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csh(1)                           User Commands                          csh(1)

       csh - shell command interpreter with a C-like syntax

       csh [-bcefinstvVxX] [argument]...

       csh, the C shell, is a command interpreter with a syntax reminiscent of
       the C language. It provides a number of convenient features for  inter‐
       active  use  that  are  not  available with the Bourne shell, including
       filename completion, command aliasing, history substitution,  job  con‐
       trol,  and a number of built-in commands. As with the Bourne shell, the
       C shell provides variable, command and filename substitution.

   Initialization and Termination
       When first started, the C shell normally  performs  commands  from  the
       .cshrc  file  in  your home directory, provided that it is readable and
       you either own it or your real group ID matches its group  ID.  If  the
       shell  is  invoked with a name that starts with `−', as when started by
       login(1), the shell runs as a login shell.

       If the shell is a login shell, this is  the  sequence  of  invocations:
       First,  commands  in  /etc/.login are executed. Next, commands from the
       .cshrc file your home directory are executed. Then the  shell  executes
       commands  from the .login file in your home directory; the same permis‐
       sion checks as those for .cshrc are applied to  this  file.  Typically,
       the  .login  file  contains  commands  to specify the terminal type and
       environment. (For an explanation of file interpreters, see Command Exe‐
       cution and exec(2).)

       As a login shell terminates, it performs commands from the .logout file
       in your home directory; the same permission checks as those for  .cshrc
       are applied to this file.

   Interactive Operation
       After  startup  processing  is  complete, an interactive C shell begins
       reading commands from the terminal, prompting with hostname% (or  host‐
       name#  for the privileged user). The shell then repeatedly performs the
       following actions: a line of command input  is  read  and  broken  into
       words.  This  sequence  of words is placed on the history list and then
       parsed, as described under USAGE. Finally, the shell executes each com‐
       mand in the current line.

   Noninteractive Operation
       When running noninteractively, the shell does not prompt for input from
       the terminal. A noninteractive C shell can execute a  command  supplied
       as  an argument on its command line, or interpret commands from a file,
       also known as a script.

       The following options are supported:

       -b    Forced a "break" from option processing. Subsequent command  line
             arguments are not interpreted as C shell options. This allows the
             passing of options to a script without confusion. The shell  does
             not run set-user-ID or set-group-ID scripts unless this option is

       -c    Executes the first argument, which  must  be  present.  Remaining
             arguments  are  placed  in  argv, the argument-list variable, and
             passed directly to csh.

       -e    Exits if a command terminates abnormally or yields a nonzero exit

       -f    Fast  start.  Reads  neither the .cshrc file, nor the .login file
             (if a login shell) upon startup.

       -i    Forced interactive. Prompts for command line input, even  if  the
             standard  input  does not appear to be a terminal (character-spe‐
             cial device).

       -n    Parses (interprets), but does not execute commands.  This  option
             can be used to check C shell scripts for syntax errors.

       -s    Takes commands from the standard input.

       -t    Reads  and  executes a single command line. A `\' (backslash) can
             be used to escape each newline for continuation  of  the  command
             line onto subsequent input lines.

       -v    Verbose.  Sets  the verbose predefined variable. Command input is
             echoed after history substitution, but before other substitutions
             and before execution.

       -V    Sets verbose before reading .cshrc.

       -x    Echo. Sets the echo variable. Echoes commands after all substitu‐
             tions and just before execution.

       -X    Sets echo before reading .cshrc.

       Except with the options -c, -i, -s, or -t, the first nonoption argument
       is  taken  to be the name of a command or script. It is passed as argu‐
       ment zero, and subsequent arguments are added to the argument list  for
       that command or script.

   Filename Completion
       When  enabled by setting the variable filec, an interactive C shell can
       complete a partially typed filename or user name. When  an  unambiguous
       partial  filename is followed by an ESC character on the terminal input
       line, the shell fills in the remaining characters of a  matching  file‐
       name from the working directory.

       If  a  partial filename is followed by the EOF character (usually typed
       as Control-d), the shell  lists  all  filenames  that  match.  It  then
       prompts  once  again, supplying the incomplete command line typed in so

       When the last (partial)  word  begins  with  a  tilde  (~),  the  shell
       attempts completion with a user name, rather than a file in the working

       The terminal bell signals errors or multiple matches. This bell  signal
       can  be inhibited by setting the variable nobeep. You can exclude files
       with certain suffixes by listing those suffixes in  the  variable  fig‐
       nore.  If,  however,  the only possible completion includes a suffix in
       the list, it is not ignored. fignore does not  affect  the  listing  of
       filenames by the EOF character.

   Lexical Structure
       The  shell  splits  input lines into words at space and tab characters,
       except as noted below. The characters &, |, ;, <, >, (, and ) form sep‐
       arate  words;  if  paired,  the  pairs  form  single words. These shell
       metacharacters can be made part of other words, and their special mean‐
       ing  can be suppressed by preceding them with a `\' (backslash). A new‐
       line preceded by a \ is equivalent to a space character.

       In addition, a string enclosed in matched pairs of  single-quotes  ('),
       double-quotes ("), or backquotes (`), forms a partial word. Metacharac‐
       ters in such a string, including any space or tab  characters,  do  not
       form  separate words. Within pairs of backquote (`) or double-quote (")
       characters, a newline preceded by a `\' (backslash) gives a  true  new‐
       line  character.  Additional  functions  of  each  type  of  quote  are
       described, below, under Variable  Substitution,  Command  Substitution,
       and Filename  Substitution.

       When  the shell's input is not a terminal, the character # introduces a
       comment that continues to the end of the input line. Its special  mean‐
       ing is suppressed when preceded by a \ or enclosed in matching quotes.

   Command Line Parsing
       A  simple  command  is  composed of a sequence of words. The first word
       (that is not part of an I/O redirection) specifies the  command  to  be
       executed.  A simple command, or a set of simple commands separated by |
       or |& characters, forms a pipeline. With |, the standard output of  the
       preceding  command  is  redirected to the standard input of the command
       that follows. With |&, both the standard error and the standard  output
       are redirected through the pipeline.

       Pipelines  can  be  separated by semicolons (;), in which case they are
       executed sequentially. Pipelines that are separated by &&  or  ||  form
       conditional  sequences in which the execution of pipelines on the right
       depends upon the success or failure, respectively, of the  pipeline  on
       the left.

       A  pipeline or sequence can be enclosed within parentheses `()' to form
       a simple command that can be a component in a pipeline or sequence.

       A sequence of pipelines can be executed asynchronously or "in the back‐
       ground"  by  appending  an `&'; rather than waiting for the sequence to
       finish before issuing a prompt, the shell displays the job number  (see
       Job Control, below) and associated process IDs and prompts immediately.

