zip(1) 맨 페이지 - 윈디하나의 솔라나라




     zip - package and compress (archive) files

     zip [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [--longoption  ...]
     [-b  path] [-n suffixes] [-t date] [-tt date] [zipfile [file
     ...]]  [-xi list]

     zipcloak (see separate man page)

     zipnote (see separate man page)

     zipsplit (see separate man page)

     Note:  Command line processing in zip has  been  changed  to
     support  long  options  and handle all options and arguments
     more consistently.  Some old command lines  that  depend  on
     command line inconsistencies may no longer work.

     zip is a compression and file packaging  utility  for  Unix,
     VMS, MSDOS, OS/2, Windows 9x/NT/XP, Minix, Atari, Macintosh,
     Amiga, and Acorn RISC OS.  It is analogous to a  combination
     of  the Unix commands tar(1) and compress(1) and is compati-
     ble with PKZIP (Phil Katz's ZIP for MSDOS systems).

     A companion program (unzip(1L)) unpacks zip  archives.   The
     zip  and  unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced
     by PKZIP (supporting most PKZIP features up to PKZIP version
     4.6),  and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced
     by zip (with some exceptions, notably streamed archives, but
     recent  changes  in  the  zip  file  standard may facilitate
     better compatibility).  zip version 3.0 is  compatible  with
     PKZIP  2.04  and also supports the Zip64 extensions of PKZIP
     4.5 which allow archives as well as files to exceed the pre-
     vious  2  GB  limit (4 GB in some cases).  zip also now sup-
     ports bzip2 compression if the  bzip2  library  is  included
     when zip is compiled.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10 cannot extract
     files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 3.0. You must use  PKUN-
     ZIP  2.04g  or  unzip 5.0p1  (or  later versions) to extract

     See the EXAMPLES section at the  bottom  of  this  page  for
     examples of some typical uses of zip.

     Large Archives and Zip64.  zip automatically uses the  Zip64
     extensions  when  files  larger  than  4  GB are added to an
     archive, an archive containing Zip64 entries is updated  (if
     the  resulting  archive  still needs Zip64), the size of the
     archive will exceed 4 GB, or when the number of  entries  in
     the  archive  will exceed about 64K.  Zip64 is also used for
     archives streamed from standard input as the  size  of  such
     archives  are  not known in advance, but the option -fz- can
     be used to force zip to create PKZIP 2  compatible  archives
     (as  long as Zip64 extensions are not needed).  You must use
     a PKZIP 4.5 compatible unzip, such as unzip 6.0 or later, to
     extract files using the Zip64 extensions.

     In addition, streamed archives, entries encrypted with stan-
     dard  encryption,  or  split archives created with the pause
     option may not be compatible with PKZIP as data  descriptors
     are used and PKZIP at the time of this writing does not sup-
     port data descriptors (but recent changes in the PKWare pub-
     lished  zip  standard  now include some support for the data
     descriptor format zip uses).

     Mac OS X.  Though previous Mac versions had  their  own  zip
     port,  zip  supports  Mac  OS X as part of the Unix port and
     most Unix features apply.  References to "MacOS" below  gen-
     erally refer to MacOS versions older than OS X.  Support for
     some Mac OS features in the Unix Mac  OS  X  port,  such  as
     resource forks, is expected in the next zip release.

     For a brief help on zip and unzip, run each without specify-
     ing any parameters on the command line.

     The program is useful for packaging a set of files for  dis-
     tribution; for archiving files; and for saving disk space by
     temporarily compressing unused files or directories.

     The zip program puts one or more  compressed  files  into  a
     single  zip  archive, along with information about the files
     (name, path, date, time of  last  modification,  protection,
     and  check information to verify file integrity).  An entire
     directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with  a
     single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common
     for text files.  zip has one compression method  (deflation)
     and  can  also  store  files without compression.  (If bzip2
     support is added, zip can also compress using bzip2 compres-
     sion,  but such entries require a reasonably modern unzip to
     decompress.  When bzip2 compression is selected, it replaces
     deflation as the default method.)  zip automatically chooses
     the better of the two (deflation or store or,  if  bzip2  is
     selected, bzip2 or store) for each file to be compressed.

     Command format.  The basic command format is

          zip options archive inpath inpath ...

     where archive is a new or existing zip archive and inpath is
     a  directory  or  file  path optionally including wildcards.
     When given the name of an existing  zip  archive,  zip  will
     replace identically named entries in the zip archive (match-
     ing the relative names as stored  in  the  archive)  or  add
     entries  for  new names.  For example, if exists and
     contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the directory foo con-
     tains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

          zip -r foo

     or more concisely

          zip -r foo foo

     will replace foo/file1  in  and  add  foo/file3  to  After this, contains foo/file1, foo/file2,
     and foo/file3, with foo/file2 unchanged from before.

     So if before the zip command is executed has:

           foo/file1 foo/file2

     and directory foo has:

           file1 file3

     then will have:

           foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

     where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

     -@ file lists.  If a file list is specified as  -@  [Not  on
     MacOS],  zip  takes  the  list  of input files from standard
     input instead of from the command line.  For example,

          zip -@ foo

     will store the  files  listed  one  per  line  on  stdin  in

     Under Unix, this option can be used to  powerful  effect  in
     conjunction  with  the  find (1)  command.   For example, to
     archive all the C source files in the current directory  and
     its subdirectories:

          find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

     (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from
     expanding it).

     Streaming input and output.  zip will also accept  a  single
     dash ("-") as the zip file name, in which case it will write
     the zip file to standard output, allowing the output  to  be
     piped to another program. For example:

          zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

     would write the zip output  directly  to  a  tape  with  the
     specified  block  size  for  the  purpose  of backing up the
     current directory.

     zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of  a  file
     to  be  compressed, in which case it will read the file from
     standard input, allowing zip to take input from another pro-
     gram. For example:

          tar cf - . | zip backup -

     would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose
     of backing up the current directory. This generally produces
     better compression than the previous example  using  the  -r
     option  because zip can take advantage of redundancy between
     files. The backup can be restored using the command

          unzip -p backup | tar xf -

     When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal,
     zip acts as a filter, compressing standard input to standard
     output.  For example,

          tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

     is equivalent to

          tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

     zip archives created in this manner can  be  extracted  with
     the  program  funzip which is provided in the unzip package,
     or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package (but some
     gunzip  may  not  support  this if zip used the Zip64 exten-
     sions). For example:

          dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

     The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

     If Zip64 support for large files and archives is enabled and
     zip  is  used  as a filter, zip creates a Zip64 archive that
     requires a PKZIP 4.5 or later compatible unzip to  read  it.
     This  is  to  avoid amgibuities in the zip file structure as
     defined in the current zip standard (PKWARE  AppNote)  where
     the  decision  to  use Zip64 needs to be made before data is
     written for the entry, but for a stream the size of the data
     is  not  known  at  that  point.  If the data is known to be
     smaller than 4 GB, the option -fz- can be  used  to  prevent
     use  of  Zip64, but zip will exit with an error if Zip64 was
     in fact needed.   zip 3  and  unzip 6  and  later  can  read
     archives  with  Zip64  entries.  Also, zip removes the Zip64
     extensions if not needed when  archive  entries  are  copied
     (see the -U (--copy) option).

     When directing the output to another  file,  note  that  all
     options  should be before the redirection including -x.  For

          zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x  donotinclude.h  orthis.h  >

     Zip files.  When changing an existing zip archive, zip  will
     write  a  temporary  file  with  the  new contents, and only
     replace the old one when the process  of  creating  the  new
     version has been completed without error.

