  hash table of the contents of directories
           listed in the path variable to  account  for  new  commands  added.
           Recompute  the  internal  hash table of the contents of directories
           listed in the cdpath variable to account for new directories added.

       repeat count command

           Repeat command count times. command is subject to the same restric‐
           tions as with the one-line if statement.

       set [var [= value ] ]
       set var[n] = word

           With  no arguments, set displays the values of all shell variables.
           Multiword values are displayed as a parenthesized  list.  With  the
           var  argument alone, set assigns an empty (null) value to the vari‐
           able var. With arguments of the form var = value set assigns  value
           to var, where value is one of:

           word          A single word (or quoted string).

           (wordlist)    A space-separated list of words enclosed in parenthe‐

           Values are command and filename expanded before being assigned. The
           form  setvar[n]  = word replaces the n'th word in a multiword value
           with word.

       setenv [VAR [word ] ]

           With no arguments, setenv displays all environment variables.  With
           the VAR argument, setenv sets the environment variable VAR  to have
           an empty (null) value. (By convention,  environment  variables  are
           normally given upper-case names.) With both VAR and word arguments,
           setenv sets the environment variable NAME to the value word,  which
           must  be either a single word or a quoted string. The most commonly
           used environment variables, USER, TERM, and PATH, are automatically
           imported  to  and  exported  from the csh variables user, term, and
           path. There is no need to use setenv for these.  In  addition,  the
           shell  sets  the PWD environment variable from the csh variable cwd
           whenever the latter changes.

           The environment variables LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,  LC_TIME,  LC_COL‐
           LATE,  LC_NUMERIC,  and  LC_MONETARY  take  immediate  effect  when
           changed within the C shell.

           If any of  the  LC_*  variables  (LC_CTYPE,  LC_MESSAGES,  LC_TIME,
           LC_COLLATE,  LC_NUMERIC,  and LC_MONETARY) (see environ(5)) are not
           set in the environment, the operational behavior of  csh  for  each
           corresponding  locale  category  is  determined by the value of the
           LANG environment variable. If LC_ALL is set, its contents are  used
           to  override both the LANG and the other LC_* variables. If none of
           the above variables is set in the environment, the "C" (U.S. style)
           locale determines how csh behaves.

           LC_CTYPE       Determines how csh handles characters. When LC_CTYPE
                          is set to a valid value, csh can display and  handle
                          text  and  filenames containing valid characters for
                          that locale.

           LC_MESSAGES    Determines how diagnostic and  informative  messages
                          are  presented. This includes the language and style
                          of the messages and the correct form of  affirmative
                          and  negative responses. In the "C" locale, the mes‐
                          sages are presented in the default form found in the
                          program itself (in most cases, U.S./English).

           LC_NUMERIC     Determines the value of the radix character, decimal
                          point, (.) in the "C" locale) and  thousand  separa‐
                          tor, empty string ("") in the "C" locale).

       shift [variable ]

           The  components  of  argv, or variable, if supplied, are shifted to
           the left, discarding the first component. It is an  error  for  the
           variable not to be set or to have a null value.

       source [-h] name

           Reads  commands  from  name.  source commands can be nested, but if
           they are nested too deeply the shell can run out of  file  descrip‐
           tors. An error in a sourced file at any level terminates all nested
           source commands.

           -h    Place commands from the file name on the history list without
                 executing them.

       stop %jobid ...

           Stop the current or specified background job.

       stop pid ...

           Stop the specified process, pid. (see ps(1)).


           Stop  the  shell  in its tracks, much as if it had been sent a stop
           signal with ^Z. This is most often used to stop shells  started  by

       switch (string)
       case label:

           Each  label  is successively matched, against the specified string,
           which is first command and filename expanded. The file  metacharac‐
           ters *, ? and [...] can be used in the case labels, which are vari‐
           able expanded. If none of the labels match before a "default" label
           is  found,  execution  begins  after  the  default label. Each case
           statement and the default statement must appear at the beginning of
           a  line.  The  command breaksw continues execution after the endsw.
           Otherwise control falls through subsequent case and default  state‐
           ments  as with C. If no label matches and there is no default, exe‐
           cution continues after the endsw.

       time [command ]

           With no argument, print a summary of time used by this C shell  and
           its children. With an optional command, execute command and print a
           summary of the time it uses. As of this writing, the time  built-in
           command does NOT compute the last 6 fields of output, rendering the
           output to erroneously report the value 0 for these fields.