   History Substitution
       History  substitution  allows  you  to  use words from previous command
       lines in the command line you are typing. This simplifies spelling cor‐
       rections  and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. Com‐
       mand lines are saved in the history list, the size  of  which  is  con‐
       trolled  by  the  history variable. The most recent command is retained
       in any case. A history substitution begins with a ! (although  you  can
       change  this  with  the  histchars variable) and occurs anywhere on the
       command line; history substitutions do not nest. The ! can  be  escaped
       with \ to suppress its special meaning.

       Input lines containing history substitutions are echoed on the terminal
       after being expanded, but before any other substitutions take place  or
       the command gets executed.

   Event Designators
       An  event designator is a reference to a command line entry in the his‐
       tory list.


           Start a history substitution, except when followed by a space char‐
           acter, tab, newline, = or (.


           Refer to the previous command. By itself, this substitution repeats
           the previous command.


           Refer to command line n.


           Refer to the current command line minus n.


           Refer to the most recent command starting with str.


           Refer to the most recent command containing str.

       !?str? additional

           Refer to the most recent command containing str  and  append  addi‐
           tional to that referenced command.

       !{command} additional

           Refer  to the most recent command beginning with command and append
           additional to that referenced command.


           Repeat the previous command line replacing the string previous_word
           with the string replacement. This is equivalent to the history sub‐


           To re-execute a specific previous command AND make such a substitu‐
           tion, say, re-executing command #6,


   Word Designators
       A  `:' (colon) separates the event specification from the word designa‐
       tor. It can be omitted if the word designator begins with a ^, $, *,  −
       or %. If the word is to be selected from the previous command, the sec‐
       ond ! character can  be  omitted  from  the  event  specification.  For
       instance,  !!:1  and  !:1  both refer to the first word of the previous
       command, while !!$ and !$ both refer to the last word in  the  previous
       command. Word designators include:

       #         The entire command line typed so far.

       0         The first input word (command).

       n         The n'th argument.

       ^         The first argument, that is, 1.

       $         The last argument.

       %         The word matched by the ?s search.

       x−y       A range of words; −y abbreviates 0−y.

       *         All  the arguments, or a null value if there is just one word
                 in the event.

       x*        Abbreviates x−$.

       x−        Like x* but omitting word $.

       After the optional word designator, you can add one  of  the  following
       modifiers, preceded by a :.

       h         Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head.

       r         Remove  a  trailing  suffix  of  the form `.xxx', leaving the

       e         Remove all but the suffix, leaving the Extension.

       s/l/r/    Substitute r for l.

       t         Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.

       &         Repeat the previous substitution.

       g         Apply the change to the first occurrence of a match  in  each
                 word, by prefixing the above (for example, g&).

       p         Print the new command but do not execute it.

       q         Quote the substituted words,escaping further substitutions.

       x         Like  q, but break into words at each space character, tab or

       Unless preceded by a g, the modification is applied only to  the  first
       string that matches l; an error results if no string matches.

       The  left-hand  side  of substitutions are not regular expressions, but
       character strings. Any character can be used as the delimiter in  place
       of  /.  A backslash quotes the delimiter character. The character &, in
       the right hand side, is replaced by the text from  the  left-hand-side.
       The & can be quoted with a backslash. A null l uses the previous string
       either from a l or from a contextual scan string s from  !?s.  You  can
       omit  the  rightmost  delimiter if a newline immediately follows r; the
       rightmost ? in a context scan can similarly be omitted.

       Without an event specification, a history reference  refers  either  to
       the previous command, or to a previous history reference on the command
       line (if any).

   Quick Substitution
       ^l^r^    This is equivalent to the history substitution:


       The C shell maintains a list of aliases that you can  create,  display,
       and  modify  using the alias and unalias commands. The shell checks the
       first word in each command to see if it matches the name of an existing
       alias. If it does, the command is reprocessed with the alias definition
       replacing its name; the history substitution mechanism is  made  avail‐
       able  as  though that command were the previous input line. This allows
       history substitutions, escaped with a backslash in the  definition,  to
       be  replaced with actual command line arguments when the alias is used.
       If  no  history  substitution  is  called  for,  the  arguments  remain

       Aliases  can  be  nested.  That is, an alias definition can contain the
       name of another alias. Nested aliases are expanded before  any  history
       substitutions is applied. This is useful in pipelines such as

         alias lm 'ls -l \!* | more'

       which when called, pipes the output of ls(1) through more(1).

       Except  for the first word, the name of the alias can not appear in its
       definition, nor in any alias referred to by its definition. Such  loops
       are detected, and cause an error message.

   I/O Redirection
       The  following  metacharacters indicate that the subsequent word is the
       name of a file to which the command's standard input, standard  output,
       or  standard  error  is redirected; this word is variable, command, and
       filename expanded separately from the rest of the command.

       <              Redirect the standard input.

       <<word         Read the standard input, up to a line that is  identical
                      with  word, and place the resulting lines in a temporary
                      file. Unless word is escaped  or  quoted,  variable  and
                      command  substitutions  are  performed  on  these lines.
                      Then, the pipeline is invoked with the temporary file as
                      its  standard  input. word is not subjected to variable,
                      filename, or command substitution, and each line is com‐
                      pared  to  it  before any substitutions are performed by
                      the shell.

       > >! >& >&!    Redirect the standard output to a file. If the file does
                      not  exist, it is created. If it does exist, it is over‐
                      written; its previous contents are lost.

                      When set, the variable noclobber prevents destruction of
                      existing  files.  It also prevents redirection to termi‐
                      nals and /dev/null, unless one of the ! forms  is  used.
                      The  & forms redirect both standard output and the stan‐
                      dard error (diagnostic output) to the file.

       >> >>& >>! >>&!            Append the  standard  output.  Like  >,  but
                                  places  output at the end of the file rather
                                  than overwriting it. If noclobber is set, it
                                  is  an  error  for  the  file  not to exist,
                                  unless one of the ! forms  is  used.  The  &
                                  forms  append  both  the  standard error and
                                  standard output to the file.

   Variable Substitution
       The C shell maintains a set of variables, each of which is composed  of
       a  name  and a value. A variable name consists of up to 128 letters and
       digits, and starts with a letter. An underscore  (_)  is  considered  a
       letter).  A  variable's value is a space-separated list of zero or more
       words. If the shell supports a variable name upto  128  characters  the
       variable  SUNW_VARLEN is defined. If a variable name of up to 128 char‐
       acters is not supported, then an older version of the  shell  is  being
       used, and the shell variable name length has a maximum length of 20.