     If the name of the zip archive does not  contain  an  exten-
     sion,  the  extension is added. If the name already contains
     an extension other  than  the  existing  extension  is  kept
     unchanged.   However,  split  archives  (archives split over
     multiple files) require  the  .zip  extension  on  the  last

     Scanning and reading files.  When zip starts, it  scans  for
     files  to  process  (if  needed).  If this scan takes longer
     than about 5 seconds, zip will display  a  "Scanning  files"
     message  and  start displaying progress dots every 2 seconds
     or every so many entries processed, whichever takes  longer.
     If  there is more than 2 seconds between dots it could indi-
     cate that finding each file is taking time and could mean  a
     slow  network connection for example.  (Actually the initial
     file scan is a two-step process where the directory scan  is
     followed  by a sort and these two steps are separated with a
     space in the dots.  If updating an existing archive, a space
     also appears between the existing file scan and the new file
     scan.)  The scanning files dots are not  controlled  by  the
     -ds  dot  size option, but the dots are turned off by the -q
     quiet option.  The -sf show files option can be used to scan
     for files and get the list of files scanned without actually
     processing them.

     If zip is not able to read a file, it issues a  warning  but
     continues.   See  the  -MM  option below for more on how zip
     handles patterns that are not matched and files that are not
     readable.   If  some files were skipped, a warning is issued
     at the end of the zip operation noting how many  files  were
     read and how many skipped.

     Command modes.  zip now supports two distinct types of  com-
     mand modes, external and internal.  The external modes (add,
     update, and freshen) read files from  the  file  system  (as
     well  as  from an existing archive) while the internal modes
     (delete and copy)  operate  exclusively  on  entries  in  an
     existing archive.

          Update existing entries and  add  new  files.   If  the
          archive  does not exist create it.  This is the default

     update (-u)
          Update existing entries if newer on the file system and
          add  new  files.   If  the archive does not exist issue
          warning then create a new archive.

     freshen (-f)
          Update existing entries of an archive if newer  on  the
          file system.  Does not add new files to the archive.

     delete (-d)
          Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

     copy (-U)
          Select entries in an existing archive and copy them  to
          a  new archive.  This new mode is similar to update but
          command line patterns select entries  in  the  existing
          archive  rather  than files from the file system and it
          uses the --out option to write the resulting archive to
          a  new  file  rather  than update the existing archive,
          leaving the original archive unchanged.

     The new File Sync option (-FS)  is  also  considered  a  new
     mode,  though  it is similar to update.  This mode synchron-
     izes the archive with the files on the  OS,  only  replacing
     files in the archive if the file time or size of the OS file
     is different, adding new files, and  deleting  entries  from
     the  archive  where there is no matching file.  As this mode
     can delete entries  from  the  archive,  consider  making  a
     backup copy of the archive.

     Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

     See each option description below for details and the  EXAM-
     PLES section below for examples.

     Split archives.  zip version 3.0 and later can create  split
     archives.   A  split archive is a standard zip archive split
     over multiple files.  (Note that split archives are not just
     archives  split  in to pieces, as the offsets of entries are
     now based on the start of  each  split.   Concatenating  the
     pieces together will invalidate these offsets, but unzip can
     usually deal with it.  zip will usually  refuse  to  process
     such  a spliced archive unless the -FF fix option is used to
     fix the offsets.)

     One use of split archives is storing a large archive on mul-
     tiple  removable  media.   For a split archive with 20 split
     files the files are typically named  (replace  ARCHIVE  with
     the  name  of  your  archive) ARCHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ...,
     ARCHIVE.z19,  Note that the last  file  is  the
     .zip  file.   In contrast, spanned archives are the original
     multi-disk archive  generally  requiring  floppy  disks  and
     using  volume  labels  to  store disk numbers.  zip supports
     split archives but not spanned archives, though a  procedure
     exists  for  converting  split archives of the right size to
     spanned archives.  The reverse is also true, where each file
     of  a  spanned  archive can be copied in order to files with
     the above names to create a split archive.

     Use -s to set the split size and  create  a  split  archive.
     The  size is given as a number followed optionally by one of
     k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB) (the default is  m).   The
     -sp  option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow
     changing removable media, for example, but read the descrip-
     tions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

     Though zip does not update split archives, zip provides  the
     new  option  -O  (--output-file  or  --out)  to  allow split
     archives to be updated and saved  in  a  new  archive.   For

          zip foo.c bar.c --out

     reads archive, even if split, adds  the  files
     foo.c  and  bar.c,  and  writes  the  resulting  archive  to    If    is    split    then  defaults  to  the same split size.  Be aware
     that if and any split files that are  created
     with  it  already  exist,  these  are  always overwritten as
     needed without warning.  This may be changed in the future.

     Unicode.  Though the zip standard requires storing paths  in
     an  archive using a specific character set, in practice zips
     have stored paths in archives in whatever the local  charac-
     ter  set  is.   This  creates  problems  when  an archive is
     created or updated on a system using one character  set  and
     then extracted on another system using a different character
     set.  When compiled with Unicode support  enabled  on  plat-
     forms that support wide characters, zip now stores, in addi-
     tion to the standard local path for backward  compatibility,
     the  UTF-8  translation of the path.  This provides a common
     universal character set for storing paths that allows  these
     paths  to  be  fully extracted on other systems that support
     Unicode and to match as close as possible  on  systems  that

     On Win32  systems  where  paths  are  internally  stored  as
     Unicode  but  represented  in  the local character set, it's
     possible that some paths will  be  skipped  during  a  local
     character  set directory scan.  zip with Unicode support now
     can read and store these paths.  Note that  Win  9x  systems
     and FAT file systems don't fully support Unicode.

     Be aware that console windows on Win32 and Unix,  for  exam-
     ple,  sometimes  don't accurately show all characters due to
     how each operating system switches  in  character  sets  for
     display.   However,  directory  navigation tools should show
     the correct paths if the needed fonts are loaded.

     Command line format.  This version of zip has  updated  com-
     mand line processing and support for long options.

     Short options take the form

          -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

     where s is a one or two character  short  option.   A  short
     option  that  takes  a value is last in an argument and any-
     thing after it is taken as the value.  If the option can  be
     negated  and  "-" immediately follows the option, the option
     is negated.  Short options can also  be  given  as  separate

          -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-
          ][value][=value][ value] ...

     Short options in general take values either as part  of  the
     same  argument  or as the following argument.  An optional =
     is also supported.  So





          -tt mmddyyyy

     all work.  The -x and -i options accept lists of values  and
     use a slightly different format described below.  See the -x
     and -i options.

     Long options take the form

          --longoption[-][=value][ value]

     where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter  name,
     can  include  a  trailing  dash to negate the option (if the
     option supports it), and can have a value (option  argument)
     specified  by  preceeding it with = (no spaces).  Values can
     also follow the argument.  So



          --before-date mmddyyyy

     both work.

     Long option names can be shortened to  the  shortest  unique
     abbreviation.   See  the option descriptions below for which
     support long options.  To avoid confusion, avoid  abbreviat-
     ing  a  negatable  option with an embedded dash ("-") at the
     dash if you plan to negate it (the parser would  consider  a
     trailing  dash,  such  as for the option --some-option using
     --some- as the option, as part of the  name  rather  than  a
     negating  dash).  This may be changed to force the last dash
     in --some- to be negating in the future.

          [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

          Adjust self-extracting  executable  archive.   A  self-
          extracting  executable archive is created by prepending
          the SFX stub to an  existing  archive.  The  -A  option
          tells  zip  to  adjust  the entry offsets stored in the
          archive to take into account this "preamble" data.

     Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are  a  special
     case.   At present, only the Amiga port of zip is capable of
     adjusting or updating these without corrupting them. -J  can
     be  used  to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be

          [WIN32]  Once archive is created (and tested if  -T  is
          used,  which is recommended), clear the archive bits of
          files processed.  WARNING:  Once the bits  are  cleared
          they  are  cleared.   You  may want to use the -sf show
          files option to store the list of  files  processed  in
          case the archive operation must be repeated.  Also con-
          sider using the -MM must  match  option.   Be  sure  to
          check  out -DF as a possibly better way to do incremen-
          tal backups.