             example %time ls -R
                     9.0u 11.0s 3:32 10% 0+0k 0+0io 0pf+0w

           (See the Environment Variables and Predefined Shell Variables  sub-
           section on the time variable.)

       umask [value ]

           Display  the  file creation mask. With value, set the file creation
           mask. With value given in octal, the user can turn  off  any  bits,
           but  cannot  turn  on  bits to allow new permissions. Common values
           include 077, restricting all permissions from everyone  else;  002,
           giving  complete  access  to  the  group,  and  read (and directory
           search) access to  others;  or  022,  giving  read  (and  directory
           search) but not write permission to the group and others.

       unalias pattern

           Discard  aliases  that  match  (filename substitution) pattern. All
           aliases are removed by `unalias *'.


           Disable the internal hash tables for the path and cdpath variables.

       unlimit [-h] [resource ]

           Remove a limitation on resource. If no resource is specified,  then
           all  resource  limitations  are removed. See the description of the
           limit command for the list of resource names.

           -h    Remove corresponding hard limits. Only  the  privileged  user
                 can do this.

       unset pattern

           Remove variables whose names match (filename substitution) pattern.
           All variables are removed by `unset *'; this  has  noticeably  dis‐
           tasteful side effects.

       unsetenv variable

           Remove variable from the environment. As with unset, pattern match‐
           ing is not performed.


           Wait for background jobs to finish (or  for  an  interrupt)  before

       while (expr)

           While  expr is true (evaluates to nonzero), repeat commands between
           the while and the matching end statement. break and continue can be
           used  to  terminate or continue the loop prematurely. The while and
           end must appear alone on their input lines. If the shell's input is
           a  terminal, it prompts for commands with a question-mark until the
           end command is entered and then performs the commands in the loop.

       % [job ] [&]

           Bring the current or indicated job  to  the  foreground.  With  the
           ampersand, continue running job in the background.

       @ [var =expr]
       @ [var[n]=expr]

           With no arguments, display the values for all shell variables. With
           arguments, set the variable var, or the n'th word in the  value  of
           var, to the value that expr evaluates to. (If [n] is supplied, both
           var and its n'th component must already exist.)

           If the expression contains the characters >, <, &, or  |,  then  at
           least this part of expr must be placed within parentheses.

           The  operators  *=,  +=,  and  so forth, are available as in C. The
           space separating the name from the assignment operator is optional.
           Spaces  are,  however,  mandatory  in separating components of expr
           that would otherwise be single words.

           Special postfix operators, ++ and −−, increment or decrement  name,

   Environment Variables and Predefined Shell Variables
       Unlike  the  Bourne  shell, the C shell maintains a distinction between
       environment variables, which are automatically exported to processes it
       invokes,  and  shell  variables, which are not. Both types of variables
       are treated similarly under variable substitution. The shell  sets  the
       variables  argv,  cwd,  home, path, prompt, shell, and status upon ini‐
       tialization. The shell copies the environment variable  USER  into  the
       shell  variable  user,  TERM  into term, and HOME into home, and copies
       each back into the respective environment variable whenever  the  shell
       variables are reset. PATH and path are similarly handled. You need only
       set path once in the .cshrc or .login file.  The  environment  variable
       PWD  is  set  from cwd whenever the latter changes. The following shell
       variables have predefined meanings:

       argv         Argument list. Contains the list of command line arguments
                    supplied  to  the  current  invocation  of the shell. This
                    variable determines the value of the positional parameters
                    $1, $2, and so on.

       cdpath       Contains  a  list of directories to be searched by the cd,
                    chdir, and popd commands, if the directory  argument  each
                    accepts is not a subdirectory of the current directory.

       cwd          The full pathname of the current directory.

       echo         Echo commands (after substitutions) just before execution.

       fignore      A  list  of  filename  suffixes  to ignore when attempting
                    filename completion. Typically the single word `.o'.

       filec        Enable filename completion, in which  case  the  Control-d
                    character  EOT and the ESC character have special signifi‐
                    cance when typed in at the end of a terminal input line:

                    EOT    Print a list of all filenames that start  with  the
                           preceding string.