       To  refer  to  a variable's value, precede its name with a `$'. Certain
       references (described below) can be used to select specific words  from
       the  value,  or to display other information about the variable. Braces
       can be used to insulate the  reference  from  other  characters  in  an
       input-line word.

       Variable  substitution  takes  place  after the input line is analyzed,
       aliases are resolved, and I/O redirections are applied.  Exceptions  to
       this  are  variable  references in I/O redirections (substituted at the
       time the redirection is made), and backquoted strings (see Command Sub‐

       Variable  substitution  can  be suppressed by preceding the $ with a \,
       except within double-quotes where it always occurs. Variable  substitu‐
       tion  is suppressed inside of single-quotes. A $ is escaped if followed
       by a space character, tab or newline.

       Variables can be created, displayed, or destroyed  using  the  set  and
       unset commands. Some variables are maintained or used by the shell. For
       instance, the argv variable contains an image of the  shell's  argument
       list.  Of  the  variables  used by the shell, a number are toggles; the
       shell does not care what their value is, only whether they are  set  or

       Numerical  values can be operated on as numbers (as with the @ built-in
       command). With numeric operations, an empty value is considered  to  be
       zero.  The second and subsequent words of multiword values are ignored.
       For instance, when the verbose variable is set to any value  (including
       an empty value), command input is echoed on the terminal.

       Command  and filename substitution is subsequently applied to the words
       that result from the variable substitution, except when  suppressed  by
       double-quotes,  when noglob is set (suppressing filename substitution),
       or when the reference is quoted with the :q  modifier.  Within  double-
       quotes, a reference is expanded to form (a portion of) a quoted string;
       multiword values are expanded to a string with embedded  space  charac‐
       ters.  When the :q modifier is applied to the reference, it is expanded
       to a list of space-separated words, each of which is quoted to  prevent
       subsequent command or filename substitutions.

       Except  as  noted  below, it is an error to refer to a variable that is
       not set.

       $var             These are replaced by words from  the  value  of  var,
       ${var}           each  separated  by  a  space  character. If var is an
                        environment variable, its value is returned  (but  `:'
                        modifiers  and  the  other  forms  given below are not

       $var[index]      These select only the indicated words from  the  value
       ${var[index]}    of  var.  Variable  substitution  is applied to index,
                        which can consist of (or result in)  a  either  single
                        number,  two  numbers separated by a `−', or an aster‐
                        isk. Words are indexed starting from 1; a `*'  selects
                        all  words.  If the first number of a range is omitted
                        (as with $argv[−2]), it defaults to  1.  If  the  last
                        number  of  a range is omitted (as with $argv[1−]), it
                        defaults to $#var (the word count). It is not an error
                        for  a  range  to  be  empty if the second argument is
                        omitted (or within range).

       $#name           These give the number of words in the variable.

       $0               This substitutes the name of the file from which  com‐
                        mand  input  is  being  read  except  for setuid shell
                        scripts. An error occurs if the name is not known.

       $n               Equivalent to $argv[n].

       $*               Equivalent to $argv[*].

       The modifiers :e, :h, :q, :r, :t, and :x can be  applied  (see  History
       Substitution),  as can :gh, :gt, and :gr. If {} (braces) are used, then
       the modifiers must appear within the braces. The current implementation
       allows only one such modifier per expansion.

       The following references can not be modified with : modifiers.

       $?var      Substitutes  the  string  1  if var is set or 0 if it is not
       ${?var}    set.

       $?0        Substitutes 1 if the current input filename is known or 0 if
                  it is not.

       $$         Substitutes the process number of the (parent) shell.

       $<         Substitutes  a line from the standard input, with no further
                  interpretation thereafter. It can be used to read  from  the
                  keyboard in a C shell script.

   Command and Filename Substitutions
       Command and filename substitutions are applied selectively to the argu‐
       ments of built-in commands. Portions of expressions that are not evalu‐
       ated are not expanded. For non-built-in commands, filename expansion of
       the command name is done separately from that  of  the  argument  list;
       expansion occurs in a subshell, after I/O redirection is performed.

   Command Substitution
       A  command  enclosed  by backquotes (`...`) is performed by a subshell.
       Its standard output is broken into separate words at each space charac‐
       ter,  tab and newline; null words are discarded. This text replaces the
       backquoted string on the current command  line.  Within  double-quotes,
       only  newline  characters force new words; space and tab characters are
       preserved. However, a final newline is ignored. It is therefore  possi‐
       ble for a command substitution to yield a partial word.

   Filename Substitution
       Unquoted  words  containing any of the characters *, ?, [ or {, or that
       begin with ~, are expanded (also known as globbing)  to  an  alphabeti‐
       cally sorted list of filenames, as follows:

       *                       Match any (zero or more) characters.

       ?                       Match any single character.

       [...]                   Match  any  single  character  in  the enclosed
                               list(s) or range(s). A  list  is  a  string  of
                               characters. A range is two characters separated
                               by a dash (−), and includes all the  characters
                               in between in the ASCII collating sequence (see

       {str, str, ... }        Expand to  each  string  (or  filename-matching
                               pattern)  in  the  comma-separated list. Unlike
                               the  pattern-matching  expressions  above,  the
                               expansion  of this construct is not sorted. For
                               instance, {b,a} expands to `b'  `a',  (not  `a'
                               `b'). As special cases, the characters { and },
                               along with the string  {},  are  passed  undis‐

       ~[user]                 Your  home directory, as indicated by the value
                               of the variable home, or that of user, as indi‐
                               cated by the password entry for user.

       Only  the  patterns  *,  ?  and  [...] imply pattern matching; an error
       results if no filename matches a pattern that contains  them.  The  `.'
       (dot  character), when it is the first character in a filename or path‐
       name component, must be matched explicitly. The / (slash) must also  be
       matched explicitly.

   Expressions and Operators
       A  number of C shell built-in commands accept expressions, in which the
       operators are similar to those of C and have the same precedence. These
       expressions  typically  appear  in  the @, exit, if, set and while com‐
       mands, and are often used to regulate the flow of control for executing
       commands. Components of an expression are separated by white space.

       Null  or missing values are considered 0. The result of all expressions
       is a string, which can represent decimal numbers.