          [WIN32]  Only include files that have the  archive  bit
          set.   Directories  are  not  stored  when -AS is used,
          though by  default  the  paths  of  entries,  including
          directories,  are  stored  as  usual and can be used by
          most unzips to recreate directories.

          The archive bit is set by the operating system  when  a
          file is modified and, if used with -AC, -AS can provide
          an  incremental  backup  capability.   However,   other
          applications  can modify the archive bit and it may not
          be a reliable indicator of  which  files  have  changed
          since  the last archive operation.  Alternative ways to
          create incremental backups are using  -t  to  use  file
          dates,  though  this  won't  catch  old files copied to
          directories being archived, and -DF to  create  a  dif-
          ferential archive.

          [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary  (default
          is text).

     -Bn  [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting  options  with  n
          defined as
          bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
          bit   1:  Use  LF  rather  than  CR/LF   as   delimiter
          bit  2: Space fill  record  to  maximum  record  length
          bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
          bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for  unstructured

     -b path
     --temp-path path
          Use the specified path for the temporary  zip  archive.
          For example:

               zip -b /tmp stuff *

          will put the temporary zip  archive  in  the  directory
          /tmp,  copying  over to the current directory
          when done. This  option  is  useful  when  updating  an
          existing  archive  and  the file system containing this
          old archive does not have enough space to hold both old
          and new archives at the same time.  It may also be use-
          ful when streaming in some cases to avoid the need  for
          data  descriptors.   Note  that  using  this option may
          require zip take additional time to  copy  the  archive
          file when done to the destination file system.

          Add one-line comments for each file.   File  operations
          (adding, updating) are done first, and the user is then
          prompted for a one-line comment for each  file.   Enter
          the  comment  followed by return, or just return for no

          [VMS]  Preserve case all on VMS.  Negating this  option
          (-C-) downcases.

          [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this option
          (-C2-) downcases.

          [VMS]  Preserve case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option
          (-C5-) downcases.

          Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For  exam-

               zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

          will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all  of  the  files
          that  start  with foo/harry/, and all of the files that
          end with .o (in any path).  Note  that  shell  pathname
          expansion  has been inhibited with backslashes, so that
          zip can see the asterisks, enabling zip to match on the
          contents  of the zip archive instead of the contents of
          the current directory.  (The backslashes are  not  used
          on  MSDOS-based  platforms.)   Can  also  use quotes to
          escape the asterisks as in

               zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

          Not escaping the asterisks on a system where the  shell
          expands  wildcards  could result in the asterisks being
          converted to a list of files in the  current  directory
          and that list used to delete entries from the archive.

          Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names
          in  the  zip archive.  This requires that file names be
          entered in upper case if they were zipped by  PKZIP  on
          an  MSDOS  system.   (We  considered  making  this case
          insensitive on systems where paths were  case  insensi-
          tive, but it is possible the archive came from a system
          where case does matter and the  archive  could  include
          both  Bar  and  bar  as separate files in the archive.)
          But see the new  option  -ic  to  ignore  case  in  the

          Display running byte counts showing  the  bytes  zipped
          and the bytes to go.

          Display running count of entries zipped and entries  to

          Display dots while each  entry  is  zipped  (except  on
          ports that have their own progress indicator).  See -ds
          below for setting dot size.  The default is a dot every
          10  MB  of  input  file  processed.  The -v option also
          displays dots (previously at a much  higher  rate  than
          this  but  now -v also defaults to 10 MB) and this rate
          is also controlled by -ds.

          [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the
          archive.    Good   for   exporting   files  to  foreign
          operating-systems.  Resource-forks will be  ignored  at

          Display progress dots for the archive  instead  of  for
          each file.  The command

                   zip -qdgds 10m

          will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.

     -ds size
     --dot-size size
          Set  amount  of  input  file  processed  for  each  dot
          displayed.  See -dd to enable displaying dots.  Setting
          this option implies -dd.  Size  is  in  the  format  nm
          where n is a number and m is a multiplier.  Currently m
          can be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB), so  if  n  is
          100  and  m  is  k, size would be 100k which is 100 KB.
          The default is 10 MB.

          The -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10
          MB  also.  This rate is also controlled by this option.
          A size of 0 turns dots off.

          This option does not control the dots from  the  "Scan-
          ning  files" message as zip scans for input files.  The
          dot size for that is fixed at  2  seconds  or  a  fixed
          number of entries, whichever is longer.

          Display the uncompressed size of each entry.

          Display the volume (disk) number each  entry  is  being
          read  from,  if  reading an existing archive, and being
          written to.

          Do not create entries in the  zip  archive  for  direc-
          tories.   Directory  entries  are created by default so
          that their attributes can be saved in the zip  archive.
          The  environment  variable ZIPOPT can be used to change
          the default options. For example under Unix with sh:

               ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

          (The variable  ZIPOPT  can  be  used  for  any  option,
          including  -i and -x using a new option format detailed
          below, and can include several options.) The option  -D
          is  a  shorthand  for -x "*/" but the latter previously
          could not be set as default in the  ZIPOPT  environment
          variable  as  the contents of ZIPOPT gets inserted near
          the beginning of the command line and the file list had
          to end at the end of the line.

          This version of zip does allow -x  and  -i  options  in
          ZIPOPT if the form

           -x file file ... @

          is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @)  ter-
          minates the list.

          Create an archive that contains  all  new  and  changed
          files since the original archive was created.  For this
          to work, the input file list and current directory must
          be the same as during the original zip operation.

          For example, if the existing archive was created using

               zip -r foofull .

          from the bar directory, then the command

               zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

          also from the bar directory creates the archive  foonew
          with  just the files not in foofull and the files where
          the size or file time of the files do not  match  those
          in foofull.

          Note that the timezone environment variable  TZ  should
          be  set  according  to  the local timezone in order for
          this option to work correctly.  A  change  in  timezone
          since  the original archive was created could result in
          no times matching and all files being included.

          A possible approach to backing up a directory might  be
          to  create  a  normal  archive  of  the contents of the
          directory as a full backup, then  use  this  option  to
          create incremental backups.

          Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using  a  pass-
          word  which is entered on the terminal in response to a
          prompt (this will not be echoed; if standard  error  is
          not  a tty, zip will exit with an error).  The password
          prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors.
          Note  that  the encryption is weak. For better security
          see gpg2(1) (portable to other systems)  or  encrypt(1)
          (Solaris archives).

          [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if  found)
          as filename.

          Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip  archive
          only  if  it  has  been modified more recently than the
          version already in the zip archive; unlike  the  update
          option  (-u)  this  will  not  add  files  that are not
          already in the zip archive.  For example:

               zip -f foo

          This command should be run from the same directory from
          which  the  original  zip  command was run, since paths
          stored in zip archives are always relative.

          Note that the timezone environment variable  TZ  should
          be set according to the local timezone in order for the
          -f, -u and -o options to work correctly.

          The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to
          do  with  the  differences between the Unix-format file
          times (always in GMT) and most of the  other  operating
          systems  (always  local time) and the necessity to com-
          pare the two.  A  typical  TZ  value  is  ``MET-1MEST''
          (Middle  European  time  with  automatic adjustment for
          ``summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

          The format is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such
          as MET, hh is the difference between GMT and local time
          such as -1 above, and DDD is the time  zone  when  day-
          light  savings time is in effect.  Leave off the DDD if
          there is no daylight savings time.  For the US  Eastern
          time zone EST5EDT.