                    ESC    Replace the preceding string with the longest unam‐
                           biguous extension.

       hardpaths    If set, pathnames in the directory stack are  resolved  to
                    contain no symbolic-link components.

       histchars    A  two-character string. The first character replaces ! as
                    the history-substitution character.  The  second  replaces
                    the carat (^) for quick substitutions.

       history      The  number  of  lines  saved  in the history list. A very
                    large number can use up all of the C  shell's  memory.  If
                    not set, the C shell saves only the most recent command.

       home         The  user's  home  directory.  The filename expansion of ~
                    refers to the value of this variable.

       ignoreeof    If set, the shell ignores EOF from  terminals.  This  pro‐
                    tects  against  accidentally killing a C shell by typing a

       mail         A list of files where the C shell checks for mail. If  the
                    first  word  of the value is a number, it specifies a mail
                    checking interval in seconds (default 5 minutes).

       nobeep       Suppress the bell during command  completion  when  asking
                    the C shell to extend an ambiguous filename.

       noclobber    Restrict output redirection so that existing files are not
                    destroyed by accident. > redirections can only be made  to
                    new  files.  >>  redirections can only be made to existing

       noglob       Inhibit filename substitution.  This  is  most  useful  in
                    shell  scripts once filenames (if any) are obtained and no
                    further expansion is desired.

       nonomatch    Return the filename substitution pattern, rather  than  an
                    error,  if  the pattern is not matched. Malformed patterns
                    still result in errors.

       notify       If set, the shell notifies you  immediately  as  jobs  are
                    completed, rather than waiting until just before issuing a

       path         The list of directories in which to search  for  commands.
                    path  is  initialized  from the environment variable PATH,
                    which the C shell updates whenever path  changes.  A  null
                    word  ('') specifies the current directory. The default is
                    typically (/usr/bin .).  One  can  override  this  initial
                    search  path  upon csh start-up by setting it in .cshrc or
                    .login (for login shells only).  If  path  becomes  unset,
                    only  full  pathnames execute. An interactive C shell nor‐
                    mally hashes the contents of the directories listed  after
                    reading  .cshrc,  and  whenever path is reset. If new com‐
                    mands are added, use the rehash command to update the  ta‐

       prompt       The  string an interactive C shell prompts with. Noninter‐
                    active shells leave the prompt variable unset. Aliases and
                    other  commands  in  the  .cshrc file that are only useful
                    interactively, can be placed after the following test: `if
                    ($?prompt  ==  0) exit', to reduce startup time for nonin‐
                    teractive shells. A ! in the prompt string is replaced  by
                    the  current event number. The default prompt is hostname%
                    for mere mortals, or hostname# for the privileged user.

                    The setting of $prompt has three meanings:

                    $prompt not set          non-interactive    shell,    test

                    $prompt set but == ""    .cshrc  called  by  the  which(1)

                    $prompt set and != ""    normal interactive shell.

       savehist     The number of lines from the history list that  are  saved
                    in  ~/.history  when  the  user logs out. Large values for
                    savehist slow down the C shell during startup.

       shell        The file in which the C shell resides.  This  is  used  in
                    forking  shells  to interpret files that have execute bits
                    set, but that are not executable by the system.

       status       The status returned by the most recent  command.  If  that
                    command  terminated  abnormally, 0200 is added to the sta‐
                    tus. Built-in commands that fail return exit status 1; all
                    other built-in commands set status to 0.

       time         Control automatic timing of commands. Can be supplied with
                    one or two values. The first is the reporting threshold in
                    CPU seconds. The second is a string of tags and text indi‐
                    cating which resources to report on. A tag  is  a  percent
                    sign  (%) followed by a single upper-case letter (unrecog‐
                    nized tags print as text):

                    %D    Average amount of unshared data space used in  Kilo‐

                    %E    Elapsed (wallclock) time for the command.

                    %F    Page faults.

                    %I    Number of block input operations.

                    %K    Average amount of unshared stack space used in Kilo‐

                    %M    Maximum real memory used  during  execution  of  the

                    %O    Number of block output operations.

                    %P    Total  CPU  time  —  U (user) plus S (system) — as a
                          percentage of E (elapsed) time.

                    %S    Number of seconds of CPU time consumed by the kernel
                          on behalf of the user's process.

                    %U    Number  of seconds of CPU time devoted to the user's

                    %W    Number of swaps.

                    %X    Average amount of shared memory used in Kilobytes.

                    The default summary display outputs from the %U,  %S,  %E,
                    %P, %X, %D, %I, %O, %F, and %W tags, in that order.

       verbose      Display  each  command  after  history  substitution takes

   Large File Behavior
       See largefile(5) for the  description  of  the  behavior  of  csh  when
       encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (2^31 bytes).