       The following C shell operators are grouped in order of precedence:

       (...)              grouping

       >~                 one's complement

       !                  logical negation

       * / %              multiplication, division, remainder. These are right
                          associative,  which  can lead to unexpected results.
                          Combinations  should  be  grouped  explicitly   with

       + −                addition, subtraction (also right associative)

       << >>              bitwise shift left, bitwise shift right

       < > <= >=          less  than,  greater  than,  less  than or equal to,
                          greater than or equal to

       == != =~ !~        equal to, not equal to,  filename-substitution  pat‐
                          tern  match (described below), filename-substitution
                          pattern mismatch

       &                  bitwise AND

       ^                  bitwise XOR (exclusive or)

       |                  bitwise inclusive OR

       &&                 logical AND

       ||                 logical OR

       The operators: ==, !=, =~, and !~ compare their arguments  as  strings;
       other operators use numbers. The operators =~ and !~ each check whether
       or not a string to the left matches a filename substitution pattern  on
       the  right.  This  reduces the need for switch statements when pattern-
       matching between strings is all that is required.

       Also available are file inquiries:

       -rfilename     Return true, or 1 if the user has read access. Otherwise
                      it returns false, or 0.

       -wfilename     True if the user has write access.

       -xfilename     True  if the user has execute permission (or search per‐
                      mission on a directory).

       -efilename     True if filename exists.

       -ofilename     True if the user owns filename.

       -z filename    True if filename is of zero length (empty).

       -ffilename     True if filename is a plain file.

       -dfilename     True if filename is a directory.

       If filename does not exist  or  is  inaccessible,  then  all  inquiries
       return false.

       An inquiry as to the success of a command is also available:

       { command}    If command runs successfully, the expression evaluates to
                     true, 1. Otherwise, it evaluates to false, 0. Note:  Con‐
                     versely,  command itself typically returns 0 when it runs
                     successfully, or some other  value  if  it  encounters  a
                     problem.  If  you want to get at the status directly, use
                     the value of the status variable rather than this expres‐

   Control Flow
       The shell contains a number of commands to regulate the flow of control
       in scripts and within limits, from the terminal. These commands operate
       by forcing the shell either to reread input (to loop), or to skip input
       under certain conditions (to branch).

       Each occurrence of a foreach, switch, while, if...then and else  built-
       in command must appear as the first word on its own input line.

       If  the  shell's  input  is not seekable and a loop is being read, that
       input is buffered. The shell performs seeks within the internal  buffer
       to  accomplish  the  rereading implied by the loop. (To the extent that
       this allows, backward goto commands succeeds on nonseekable inputs.)

   Command Execution
       If the command is a C shell built-in command,  the  shell  executes  it
       directly.  Otherwise,  the  shell searches for a file by that name with
       execute access. If the command name contains a /, the shell takes it as
       a pathname, and searches for it. If the command name does not contain a
       /, the shell attempts to resolve  it  to  a  pathname,  searching  each
       directory  in  the  path variable for the command. To speed the search,
       the shell uses its hash table (see  the  rehash  built-in  command)  to
       eliminate  directories  that have no applicable files. This hashing can
       be disabled with the -c or -t, options, or the unhash built-in command.

       As a special case, if there is no / in the name of the script and there
       is  an  alias  for  the word shell, the expansion of the shell alias is
       prepended (without  modification)  to  the  command  line.  The  system
       attempts  to  execute  the  first word of this special (late-occurring)
       alias, which should be a full pathname. Remaining words of the  alias's
       definition, along with the text of the input line, are treated as argu‐

       When a pathname is found that has proper execute permissions, the shell
       forks  a  new  process  and passes it, along with its arguments, to the
       kernel using the execve() system call (see exec(2)).  The  kernel  then
       attempts  to  overlay  the new process with the desired program. If the
       file is an executable binary (in a.out(5) format) the  kernel  succeeds
       and  begins  executing  the new process. If the file is a text file and
       the first line begins with #!, the next word is taken to be  the  path‐
       name of a shell (or command) to interpret that script. Subsequent words
       on the first line are taken as  options  for  that  shell.  The  kernel
       invokes (overlays) the indicated shell, using the name of the script as
       an argument.

       If neither of the above conditions holds, the kernel cannot overlay the
       file  and  the  execve()  call  fails  (see  exec(2)). The C shell then
       attempts to execute the file by spawning a new shell, as follows:

           o      If the first character of the file is a  #,  a  C  shell  is

           o      Otherwise, a Bourne shell is invoked.

   Signal Handling
       The  shell normally ignores QUIT signals. Background jobs are immune to
       signals generated from the keyboard,  including  hangups  (HUP).  Other
       signals  have  the  values that the C shell inherited from its environ‐
       ment. The shell's handling of interrupt and  terminate  signals  within
       scripts  can be controlled by the onintr built-in command. Login shells
       catch the TERM signal. Otherwise, this signal is  passed  on  to  child
       processes.  In  no  case  are  interrupts allowed when a login shell is
       reading the .logout file.

   Job Control
       The shell associates a numbered job with each command sequence to  keep
       track of those commands that are running in the background or have been
       stopped with TSTP signals (typically Control-z). When a command or com‐
       mand  sequence  (semicolon separated list) is started in the background
       using the & metacharacter, the shell displays a line with the job  num‐
       ber in brackets and a list of associated process numbers:

         [1] 1234

       To see the current list of jobs, use the jobs built-in command. The job
       most recently stopped (or put into the background if none are  stopped)
       is referred to as the current job and is indicated with a `+'. The pre‐
       vious job is indicated with a `−'. When the current job  is  terminated
       or  moved  to the foreground, this job takes its place (becomes the new
       current job).

       To manipulate jobs, refer to the bg, fg, kill,  stop,  and  %  built-in

       A  reference  to  a  job begins with a `%'. By itself, the percent-sign
       refers to the current job.

       % %+ %%     The current job.

       %−          The previous job.

       %j          Refer to job j as in: `kill  -9  %j'. j can be a  job  num‐
                   ber,  or  a string that uniquely specifies the command line
                   by which it was started; `fg %vi' might bring a stopped  vi
                   job to the foreground, for instance.

       %?string    Specify  the  job  for which the command line uniquely con‐
                   tains string.

       A job running in the background stops when it attempts to read from the
       terminal.  Background jobs can normally produce output, but this can be
       suppressed using the `stty tostop' command.

   Status Reporting
       While running interactively, the shell tracks the status  of  each  job
       and  reports  whenever the job finishes or becomes blocked. It normally
       displays a message to this effect as it issues a prompt,  in  order  to
       avoid  disturbing  the  appearance  of your input. When set, the notify
       variable indicates that the shell is to report status  changes  immedi‐
       ately.  By default, the notify command marks the current process; after
       starting a background job, type notify to mark it.

       Built-in commands are executed within the C shell. If a  built-in  com‐
       mand  occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last, it is exe‐
       cuted in a subshell.