          Fix the zip archive. The -F option can be used if  some
          portions  of  the  archive  are missing, but requires a
          reasonably intact central directory.  The input archive
          is scanned as usual, but zip will ignore some problems.
          The resulting archive should be valid, but  any  incon-
          sistent entries will be left out.

          When doubled as in -FF, the archive is scanned from the
          beginning and zip scans for special signatures to iden-
          tify the limits between the archive members. The single
          -F is more reliable if the archive is not too much dam-
          aged, so try this option first.

          If the archive is too damaged or the end has been trun-
          cated,  you  must  use  -FF.   This  is  a  change from
          zip 2.32, where the -F option is able to read  a  trun-
          cated  archive.   The -F option now more reliably fixes
          archives with minor damage and the -FF option is needed
          to  fix  archives  where  -F might have been sufficient

          Neither option will recover  archives  that  have  been
          incorrectly   transferred  in  ascii  mode  instead  of
          binary. After the repair, the -t option  of  unzip  may
          show  that some files have a bad CRC. Such files cannot
          be recovered; you can  remove  them  from  the  archive
          using the -d option of zip.

          Note that -FF may have  trouble  fixing  archives  that
          include   an  embedded  zip  archive  that  was  stored
          (without compression) in the archive and, depending  on
          the  damage,  it  may  find the entries in the embedded
          archive rather than the archive itself.  Try  -F  first
          as it does not have this problem.

          The format of the fix commands have changed.  For exam-
          ple, to fix the damaged archive,

               zip -F foo --out foofix

          tries  to  read  the  entries  normally,  copying  good
          entries to the new archive  If this doesn't
          work, as when the archive  is  truncated,  or  if  some
          entries  you  know  are in the archive are missed, then

               zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

          and  compare  the  resulting  archive  to  the  archive
          created  by  -F.   The  -FF option may create an incon-
          sistent archive.  Depending on what is damaged, you can
          then use the -F option to fix that archive.

          A split archive with missing split files can  be  fixed
          using -F if you have the last split of the archive (the
          .zip file).  If this file is missing, you must use  -FF
          to  fix  the  archive,  which  will  prompt you for the
          splits you have.

          Currently the fix options can't  recover  entries  that
          have a bad checksum or are otherwise damaged.

          [Unix]  Normally zip skips  reading  any  FIFOs  (named
          pipes)  encountered, as zip can hang if the FIFO is not
          being fed.  This option tells zip to read the  contents
          of any FIFO it finds.

          Synchronize the contents of an archive with  the  files
          on  the  OS.   Normally when an archive is updated, new
          files are added and changed files are updated but files
          that no longer exist on the OS are not deleted from the
          archive.  This option enables a new  mode  that  checks
          entries in the archive against the file system.  If the
          file time and file size of the entry  matches  that  of
          the  OS  file, the entry is copied from the old archive
          instead  of  being  read  from  the  file  system   and
          compressed.   If  the OS file has changed, the entry is
          read and compressed as usual.   If  the  entry  in  the
          archive  does  not match a file on the OS, the entry is
          deleted.  Enabling this option should  create  archives
          that  are  the same as new archives, but since existing
          entries are copied instead of compressed,  updating  an
          existing  archive  with  -FS  can  be  much faster than
          creating a new archive.  Also  consider  using  -u  for
          updating an archive.

          For this option to work, the archive should be  updated
          from  the same directory it was created in so the rela-
          tive paths match.  If few files are being  copied  from
          the  old  archive,  it  may  be  faster to create a new
          archive instead.

          Note that the timezone environment variable  TZ  should
          be  set  according  to  the local timezone in order for
          this option to work correctly.  A  change  in  timezone
          since  the original archive was created could result in
          no times matching and recompression of all files.

          This option deletes files from  the  archive.   If  you
          need  to  preserve the original archive, make a copy of
          the archive first or use the --out option to output the
          updated  archive  to a new file.  Even though it may be
          slower, creating a new archive with a new archive  name
          is  safer,  avoids  mismatches  between  archive and OS
          paths, and is preferred.

          Grow (append to) the specified zip archive, instead  of
          creating  a  new  one.  If  this  operation  fails, zip
          attempts to restore the archive to its original  state.
          If the restoration fails, the archive might become cor-
          rupted. This option is ignored when there's no existing
          archive  or  when  at  least one archive member must be
          updated or deleted.

          Display the zip help information (this also appears  if
          zip is run with no arguments).

          Display extended help including more  on  command  line
          format, pattern matching, and more obscure options.

     -i files
     --include files
          Include only the specified files, as in:

               zip -r foo . -i \*.c

          which will include only the files that end in .c in the
          current  directory  and  its  subdirectories. (Note for
          PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

               pkzip -rP foo *.c

          PKZIP does not allow  recursion  in  directories  other
          than  the current one.)  The backslash avoids the shell
          filename substitution, so that  the  name  matching  is
          performed by zip at all directory levels.  [This is for
          Unix and other systems where \  escapes the next  char-
          acter.  For other systems where the shell does not pro-
          cess * do not use \ and the above is

               zip -r foo . -i *.c

          Examples are for Unix unless otherwise specified.]   So
          to  include dir, a directory directly under the current
          directory, use

               zip -r foo . -i dir/\*


               zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

          to match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports
          without  wildcard  expansion in the shell such as MSDOS
          and Windows

               zip -r foo . -i dir/*

          is used.]  Note that currently the trailing / is needed
          for directories (as in

               zip -r foo . -i dir/

          to include directory dir).

          The long option form of the first example is

               zip -r foo . --include \*.c

          and does the same thing as the short option form.

          Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end
          of  the  command  line, this version actually allows -i
          (or --include) anywhere.  The list of files  terminates
          at  the  next  argument starting with -, the end of the
          command line, or the list  terminator  @  (an  argument
          that is just @).  So the above can be given as

               zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

          for example.  There must be a space between the  option
          and  the  first  file of a list.  For just one file you
          can use the single value form

               zip -i\*.c -r foo .

          (no space between option and value) or

               zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

          as additional examples.  The single value forms are not
          recommended  because they can be confusing and, in par-
          ticular, the -ifile format can cause  problems  if  the
          first  letter  of  file  combines with i to form a two-
          letter option starting with i.  Use -sc to see how your
          command line will be parsed.

          Also possible:

               zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

          which will only include the files in the current direc-
          tory  and its subdirectories that match the patterns in
          the file include.lst.

          Files to -i  and  -x  are  patterns  matching  internal
          archive paths.  See -R for more on patterns.

          [Acorn RISC OS] Don't scan through Image  files.   When
          used, zip will not consider Image files (eg. DOS parti-
          tions or Spark archives  when  SparkFS  is  loaded)  as
          directories but will store them as single files.

          For example, if you  have  SparkFS  loaded,  zipping  a
          Spark  archive  will  result  in a zipfile containing a
          directory (and its content) while using the `I'  option
          will  result  in  a zipfile containing a Spark archive.
          Obviously  this  second  case  will  also  be  obtained
          (without the `I' option) if SparkFS isn't loaded.

          [VMS, WIN32] Ignore case when matching archive entries.
          This option is only available on systems where the case
          of files is ignored.  On systems with  case-insensitive
          file  systems,  case  is normally ignored when matching
          files on the file system but  is  not  ignored  for  -f
          (freshen),  -d  (delete),  -U (copy), and similar modes
          when matching against  archive  entries  (currently  -f
          ignores  case  on  VMS)  because archive entries can be
          from systems where case does matter and names that  are
          the  same except for case can exist in an archive.  The
          -ic option makes all matching case  insensitive.   This
          can  result in multiple archive entries matching a com-
          mand line pattern.

          Store just the name of a saved file  (junk  the  path),
          and  do not store directory names. By default, zip will
          store the full path (relative  to  the  current  direc-

          [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete  path
          including  volume  will be stored. By default the rela-
          tive path will be stored.