       ~/.cshrc       Read at beginning of execution by each shell.

       ~/.login       Read by login shells after .cshrc at login.

       ~/.logout      Read by login shells at logout.

       ~/.history     Saved history for use at next login.

       /usr/bin/sh    The  Bourne shell, for shell scripts not starting with a

       /tmp/sh*       Temporary file for `<<'.

       /etc/passwd    Source of home directories for `~name'.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()  box;  cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)   |lw(2.75i)   ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os _ CSIEnabled

       bc(1),   echo(1),   limit(1),   login(1),   ls(1),  more(1),  pfcsh(1),
       pfexec(1), ps(1), sh(1), shell_builtins(1), tset(1B), which(1), df(1M),
       swap(1M),  sysdef(1M),  access(2), exec(2), fork(2), pipe(2), a.out(4),
       ascii(5), attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5), termio(7I)

       You have stopped jobs.    You  attempted  to  exit  the  C  shell  with
                                 stopped  jobs under job control. An immediate
                                 second attempt to exit succeeds,  terminating
                                 the stopped jobs.

       The use of setuid shell scripts is strongly discouraged.

       Words  can  be  no  longer  than 1024 bytes. The system limits argument
       lists to 1,048,576 bytes. However, the maximum number of arguments to a
       command for which filename expansion applies is 1706. Command substitu‐
       tions can expand to no more characters than are allowed in the argument
       list.  To  detect looping, the shell restricts the number of alias sub‐
       stitutions on a single line to 20.

       When a command is restarted from a stop, the shell prints the directory
       it started in if this is different from the current directory; this can
       be misleading (that is, wrong) as the job might have  changed  directo‐
       ries internally.

       Shell   built-in   functions  are  not  stoppable/restartable.  Command
       sequences of the form a b c are also not handled gracefully when  stop‐
       ping  is  attempted. If you suspend b, the shell never executes c. This
       is especially noticeable if the expansion results from an alias. It can
       be  avoided  by  placing the sequence in parentheses to force it into a

       Commands within loops, prompted for by ?, are not placed in the history

       Control  structures  should  be  parsed rather than being recognized as
       built-in commands. This would allow control commands to be placed  any‐
       where, to be combined with |, and to be used with & and ; metasyntax.

       It  should  be possible to use the : modifiers on the output of command
       substitutions. There are two problems with : modifier usage on variable
       substitutions:  not  all  of  the modifiers are available, and only one
       modifier per substitution is allowed.

       The g (global) flag in history substitutions applies only to the  first
       match  in  each  word, rather than all matches in all words. The common
       text editors consistently do the latter when given the g flag in a sub‐
       stitution command.

       Quoting  conventions  are confusing. Overriding the escape character to
       force variable substitutions within double quotes  is  counterintuitive
       and inconsistent with the Bourne shell.

       Symbolic links can fool the shell. Setting the hardpaths variable alle‐
       viates this.

       It is up to the user to manually remove all duplicate pathnames accrued
       from using built-in commands more than once, as shown below:

         set path = pathnames
         setenv PATH = pathnames

       These  often  occur  because a shell script or a .cshrc file does some‐
       thing like

         `set path=(/usr/local /usr/hosts $path)'

       to ensure that the named directories are in the pathname list.

       The only way to direct the standard output  and  standard  error  sepa‐
       rately is by invoking a subshell, as follows:

         command > outfile ) >& errorfile

       Although  robust  enough  for general use, adventures into the esoteric
       periphery of the C shell can reveal unexpected quirks.

       If you start csh as a login shell and you do not have a .login in  your
       home directory, then the csh reads in the /etc/.login.

       When  the shell executes a shell script that attempts to execute a non-
       existent command interpreter, the shell returns an erroneous diagnostic
       message that the shell script file does not exist.

       Traditional  csh(1) may be replaced in a future release with a compara‐
       ble shell, such as tcsh(1). It is  recommended  that  csh  users  begin
       migrating  their  startup files and scripts to tcsh, which is available
       in Oracle Solaris through the package: pkg:/shell/tcsh.

       As of this writing, the time built-in command does not compute the last
       6  fields  of  output,  rendering  the output to erroneously report the
       value 0 for these fields:

         example %time ls -R
                 9.0u 11.0s 3:32 10% 0+0k 0+0io 0pf+0w

SunOS 5.11                        06 Apr 2015                           csh(1)
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