       :                         Null command. This  command  is  interpreted,
                                 but performs no action.

       alias [ name [ def ] ]    Assign  def  to the alias name. def is a list
                                 of words that can  contain  escaped  history-
                                 substitution  metasyntax. name is not allowed
                                 to be alias or unalias. If  def  is  omitted,
                                 the  current definition for the alias name is
                                 displayed. If both name and def are  omitted,
                                 all  aliases are displayed with their defini‐

       bg [ %job ... ]           Run the current  or  specified  jobs  in  the

       break                     Resume execution after the end of the nearest
                                 enclosing foreach or while loop. The  remain‐
                                 ing  commands  on  the  current line are exe‐
                                 cuted. This allows multilevel  breaks  to  be
                                 written  as  a list of break commands, all on
                                 one line.

       breaksw                   Break  from  a  switch,  resuming  after  the

       case label:               A label in a switch statement.

       cd [dir ]                 Change   the  shell's  working  directory  to
       chdir [dir ]              directory  dir.  If  no  argument  is  given,
                                 change  to the home directory of the user. If
                                 dir is a relative pathname not found  in  the
                                 current  directory,  check  for  it  in those
                                 directories listed in the cdpath variable. If
                                 dir  is  the  name  of a shell variable whose
                                 value starts with a /, change to  the  direc‐
                                 tory named by that value.

       continue                  Continue  execution  of the next iteration of
                                 the nearest enclosing while or foreach loop.

       default:                  Labels the default case in  a  switch  state‐
                                 ment.  The default should come after all case
                                 labels. Any remaining commands on the command
                                 line are first executed.

       dirs [-l]                 Print the directory stack, most recent to the
                                 left. The first directory shown is  the  cur‐
                                 rent directory. With the -l argument, produce
                                 an unabbreviated printout; use of the ~ nota‐
                                 tion is suppressed.

       echo [-n] list            The  words in list are written to the shell's
                                 standard output, separated by  space  charac‐
                                 ters. The output is terminated with a newline
                                 unless  the  -n  option  is  used.  csh,   by
                                 default,  invokes  its built-in echo, if echo
                                 is called without the full pathname of a Unix
                                 command,  regardless  of the configuration of
                                 your PATH (see echo(1)).

       eval argument...          Reads the arguments as input to the shell and
                                 executes  the  resulting  command(s). This is
                                 usually used to execute commands generated as
                                 the  result  of command or variable substitu‐

       exec command              Execute  command  in  place  of  the  current
                                 shell, which terminates.

       exit [(expr)]             The  calling  shell  or  shell  script exits,
                                 either with the value of the status  variable
                                 or with the value specified by the expression

       fg [%job ]                Bring the current or specified job  into  the

       foreach var(wordlist)     The  variable var is successively set to each
       ...                       member of wordlist. The sequence of  commands
       end                       between  this command and the matching end is
                                 executed for each  new  value  of  var.  Both
                                 foreach and end must appear alone on separate

                                 The built-in command continue can be used  to
                                 terminate the execution of the current itera‐
                                 tion of the loop  and  the  built-in  command
                                 break  can  be used to terminate execution of
                                 the foreach command.  When  this  command  is
                                 read from the terminal, the loop is read once
                                 prompting with ? before any statements in the
                                 loop are executed.

       glob wordlist

           Perform filename expansion on wordlist. Like echo, but no \ escapes
           are recognized. Words are delimited by NULL characters in the  out‐


           The specified label is a filename and a command expanded to yield a
           label. The shell rewinds its input as much as possible and searches
           for  a  line  of  the form label: possibly preceded by space or tab
           characters. Execution continues after the indicated line. It is  an
           error  to jump to a label that occurs between a while or for built-
           in command and its corresponding end.


           Print a statistics line indicating how effective the internal  hash
           table  for  the  path  variable  has been at locating commands (and
           avoiding execs). An exec is attempted for  each  component  of  the
           path  where  the hash function indicates a possible hit and in each
           component that does not begin with a  `/'.  These  statistics  only
           reflect  the  effectiveness  of  the  path variable, not the cdpath

       history [-hr] [n]

           Display the history list; if n is given, display only  the  n  most
           recent events.

           -r    Reverse  the order of printout to be most recent first rather
                 than oldest first.

           -h    Display the history list without  leading  numbers.  This  is
                 used  to  produce  files  suitable  for sourcing using the -h
                 option to source.

       if (expr )command

           If the specified expression evaluates to true, the  single  command
           with  arguments  is executed. Variable substitution on command hap‐
           pens early, at the same time it does for the rest of  the  if  com‐
           mand.  command  must be a simple command, not a pipeline, a command
           list, or a parenthesized command list. Note: I/O redirection occurs
           even  if  expr  is  false,  when command is not executed (this is a

       if (expr) then
       else if (expr2) then

           If expr is true, commands up to the first else are executed. Other‐
           wise,  if  expr2  is true, the commands between the else if and the
           second else are executed. Otherwise, commands between the else  and
           the  endif  are  executed. Any number of else if pairs are allowed,
           but only one else. Only one endif is needed, but  it  is  required.
           The words else and endif must be the first nonwhite characters on a
           line. The if must appear alone on its input line or after an else.

       jobs [-l]

           List the active jobs under job control.

           -l    List process IDs, in addition to the normal information.

       kill [sig ] [ pid ] [ %job ] ...
       kill -l

           Send the TERM (terminate) signal, by default, or the signal  speci‐
           fied,  to  the specified process ID, the job indicated, or the cur‐
           rent job. Signals are either given by number or by name.  There  is
           no  default. Typing kill does not send a signal to the current job.
           If the signal being sent is TERM (terminate) or HUP (hangup),  then
           the job or process is sent a CONT (continue) signal as well.

           -l    List the signal names that can be sent.

       limit [-h] [resource [max-use ] ]

           Limit  the  consumption  by  the  current process or any process it
           spawns, each not to exceed max-use on the specified  resource.  The
           string  unlimited  requests  that  the  current  limit,  if any, be
           removed. If  max-use  is  omitted,  print  the  current  limit.  If
           resource  is omitted, display all limits. Run the sysdef(8) command
           to obtain the maximum possible limits for your system.  The  values
           reported  by  sysdef are in hexadecimal, but can be translated into
           decimal numbers using the bc(1) command.