          Strip any prepended data (e.g. a  SFX  stub)  from  the

          Attempt to convert the names and paths  to  conform  to
          MSDOS,  store  only  the MSDOS attribute (just the user
          write attribute from Unix), and mark the entry as  made
          under MSDOS (even though it was not); for compatibility
          with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which  cannot  handle  certain
          names such as those with two dots.

          Translate the Unix end-of-line character  LF  into  the
          MSDOS  convention CR LF. This option should not be used
          on binary files.  This option can be used  on  Unix  if
          the  zip  file  is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If
          the input files already contain CR LF, this option adds
          an  extra  CR.  This is to ensure that unzip -a on Unix
          will get back an exact copy of the  original  file,  to
          undo  the  effect  of  zip  -l.  See -ll for how binary
          files are handled.

          Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

     -lf logfilepath
     --logfile-path logfilepath
          Open a logfile at  the  given  path.   By  default  any
          existing  file at that location is overwritten, but the
          -la option will result in an existing file being opened
          and  the  new  log information appended to any existing
          information.  Only warnings and errors are  written  to
          the  log  unless the -li option is also given, then all
          information messages are also written to the log.

          Include information messages, such as file names  being
          zipped, in the log.  The default is to only include the
          command line, any warnings and errors,  and  the  final

          Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR  LF  into  Unix  LF.
          This  option  should not be used on binary files.  This
          option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended
          for unzip under Unix.  If the file is converted and the
          file is later determined to  be  binary  a  warning  is
          issued  and  the  file  is probably corrupted.  In this
          release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer  read
          from  a  file,  zip now issues a warning and skips line
          end conversion on the file.  This check seems to  catch
          all binary files tested, but the original check remains
          and if a converted  file  is  later  determined  to  be
          binary  that  warning is still issued.  A new algorithm
          is now being used  for  binary  detection  that  should
          allow  line  end  conversion of text files in UTF-8 and
          similar encodings.

          Display the zip license.

          Move the specified files into the  zip  archive;  actu-
          ally,  this  deletes the target directories/files after
          making  the  specified  zip  archive.  If  a  directory
          becomes empty after removal of the files, the directory
          is also removed. No deletions are done  until  zip  has
          created  the archive without error.  This is useful for
          conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous  so
          it  is  recommended to use it in combination with -T to
          test the archive before removing all input files.

          All input patterns must match at least one file and all
          input  files  found must be readable.  Normally when an
          input pattern does not  match  a  file  the  "name  not
          matched"  warning  is issued and when an input file has
          been found but later is missing or not readable a miss-
          ing  or not readable warning is issued.  In either case
          zip continues creating the  archive,  with  missing  or
          unreadable new files being skipped and files already in
          the archive remaining unchanged.  After the archive  is
          created, if any files were not readable zip returns the
          OPEN error code (18 on most  systems)  instead  of  the
          normal  success  return  (0 on most systems).  With -MM
          set, zip exits as soon  as  an  input  pattern  is  not
          matched  (whenever the "name not matched" warning would
          be issued) or when an input file is not  readable.   In
          either case zip exits with an OPEN error and no archive
          is created.

          This option is useful when a known list of files is  to
          be  zipped  so  any  missing  or  unreadable files will
          result in an error.  It is less useful when  used  with
          wildcards, but zip will still exit with an error if any
          input pattern doesn't match at least one  file  and  if
          any  matched  files  are  unreadable.   If  you want to
          create the archive anyway and  only  need  to  know  if
          files  were  skipped,  don't use -MM and just check the
          return code.  Also -lf could be useful.

     -n suffixes
     --suffixes suffixes
          Do not attempt to compress files named with  the  given
          suffixes.   Such  files  are simply stored (0% compres-
          sion) in the output zip file, so that zip doesn't waste
          its  time  trying  to  compress them.  The suffixes are
          separated by either colons or semicolons.  For example:

               zip -rn  foo foo

          will copy everything from foo into,  but  will
          store  any  files that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or
          .snd without trying to compress them (image  and  sound
          files  often  have  their  own  specialized compression
          methods).  By default, zip does not compress files with
          extensions  in  the  list
          Such files are stored directly in the  output  archive.
          The  environment  variable ZIPOPT can be used to change
          the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

               setenv ZIPOPT "-n"

          To attempt compression on all files, use:

               zip -n : foo

          The  maximum  compression  option  -9   also   attempts
          compression on all files regardless of extension.

          On Acorn RISC OS  systems  the  suffixes  are  actually
          filetypes  (3  hex  digit format). By default, zip does
          not  compress  files  with  filetypes   in   the   list
          DDC:D96:68E  (i.e.  Archives,  CFS  files  and  PackDir

          Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell pro-
          cessing  of wildcards is still done by the shell unless
          the arguments are escaped).  Useful if a list of  paths
          is being read and no wildcard substitution is desired.

          [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile
          comments.  They  can be restored by using the -N option
          of unzip. If -c is used also, you are prompted for com-
          ments only for those files that do not have filenotes.

          Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to  the
          latest  (oldest)  "last  modified" time found among the
          entries in the zip archive.  This can be  used  without
          any other operations, if desired.  For example:

          zip -o foo

          will change the last modified time of  to  the
          latest time of the entries in

     -O output-file
     --output-file output-file
          Process the archive changes as usual,  but  instead  of
          updating  the  existing archive, output the new archive
          to output-file.  Useful for updating an archive without
          changing  the  existing  archive  and the input archive
          must be a different file than the output archive.

          This  option  can  be  used  to  create  updated  split
          archives.   It can also be used with -U to copy entries
          from an existing archive to a  new  archive.   See  the
          EXAMPLES section below.

          Another use is converting zip files from one split size
          to  another.   For instance, to convert an archive with
          700 MB CD splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

               zip -s 2g --out

          which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

               zip -s 0 --out

          will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

          Copy mode  will  convert  stream  entries  (using  data
          descriptors  and  which  should be compatible with most
          unzips) to normal entries (which should  be  compatible
          with  all  unzips),  except  if standard encryption was
          used.  For archives with  encrypted  entries,  zipcloak
          will  decrypt  the  entries  and convert them to normal

          Include relative file paths as part  of  the  names  of
          files stored in the archive.  This is the default.  The
          -j option junks the paths and just stores the names  of
          the files.

     -P password
     --password password
          Use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS
          IS INSECURE!  Many multi-user operating systems provide
          ways for any user to see the current  command  line  of
          any  other  user;  even on stand-alone systems there is
          always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking.   Stor-
          ing the plaintext password as part of a command line in
          an automated script is even worse.  Whenever  possible,
          use  the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter pass-
          words.  (And where security  is  truly  important,  use
          strong  encryption  such as Pretty Good Privacy instead
          of the relatively weak standard encryption provided  by
          zipfile utilities.)

          Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages  and  com-
          ment  prompts.   (Useful, for example, in shell scripts
          and background tasks).

     --Q-flag n
          [QDOS] store information about the  file  in  the  file
          header with n defined as
          bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
          bit  1: Add headers for all files
          bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

          Travel the directory structure recursively;  for  exam-

               zip -r foo

          or more concisely

               zip -r foo foo

          In this case, all the files and directories in foo  are
          saved  in  a zip archive named, including files
          with names starting with ".", since the recursion  does
          not  use  the shell's file-name substitution mechanism.
          If you wish to include only a specific  subset  of  the
          files  in directory foo and its subdirectories, use the
          -i option  to  specify  the  pattern  of  files  to  be
          included.   You  should  not use -r with the name ".*",
          since that matches ".."  which will attempt to  zip  up
          the parent directory (probably not what was intended).

          Multiple source directories are allowed as in

               zip -r foo foo1 foo2

          which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down each

          Note that while wildcards to -r are typically  resolved
          while  recursing  down  directories in the file system,
          any -R, -x, and -i wildcards are  applied  to  internal
          archive pathnames once the directories are scanned.  To
          have wildcards apply to files  in  subdirectories  when
          recursing  on  Unix and similar systems where the shell
          does wildcard substitution, either escape all wildcards
          or  put  all  arguments with wildcards in quotes.  This
          lets zip see the wildcards and match files in subdirec-
          tories using them as it recurses.

          Travel the directory structure recursively starting  at
          the current directory; for example:

               zip -R foo "*.c"

          In this case, all the files matching *.c  in  the  tree
          starting at the current directory are stored into a zip
          archive  named   Note  that  *.c  will  match
          file.c, a/file.c and a/b/.c.  More than one pattern can
          be listed as separate arguments.  Note for PKZIP users:
          the equivalent command is

               pkzip -rP foo *.c

          Patterns are relative file paths as they appear in  the
          archive,  or  will after zipping, and can have optional
          wildcards in them.   For  example,  given  the  current
          directory  is foo and under it are directories foo1 and
          foo2 and in foo1 is the file bar.c,

               zip -R foo/*

          will  zip  up  foo,   foo/foo1,   foo/foo1/bar.c,   and

               zip -R */bar.c

          will zip up foo/foo1/bar.c.  See the  note  for  -r  on
          escaping wildcards.

          [WIN32]  Before zip 3.0, regular expression list match-
          ing  was  enabled  by  default  on  Windows  platforms.
          Because of confusion resulting from the need to  escape
          "[" and "]" in names, it is now off by default for Win-
          dows so "[" and  "]"  are  just  normal  characters  in
          names.  This option enables [] matching again.

     -s splitsize
     --split-size splitsize
          Enable creating a split archive and set the split size.
          A  split archive is an archive that could be split over
          many files.  As the archive is created, if the size  of
          the  archive  reaches  the  specified  split size, that
          split is closed and the next split opened.  In  general
          all  splits but the last will be the split size and the
          last will be whatever is left.  If the  entire  archive
          is smaller than the split size a single-file archive is

          Split archives are stored in numbered files.  For exam-
          ple,  if  the output archive is named archive and three
          splits are required, the resulting archive will  be  in
          the   three   files   archive.z01,   archive.z02,   and
  Do not  change  the  numbering  of  these
          files  or the archive will not be readable as these are
          used to determine the order the splits are read.

          Split size is a number optionally followed by a  multi-
          plier.   Currently  the number must be an integer.  The
          multiplier can currently be one  of  k  (kilobytes),  m
          (megabytes),  g  (gigabytes), or t (terabytes).  As 64k
          is the minimum split size, numbers without  multipliers
          default  to  megabytes.  For example, to create a split
          archive called foo with the contents of the bar  direc-
          tory  with  splits  of  670 MB that might be useful for
          burning on CDs, the command:

               zip -s 670m -r foo bar

          could be used.

          Currently the old splits of a  split  archive  are  not
          excluded  from  a new archive, but they can be specifi-
          cally excluded.  If possible, keep the input and output
          archives  out  of  the  path being zipped when creating
          split archives.

          Using -s without -sp as above creates  all  the  splits
          where  foo  is  being written, in this case the current
          directory.  This split mode updates the splits  as  the
          archive  is  being  created,  requiring  all  splits to
          remain writable, but creates split  archives  that  are
          readable  by  any  unzip  that supports split archives.
          See -sp below  for  enabling  split  pause  mode  which
          allows  splits  to  be  written  directly  to removable

          The option -sv can be used to enable verbose  splitting
          and provide details of how the splitting is being done.
          The -sb option can be used to ring the  bell  when  zip
          pauses for the next split destination.

          Split archives  cannot  be  updated,  but  see  the  -O
          (--out)  option  for how a split archive can be updated
          as it is copied to a new archive.  A split archive  can
          also  be  converted  into a single-file archive using a
          split size of 0 or negating the -s option:

               zip -s 0 --out

          Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

          If splitting and using split pause mode, ring the  bell
          when zip pauses for each split destination.

          Show the command line starting  zip  as  processed  and
          exit.   The  new command parser permutes the arguments,
          putting all options and any values associated with them
          before any non-option arguments.  This allows an option
          to appear anywhere in the command line as long  as  any
          values that go with the option go with it.  This option
          displays the command line as zip sees it, including any
          arguments  from the environment such as from the ZIPOPT
          variable.  Where allowed, options later in the  command
          line can override options earlier in the command line.

          Show the files that would be operated  on,  then  exit.
          For instance, if creating a new archive, this will list
          the files that  would  be  added.   If  the  option  is
          negated, -sf-, output only to an open log file.  Screen
          display is not recommended for large lists.

          Show all available options supported by zip as compiled
          on  the  current  system.   As  this  command reads the
          option table, it should include all options.  Each line
          includes the short option (if defined), the long option
          (if defined), the format of any value  that  goes  with
          the  option,  if the option can be negated, and a small
          description.   The  value  format  can  be  no   value,
          required value, optional value, single character value,
          number value, or a list of values.  The output of  this
          option  is  not  intended to show how to use any option
          but only show what options are available.

          If splitting is enabled with  -s,  enable  split  pause
          mode.   This  creates  split  archives  as -s does, but
          stream writing is used so each split can be  closed  as
          soon  as  it is written and zip will pause between each
          split to allow changing split destination or media.

          Though this split mode allows writing  splits  directly
          to  removable media, it uses stream archive format that
          may not be readable by some unzips.  Before relying  on
          splits  created with -sp, test a split archive with the
          unzip you will be using.

          To convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to
          a standard archive see the --out option.

          As -sf, but also show Unicode version of  the  path  if

          As -sf, but only show Unicode version of  the  path  if
          exists,  otherwise  show  the  standard  version of the

          Enable various verbose messages while splitting,  show-
          ing how the splitting is being done.

          [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and  hid-
          den files.
          [MacOS] Includes  finder  invisible  files,  which  are
          ignored otherwise.

     -t mmddyyyy
     --from-date mmddyyyy
          Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified
          date,  where  mm is the month (00-12), dd is the day of
          the month (01-31), and yyyy is the year.  The  ISO 8601
          date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

               zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

               zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

          will add all the files in foo  and  its  subdirectories
          that were last modified on or after 7 December 1991, to
          the zip archive

     -tt mmddyyyy
     --before-date mmddyyyy
          Do not operate on files modified after or at the speci-
          fied date, where mm is the month (00-12), dd is the day
          of the month  (01-31),  and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The
          ISO 8601  date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For

               zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

               zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

          will add all the files in foo  and  its  subdirectories
          that were last modified before 30 November 1995, to the
          zip archive

          Test the integrity of the new zip file.  If  the  check
          fails,  the  old zip file is unchanged and (with the -m
          option) no input files are removed.

     -TT cmd
     --unzip-command cmd
          Use command cmd instead of  `unzip  -tqq'  to  test  an
          archive  when the -T option is used.  On Unix, to use a
          copy of unzip in the current directory instead  of  the
          standard system unzip, could use:

           zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

          In cmd, {} is replaced by the  name  of  the  temporary
          archive,  otherwise the name of the archive is appended
          to the end of the command.  The return code is  checked
          for success (0 on Unix).

          Replace (update) an existing entry in the  zip  archive
          only  if  it  has  been modified more recently than the
          version already in the zip archive.  For example:

               zip -u stuff *

          will add any new files in the  current  directory,  and
          update any files which have been modified since the zip
          archive was last created/modified (note  that
          zip will not try to pack into itself when you
          do this).

          Note that the -u option with no  input  file  arguments
          acts like the -f (freshen) option.