           -h    Use hard limits instead of the current  limits.  Hard  limits
                 impose  a  ceiling  on the values of the current limits. Only
                 the privileged user can raise the hard limits.

           resource is one of:

           cputime                Maximum CPU seconds per process.

           filesize               Largest single file allowed. Limited by  the
                                  size and capabilities of the filesystem. See

           datasize (heapsize)    Maximum data size (including stack) for  the
                                  process.  This  is  the size of your virtual
                                  memory See swap(8).

           stacksize              Maximum stack  size  for  the  process.  The
                                  default  stack  size  is 2^64 bytes. You can
                                  use limit(1) to change this default within a

           coredumpsize           Maximum  size  of  a  core dump (file). This
                                  limited to the size of the filesystem.

           descriptors            Maximum number of file descriptors. Run sys‐

           memorysize             Maximum size of virtual memory.

           max-use is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

           nh       Hours (for cputime).

           nk       n kilobytes. This is the default for all but cputime.

           nm       n megabytes or minutes (for cputime).

           mm:ss    Minutes and seconds (for cputime).

           Example  of  limit:  To  limit  the  size  of a core file dump to 0
           Megabytes, type the following:

             limit coredumpsize 0M

       login [username| -p ]

           Terminate a login shell and invoke login(1). The  .logout  file  is
           not  processed.  If username is omitted, login prompts for the name
           of a user.

           -p    Preserve the current environment (variables).


           Terminate a login shell.

       nice [+n |-n ] [command ]

           Increment the process priority value for the shell or  for  command
           by  n.  The  higher the priority value, the lower the priority of a
           process, and the slower it runs. When given, command is always  run
           in a subshell, and the restrictions placed on commands in simple if
           commands apply. If command is omitted, nice  increments  the  value
           for  the current shell. If no increment is specified, nice sets the
           process priority value to 4. The range of process  priority  values
           is  from −20 to 20. Values of n outside this range set the value to
           the lower, or to the higher boundary, respectively.

           +n    Increment the process priority value by n.

           -n    Decrement by n. This argument can be used only by the  privi‐
                 leged user.

       nohup [command ]

           Run  command  with  HUPs  ignored.  With  no arguments, ignore HUPs
           throughout the remainder of a script. When given, command is always
           run  in a subshell, and the restrictions placed on commands in sim‐
           ple if statements apply. All processes detached with &  are  effec‐
           tively nohup'd.

       notify [%job] ...

           Notify  the  user asynchronously when the status of the current job
           or specified jobs changes.

       onintr [−| label]

           Control the action of the shell on interrupts. With  no  arguments,
           onintr restores the default action of the shell on interrupts. (The
           shell terminates shell scripts and returns to the terminal  command
           input  level).  With  the  − argument, the shell ignores all inter‐
           rupts. With a label argument, the shell executes a goto  label when
           an  interrupt  is received or a child process terminates because it
           was interrupted.

       popd [+n ]

           Pop the directory stack and cd to the new top directory.  The  ele‐
           ments  of  the  directory stack are numbered from 0 starting at the

           +n    Discard the n'th entry in the stack.

       pushd [+n |dir]

           Push a directory onto  the  directory  stack.  With  no  arguments,
           exchange the top two elements.

           +n     Rotate the n'th entry to the top of the stack and cd to it.

           dir    Push the current working directory onto the stack and change
                  to dir.


           Recompute the internal hash table of the  contents  of  directories
           listed  in  the  path  variable  to account for new commands added.
           Recompute the internal hash table of the  contents  of  directories
           listed in the cdpath variable to account for new directories added.

       repeat count command

           Repeat command count times. command is subject to the same restric‐
           tions as with the one-line if statement.

       set [var [= value ] ]
       set var[n] = word

           With no arguments, set displays the values of all shell  variables.
           Multiword  values  are  displayed as a parenthesized list. With the
           var argument alone, set assigns an empty (null) value to the  vari‐
           able  var.  With  arguments  of the form var  =  value  set assigns
           value to var, where value is one of:

           word          A single word (or quoted string).

           (wordlist)    A space-separated list of words enclosed in parenthe‐

           Values are command and filename expanded before being assigned. The
           form setvar[n] =  word replaces the n'th word in a multiword  value
           with word.

       setenv [VAR [word ] ]

           With  no arguments, setenv displays all environment variables. With
           the VAR argument, setenv sets the environment variable VAR  to have
           an  empty  (null)  value. (By convention, environment variables are
           normally given upper-case names.) With both VAR and word arguments,
           setenv  sets the environment variable NAME to the value word, which
           must be either a single word or a quoted string. The most  commonly
           used environment variables, USER, TERM, and PATH, are automatically
           imported to and exported from the csh  variables  user,  term,  and
           path.  There  is  no need to use setenv for these. In addition, the
           shell sets the PWD environment variable from the csh  variable  cwd
           whenever the latter changes.

           The  environment  variables LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, LC_COL‐
           LATE,  LC_NUMERIC,  and  LC_MONETARY  take  immediate  effect  when
           changed within the C shell.

           If  any  of  the  LC_*  variables  (LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME,
           LC_COLLATE, LC_NUMERIC, and LC_MONETARY) (see environ(7))  are  not
           set  in  the  environment, the operational behavior of csh for each
           corresponding locale category is determined by  the  value  of  the
           LANG  environment variable. If LC_ALL is set, its contents are used
           to override both the LANG and the other LC_* variables. If none  of
           the above variables is set in the environment, the "C" (U.S. style)
           locale determines how csh behaves.

           LC_CTYPE       Determines how csh handles characters. When LC_CTYPE
                          is  set to a valid value, csh can display and handle
                          text and filenames containing valid  characters  for
                          that locale.

           LC_MESSAGES    Determines  how  diagnostic and informative messages
                          are presented. This includes the language and  style
                          of  the messages and the correct form of affirmative
                          and negative responses. In the "C" locale, the  mes‐
                          sages are presented in the default form found in the
                          program itself (in most cases, U.S./English).

           LC_NUMERIC     Determines the value of the radix character, decimal
                          point,  (.)  in the "C" locale) and thousand separa‐
                          tor, empty string ("") in the "C" locale).

       shift [variable ]

           The components of argv, or variable, if supplied,  are  shifted  to
           the  left,  discarding  the first component. It is an error for the
           variable not to be set or to have a null value.

       source [-h] name

           Reads commands from name. source commands can  be  nested,  but  if
           they  are  nested too deeply the shell can run out of file descrip‐
           tors. An error in a sourced file at any level terminates all nested
           source commands.

           -h    Place commands from the file name on the history list without
                 executing them.

       stop %jobid ...

           Stop the current or specified background job.

       stop pid ...

           Stop the specified process, pid. (see ps(1)).


           Stop the shell in its tracks, much as if it had been  sent  a  stop
           signal  with  ^Z. This is most often used to stop shells started by

       switch (string)
       case label:

           Each label is successively matched, against the  specified  string,
           which  is first command and filename expanded. The file metacharac‐
           ters *, ? and [...] can be used in the case labels, which are vari‐
           able expanded. If none of the labels match before a "default" label
           is found, execution begins  after  the  default  label.  Each  case
           statement and the default statement must appear at the beginning of
           a line. The command breaksw continues execution  after  the  endsw.
           Otherwise  control falls through subsequent case and default state‐
           ments as with C. If no label matches and there is no default,  exe‐
           cution continues after the endsw.

       time [command ]

           With  no argument, print a summary of time used by this C shell and
           its children. With an optional command, execute command and print a
           summary  of the time it uses. As of this writing, the time built-in
           command does NOT compute the last 6 fields of output, rendering the
           output to erroneously report the value 0 for these fields.

             example %time ls -R
                     9.0u 11.0s 3:32 10% 0+0k 0+0io 0pf+0w

           (See  the Environment Variables and Predefined Shell Variables sub-
           section on the time variable.)

       umask [value ]

           Display the file creation mask. With value, set the  file  creation
           mask.  With  value  given in octal, the user can turn off any bits,
           but cannot turn on bits to allow  new  permissions.  Common  values
           include  077,  restricting all permissions from everyone else; 002,
           giving complete access  to  the  group,  and  read  (and  directory
           search)  access  to  others;  or  022,  giving  read (and directory
           search) but not write permission to the group and others.

       unalias pattern

           Discard aliases that match  (filename  substitution)  pattern.  All
           aliases are removed by `unalias *'.


           Disable the internal hash tables for the path and cdpath variables.

       unlimit [-h] [resource ]

           Remove  a limitation on resource. If no resource is specified, then
           all resource limitations are removed. See the  description  of  the
           limit command for the list of resource names.

           -h    Remove  corresponding  hard  limits. Only the privileged user
                 can do this.

       unset pattern

           Remove variables whose names match (filename substitution) pattern.
           All  variables  are  removed by `unset *'; this has noticeably dis‐
           tasteful side effects.

       unsetenv variable

           Remove variable from the environment. As with unset, pattern match‐
           ing is not performed.


           Wait  for  background  jobs  to finish (or for an interrupt) before

       while (expr)

           While expr is true (evaluates to nonzero), repeat commands  between
           the while and the matching end statement. break and continue can be
           used to terminate or continue the loop prematurely. The  while  and
           end must appear alone on their input lines. If the shell's input is
           a terminal, it prompts for commands with a question-mark until  the
           end command is entered and then performs the commands in the loop.

       % [job ] [&]

           Bring  the  current  or  indicated  job to the foreground. With the
           ampersand, continue running job in the background.

       @ [var =expr]
       @ [var[n]=expr]

           With no arguments, display the values for all shell variables. With
           arguments,  set  the variable var, or the n'th word in the value of
           var, to the value that expr evaluates to. (If [n] is supplied, both
           var and its n'th component must already exist.)

           If  the  expression  contains the characters >, <, &, or |, then at
           least this part of expr must be placed within parentheses.

           The operators *=, +=, and so forth, are  available  as  in  C.  The
           space separating the name from the assignment operator is optional.
           Spaces are, however, mandatory in  separating  components  of  expr
           that would otherwise be single words.

           Special  postfix operators, ++ and −−, increment or decrement name,

   Environment Variables and Predefined Shell Variables
       Unlike the Bourne shell, the C shell maintains  a  distinction  between
       environment variables, which are automatically exported to processes it
       invokes, and shell variables, which are not. Both  types  of  variables
       are  treated  similarly under variable substitution. The shell sets the
       variables argv, cwd, home, path, prompt, shell, and  status  upon  ini‐
       tialization.  The  shell  copies the environment variable USER into the
       shell variable user, TERM into term, and HOME  into  home,  and  copies
       each  back  into the respective environment variable whenever the shell
       variables are reset. PATH and path are similarly handled. You need only
       set  path  once  in the .cshrc or .login file. The environment variable
       PWD is set from cwd whenever the latter changes.  The  following  shell
       variables have predefined meanings:

       argv         Argument list. Contains the list of command line arguments
                    supplied to the current  invocation  of  the  shell.  This
                    variable determines the value of the positional parameters
                    $1, $2, and so on.

       cdpath       Contains a list of directories to be searched by  the  cd,
                    chdir,  and  popd commands, if the directory argument each
                    accepts is not a subdirectory of the current directory.

       cwd          The full pathname of the current directory.

       echo         Echo commands (after substitutions) just before execution.

       fignore      A list of filename  suffixes  to  ignore  when  attempting
                    filename completion. Typically the single word `.o'.

       filec        Enable  filename  completion,  in which case the Control-d
                    character EOT and the ESC character have special  signifi‐
                    cance when typed in at the end of a terminal input line:

                    EOT    Print  a  list of all filenames that start with the
                           preceding string.

                    ESC    Replace the preceding string with the longest unam‐
                           biguous extension.

       hardpaths    If  set,  pathnames in the directory stack are resolved to
                    contain no symbolic-link components.

       histchars    A two-character string. The first character replaces !  as
                    the  history-substitution  character.  The second replaces
                    the carat (^) for quick substitutions.

       history      The number of lines saved in  the  history  list.  A  very
                    large  number  can  use up all of the C shell's memory. If
                    not set, the C shell saves only the most recent command.

       home         The user's home directory. The  filename  expansion  of  ~
                    refers to the value of this variable.

       ignoreeof    If  set,  the  shell ignores EOF from terminals. This pro‐
                    tects against accidentally killing a C shell by  typing  a

       mail         A  list of files where the C shell checks for mail. If the
                    first word of the value is a number, it specifies  a  mail
                    checking interval in seconds (default 5 minutes).

       nobeep       Suppress  the  bell  during command completion when asking
                    the C shell to extend an ambiguous filename.

       noclobber    Restrict output redirection so that existing files are not
                    destroyed  by accident. > redirections can only be made to
                    new files. >> redirections can only be  made  to  existing

       noglob       Inhibit  filename  substitution.  This  is  most useful in
                    shell scripts once filenames (if any) are obtained and  no
                    further expansion is desired.

       nonomatch    Return  the  filename substitution pattern, rather than an
                    error, if the pattern is not matched.  Malformed  patterns
                    still result in errors.

       notify       If  set,  the  shell  notifies you immediately as jobs are
                    completed, rather than waiting until just before issuing a

       path         The  list  of directories in which to search for commands.
                    path is initialized from the  environment  variable  PATH,
                    which  the  C  shell updates whenever path changes. A null
                    word ('') specifies the current directory. The default  is
                    typically  (/usr/bin  .).  One  can  override this initial
                    search path upon csh start-up by setting it in  .cshrc  or
                    .login  (for  login  shells  only). If path becomes unset,
                    only full pathnames execute. An interactive C  shell  nor‐
                    mally  hashes the contents of the directories listed after
                    reading .cshrc, and whenever path is reset.  If  new  com‐
                    mands  are added, use the rehash command to update the ta‐

       prompt       The string an interactive C shell prompts with.  Noninter‐
                    active shells leave the prompt variable unset. Aliases and
                    other commands in the .cshrc file  that  are  only  useful
                    interactively, can be placed after the following test: `if
                    ($?prompt == 0) exit', to reduce startup time  for  nonin‐
                    teractive  shells. A ! in the prompt string is replaced by
                    the current event number. The default prompt is  hostname%
                    for mere mortals, or hostname# for the privileged user.