          Copy entries from one archive to another.  Requires the
          --out  option  to  specify a different output file than
          the input archive.  Copy mode  is  the  reverse  of  -d
          delete.   When  delete  is  being  used with --out, the
          selected entries are deleted from the archive  and  all
          other entries are copied to the new archive, while copy
          mode selects the files to include in the  new  archive.
          Unlike  -u  update,  input patterns on the command line
          are matched against archive entries only  and  not  the
          file system files.  For instance,

               zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

          copies entries with names ending in .c  from  inarchive
          to  outarchive.   The  wildcard must be escaped on some
          systems to prevent the shell from substituting names of
          files  from the file system which may have no relevance
          to the entries in the archive.

          If no input files appear on the command line and  --out
          is used, copy mode is assumed:

               zip inarchive --out outarchive

          This is useful for changing split  size  for  instance.
          Encrypting  and decrypting entries is not yet supported
          using copy mode.  Use zipcloak for that.

     -UN v
     --unicode v
          Determine what zip should do with Unicode  file  names.
          zip 3.0,  in  addition  to  the standard file path, now
          includes the UTF-8 translation of the path if the entry
          path  is  not  entirely  7-bit ASCII.  When an entry is
          missing the Unicode path, zip reverts back to the stan-
          dard  file  path.   The problem with using the standard
          path is this path is in the local character set of  the
          zip  that  created the entry, which may contain charac-
          ters that are not valid in the character set being used
          by  the  unzip.   When zip is reading an archive, if an
          entry also has a Unicode  path,  zip  now  defaults  to
          using  the  Unicode  path to recreate the standard path
          using the current local character set.

          This option can be used to determine what zip should do
          with  this  path  if  there  is  a mismatch between the
          stored standard path and the stored UTF-8  path  (which
          can  happen  if the standard path was updated).  In all
          cases, if there is a mismatch it is  assumed  that  the
          standard  path  is  more  current  and  zip  uses that.
          Values for v are

               q - quit if paths do not match

               w - warn, continue with standard path

               i - ignore, continue with standard path

               n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

          The default is to warn and continue.

          Characters that are not valid in the current  character
          set  are  escaped as #Uxxxx and #Lxxxxxx, where x is an
          ASCII character for a hex digit.  The first is used  if
          a  16-bit  character  number is sufficient to represent
          the Unicode character and the second if  the  character
          needs more than 16 bits to represent it's Unicode char-
          acter code.  Setting -UN to

               e - escape

          as in

               zip archive -sU -UN=e

          forces zip to escape all characters that are not print-
          able 7-bit ASCII.

          Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard path
          field  on  systems where UTF-8 is the current character
          set and stores the UTF-8 in the new extra fields other-
          wise.  The option

               u - UTF-8

          as in

               zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

          forces zip to store UTF-8 as  native  in  the  archive.
          Note that storing UTF-8 directly is the default on Unix
          systems that support it.  This option could  be  useful
          on  Windows systems where the escaped path is too large
          to be a valid path and the UTF-8 version of the path is
          smaller, but native UTF-8 is not backward compatible on
          Windows systems.

          Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

          Normally, when applied to real operations, this  option
          enables  the  display  of  a  progress indicator during
          compression (see -dd for more  on  dots)  and  requests
          verbose  diagnostic  info about zipfile structure oddi-

          However, when -v is the only command  line  argument  a
          diagnostic  screen is printed instead.  This should now
          work even if stdout is redirected to a  file,  allowing
          easy  saving  of  the  information for sending with bug
          reports to Info-ZIP.  The version screen  provides  the
          help  screen  header  with  program  name, version, and
          release date, some pointers to the  Info-ZIP  home  and
          distribution  sites,  and  shows  information about the
          target environment (compiler type and version, OS  ver-
          sion,   compilation   date  and  the  enabled  optional
          features used to create the zip executable).

          [VMS] Save VMS file attributes.  (Files are   truncated
          at  EOF.)    When a -V archive is unpacked on a non-VMS
          system,  some file types (notably Stream_LF text  files
          and   pure  binary  files   like  fixed-512)  should be
          extracted intact.  Indexed files and  file  types  with
          embedded  record  sizes (notably variable-length record
          types) will probably be seen as corrupt elsewhere.

          [VMS] Save VMS  file  attributes,  and   all  allocated
          blocks  in  a  file,   including  any  data beyond EOF.
          Useful for moving ill-formed files  among  VMS systems.
          When  a  -VV  archive  is unpacked on a non-VMS system,
          almost all files will appear corrupt.

          [VMS] Append the version number of  the  files  to  the
          name, including multiple versions of files.  Default is
          to use only the most  recent  version  of  a  specified

          [VMS] Append the version number of  the  files  to  the
          name,  including  multiple versions of files, using the
          .nnn format.  Default is to use only  the  most  recent
          version of a specified file.

          Wildcards match only at a  directory  level.   Normally
          zip handles paths as strings and given the paths



          an input pattern such as


          normally  would  match  both  paths,  the  *   matching
          dir/file1.c and file2.c.  Note that in the first case a
          directory boundary (/) was crossed in the match.   With
          -ws  no directory bounds will be included in the match,
          making wildcards local to a specific  directory  level.
          So,  with  -ws  enabled,  only the second path would be

          When using -ws, use ** to match across directory  boun-
          daries as * does normally.

     -x files
     --exclude files
          Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

               zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

          which will include the contents of foo in while
          excluding  all  the  files  that  end  in The backslash
          avoids the shell filename  substitution,  so  that  the
          name matching is performed by zip at all directory lev-

          Also possible:

               zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

          which will include the contents of foo in while
          excluding  all the files that match the patterns in the
          file exclude.lst.

          The long option forms of the above are

               zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o


               zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

          Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

               zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

          If there is no space between -x and the  pattern,  just
          one value is assumed (no list):

               zip -r foo foo -x\*.o

          See -i for more on include and exclude.

          Do not save extra file attributes (Extended  Attributes
          on OS/2, uid/gid and file times on Unix).  The zip for-
          mat uses extra fields to include additional information
          for each entry.  Some extra fields are specific to par-
          ticular systems while others are applicable to all sys-
          tems.  Normally when zip reads entries from an existing
          archive, it reads the extra fields it knows, strips the
          rest, and adds the extra fields applicable to that sys-
          tem.  With -X, zip  strips  all  old  fields  and  only
          includes  the Unicode and Zip64 extra fields (currently
          these two extra fields cannot be disabled).

          Negating this option, -X-,  includes  all  the  default
          extra  fields,  but  also  copies over any unrecognized
          extra fields.

          For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links
          as  such in the zip archive, instead of compressing and
          storing the file referred to by  the  link.   This  can
          avoid  multiple  copies  of files being included in the
          archive  as  zip  recurses  the  directory  trees   and
          accesses files directly and by links.

          Prompt for a multi-line  comment  for  the  entire  zip
          archive.   The  comment  is  ended by a line containing
          just a period, or an end of file condition (^D on Unix,
          ^Z  on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The comment can be taken
          from a file:

               zip -z foo < foowhat

     -Z cm
     --compression-method cm
          Set the default compression method.  Currently the main
          methods   supported  by  zip  are  store  and  deflate.
          Compression method can be set to:

          store - Setting the compression method to store  forces
          zip to store entries with no compression.  This is gen-
          erally faster than compressing entries, but results  in
          no  space  savings.   This  is  the  same  as  using -0
          (compression level zero).

          deflate - This is the default method for zip.   If  zip
          determines  that  storing is better than deflation, the
          entry will be stored instead.

          bzip2 - If bzip2 support is compiled in, this  compres-
          sion  method  also becomes available.  Only some modern
          unzips currently support the bzip2 compression  method,
          so  test  the unzip you will be using before relying on
          archives using this method (compression method 12).