                    The setting of $prompt has three meanings:

                    $prompt not set          non-interactive    shell,    test

                    $prompt set but == ""    .cshrc  called  by  the  which(1)

                    $prompt set and != ""    normal interactive shell.

       savehist     The  number  of lines from the history list that are saved
                    in ~/.history when the user logs  out.  Large  values  for
                    savehist slow down the C shell during startup.

       shell        The  file  in  which  the C shell resides. This is used in
                    forking shells to interpret files that have  execute  bits
                    set, but that are not executable by the system.

       status       The  status  returned  by the most recent command. If that
                    command terminated abnormally, 0200 is added to  the  sta‐
                    tus. Built-in commands that fail return exit status 1; all
                    other built-in commands set status to 0.

       time         Control automatic timing of commands. Can be supplied with
                    one or two values. The first is the reporting threshold in
                    CPU seconds. The second is a string of tags and text indi‐
                    cating  which  resources  to report on. A tag is a percent
                    sign (%) followed by a single upper-case letter  (unrecog‐
                    nized tags print as text):

                    %D    Average  amount of unshared data space used in Kilo‐

                    %E    Elapsed (wallclock) time for the command.

                    %F    Page faults.

                    %I    Number of block input operations.

                    %K    Average amount of unshared stack space used in Kilo‐

                    %M    Maximum  real  memory  used  during execution of the

                    %O    Number of block output operations.

                    %P    Total CPU time — U (user) plus S  (system)  —  as  a
                          percentage of E (elapsed) time.

                    %S    Number of seconds of CPU time consumed by the kernel
                          on behalf of the user's process.

                    %U    Number of seconds of CPU time devoted to the  user's

                    %W    Number of swaps.

                    %X    Average amount of shared memory used in Kilobytes.

                    The  default  summary display outputs from the %U, %S, %E,
                    %P, %X, %D, %I, %O, %F, and %W tags, in that order.

       verbose      Display each  command  after  history  substitution  takes

       ~/.cshrc       Read at beginning of execution by each shell.

       ~/.login       Read by login shells after .cshrc at login.

       ~/.logout      Read by login shells at logout.

       ~/.history     Saved history for use at next login.

       /usr/bin/sh    The  Bourne shell, for shell scripts not starting with a

       /tmp/sh*       Temporary file for `<<'.

       /etc/passwd    Source of home directories for `~name'.

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)

       ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os _ CSIEnabled

       bc(1),  echo(1),  limit(1),   login(1),   ls(1),   more(1),   pfcsh(1),
       pfexec(1),   ps(1),   sh(1),  shell_builtins(1),  which(1),  access(2),
       exec(2),   fork(2),   pipe(2),    termio(4I),    a.out(5),    ascii(7),
       attributes(7), environ(7), sysdef(8), df(8), swap(8)

       You have stopped jobs.    You  attempted  to  exit  the  C  shell  with
                                 stopped jobs under job control. An  immediate
                                 second  attempt to exit succeeds, terminating
                                 the stopped jobs.

       The use of setuid shell scripts is strongly discouraged.

       Words can be no longer than 1024  bytes.  The  system  limits  argument
       lists to 1,048,576 bytes. However, the maximum number of arguments to a
       command for which filename expansion applies is 1706. Command substitu‐
       tions can expand to no more characters than are allowed in the argument
       list. To detect looping, the shell restricts the number of  alias  sub‐
       stitutions on a single line to 20.

       When a command is restarted from a stop, the shell prints the directory
       it started in if this is different from the current directory; this can
       be  misleading  (that is, wrong) as the job might have changed directo‐
       ries internally.

       Shell  built-in  functions  are  not   stoppable/restartable.   Command
       sequences  of  the  form  a   b  c are also not handled gracefully when
       stopping is attempted. If you suspend b, the shell  never  executes  c.
       This  is  especially noticeable if the expansion results from an alias.
       It can be avoided by placing the sequence in parentheses  to  force  it
       into a subshell.

       Commands within loops, prompted for by ?, are not placed in the history

       Control structures should be parsed rather  than  being  recognized  as
       built-in  commands. This would allow control commands to be placed any‐
       where, to be combined with |, and to be used with & and ; metasyntax.

       It should be possible to use the : modifiers on the output  of  command
       substitutions. There are two problems with : modifier usage on variable
       substitutions: not all of the modifiers are  available,  and  only  one
       modifier per substitution is allowed.

       The  g (global) flag in history substitutions applies only to the first
       match in each word, rather than all matches in all  words.  The  common
       text editors consistently do the latter when given the g flag in a sub‐
       stitution command.

       Quoting conventions are confusing. Overriding the escape  character  to
       force  variable  substitutions within double quotes is counterintuitive
       and inconsistent with the Bourne shell.

       Symbolic links can fool the shell. Setting the hardpaths variable alle‐
       viates this.

       It is up to the user to manually remove all duplicate pathnames accrued
       from using built-in commands more than once, as shown below:

         set path = pathnames
         setenv PATH = pathnames

       These often occur because a shell script or a .cshrc  file  does  some‐
       thing like

         `set path=(/usr/local /usr/hosts $path)'

       to ensure that the named directories are in the pathname list.

       The  only  way  to  direct the standard output and standard error sepa‐
       rately is by invoking a subshell, as follows:

         command > outfile ) >& errorfile

       Although robust enough for general use, adventures  into  the  esoteric
       periphery of the C shell can reveal unexpected quirks.

       If  you start csh as a login shell and you do not have a .login in your
       home directory, then the csh reads in the /etc/.login.

       When the shell executes a shell script that attempts to execute a  non-
       existent command interpreter, the shell returns an erroneous diagnostic
       message that the shell script file does not exist.

       As of this writing, the time built-in command does not compute the last
       6  fields  of  output,  rendering  the output to erroneously report the
       value 0 for these fields:

         example %time ls -R
                 9.0u 11.0s 3:32 10% 0+0k 0+0io 0pf+0w

Oracle Solaris 11.4               16 Aug 2017                           csh(1)
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