          For example, to add bar.c to archive  foo  using  bzip2

               zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

          The compression method can be abbreviated:

               zip -Zb foo bar.c

     (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5,
          Regulate the speed of compression using  the  specified
          digit  #,  where -0 indicates no compression (store all
          files), -1  indicates  the  fastest  compression  speed
          (less   compression)   and  -9  indicates  the  slowest
          compression speed  (optimal  compression,  ignores  the
          suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

          Though still being worked, the intention is  this  set-
          ting will control compression speed for all compression
          methods.  Currently only deflation is controlled.

          [WIN32] Use  priviliges  (if  granted)  to  obtain  all
          aspects of WinNT security.

          Take the list of input files from standard input.  Only
          one filename per line.

          [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the volume label  for  the
          drive  holding the first file to be compressed.  If you
          want to include only the volume label  or  to  force  a
          specific  drive, use the drive name as first file name,
          as in:

               zip -$ foo a: c:bar

     The simplest example:

          zip stuff *

     creates the archive (assuming it does  not  exist)
     and  puts  all  the files in the current directory in it, in
     compressed form (the .zip  suffix  is  added  automatically,
     unless  the archive name contains a dot already; this allows
     the explicit specification of other suffixes).

     Because of the way the shell on Unix does filename substitu-
     tion,  files  starting with "." are not included; to include
     these as well:

          zip stuff .* *

     Even this will  not  include  any  subdirectories  from  the
     current directory.

     To zip up an entire directory, the command:

          zip -r foo foo

     creates the archive, containing all  the  files  and
     directories  in  the  directory foo that is contained within
     the current directory.

     You may want to make a zip archive that contains  the  files
     in  foo, without recording the directory name, foo.  You can
     use the -j option to leave off the paths, as in:

          zip -j foo foo/*

     If you are short on disk space, you might  not  have  enough
     room to hold both the original directory and the correspond-
     ing compressed zip archive.  In this case,  you  can  create
     the  archive  in steps using the -m option.  If foo contains
     the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry, you can:

          zip -rm foo foo/tom
          zip -rm foo foo/dick
          zip -rm foo foo/harry

     where the first command creates, and  the  next  two
     add  to it.  At the completion of each zip command, the last
     created archive is deleted, making room  for  the  next  zip
     command to function.

     Use -s to set the split size and  create  a  split  archive.
     The  size is given as a number followed optionally by one of
     k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB).  The command

          zip -s 2g -r foo

     creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits  no
     bigger  than  2 GB  each.  If foo contained 5 GB of contents
     and the contents were stored in the  split  archive  without
     compression (to make this example simple), this would create
     three splits, split.z01 at  2 GB,  split.z02  at  2 GB,  and at a little over 1 GB.

     The -sp option can be used to pause zip  between  splits  to
     allow  changing  removable  media, for example, but read the
     descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

     Though zip does not update split archives, zip provides  the
     new  option -O (--output-file) to allow split archives to be
     updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

          zip foo.c bar.c --out

     reads archive, even if split, adds  the  files
     foo.c  and  bar.c,  and  writes  the  resulting  archive  to    If    is    split    then  defaults  to  the same split size.  Be aware
     that and any split  files  that  are  created
     with it are always overwritten without warning.  This may be
     changed in the future.

Pattern Matching
     This section applies only to Unix.   Watch  this  space  for
     details  on  MSDOS  and VMS operation.  However, the special
     wildcard characters * and [] below apply to at  least  MSDOS

     The Unix shells (sh, csh,  bash,  and  others)  normally  do
     filename  substitution  (also  called "globbing") on command
     arguments.  Generally the special characters are:

     ?    match any single character

     *    match any number of characters (including none)

     []   match any character in the range indicated  within  the
          brackets  (example:  [a-f], [0-9]).  This form of wild-
          card matching allows a user to specify a list of  char-
          acters  between square brackets and if any of the char-
          acters match the expression matches.  For example:

               zip archive "*.[hc]"

          would archive all files in the current  directory  that
          end in

          Ranges of characters are supported:

               zip archive "[a-f]*"

          would add to the archive all files  starting  with  "a"
          through "f".

          Negation is also supported, where any character in that
          position  not  in  the  list matches.  Negation is sup-
          ported by adding ! or ^ to the beginning of the list:

               zip archive "*.[!o]"

          matches files that don't end in ".o".

          On WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned  on  with  the
          -RE  option to avoid the confusion that names with [ or
          ] have caused.

     When these characters are encountered (without being escaped
     with  a  backslash or quotes), the shell will look for files
     relative to the current path that  match  the  pattern,  and
     replace the argument with a list of the names that matched.

     The zip program can do the same matching on names  that  are
     in  the zip archive being modified or, in the case of the -x
     (exclude) or -i (include) options, on the list of  files  to
     be  operated  on, by using backslashes or quotes to tell the
     shell not to do the name expansion.  In  general,  when  zip
     encounters a name in the list of files to do, it first looks
     for the name in the file system.  If it finds  it,  it  then
     adds it to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it,
     it looks for the name in the zip archive being modified  (if
     it  exists), using the pattern matching characters described
     above, if present.  For each match, it will add that name to
     the  list of files to be processed, unless this name matches
     one given with the -x option, or does  not  match  any  name
     given with the -i option.

     The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like
     \*.o  match  names that end in ".o", no matter what the path
     prefix is.  Note that the backslash must precede every  spe-
     cial  character  (i.e. ?*[]), or the entire argument must be
     enclosed in double quotes ("").

     In general, use backslashes or double quotes for paths  that
     have  wildcards to make zip do the pattern matching for file
     paths, and always for paths and strings that have spaces  or
     wildcards  for -i, -x, -R, -d, and -U and anywhere zip needs
     to process the wildcards.

     The following environment variables are read and used by zip
     as described.

          contains default options that will be used when running
          zip.   The  contents  of this environment variable will
          get added to the command line just after the  zip  com-

          [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

          [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

          [RISC OS] contains extensions separated  by  a  :  that
          will  cause  native filenames with one of the specified
          extensions to be added to the zip  file  with  basename
          and extension swapped.

          [VMS] see ZIPOPT

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

     box; cbp-1 | cbp-1 l | l .  ATTRIBUTE TYPE ATTRIBUTE VALUE =
     Availability   compress/zip = Stability Committed

See Also
     compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

     The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes
     defined  by PKWARE and takes on the following values, except
     under VMS:

          0    normal; no errors or warnings detected.

          2    unexpected end of zip file.

          3    a  generic  error  in  the  zipfile   format   was
               detected.   Processing may have completed success-
               fully anyway;  some  broken  zipfiles  created  by
               other archivers have simple work-arounds.

          4    zip was unable to allocate memory for one or  more
               buffers during program initialization.

          5    a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.
               Processing probably failed immediately.

          6    entry too large to be  processed  (such  as  input
               files  larger  than  2  GB when not using Zip64 or
               trying to read an existing  archive  that  is  too
               large)  or  entry  too  large  to  be  split  with

          7    invalid comment format

          8    zip -T failed or out of memory

          9    the user aborted zip  prematurely  with  control-C
               (or similar)

          10   zip encountered an error while using a temp file

          11   read or seek error

          12   zip has nothing to do

          13   missing or empty zip file

          14   error writing to a file

          15   zip was unable to create a file to write to

          16   bad command line parameters

          18   zip could not open a specified file to read

          19   zip was compiled with  options  not  supported  on
               this system

     VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other,
     scarier-looking  things,  so zip instead maps them into VMS-
     style status codes.  In general, zip  sets  VMS  Facility  =
     1955  (0x07A3),  Code  =  2* Unix_status, and an appropriate
     Severity (as  specified  in  ziperr.h).   More  details  are
     included    in    the   VMS-specific   documentation.    See
     [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.

     zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1  to
     produce zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

     zip files produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1
     or  PKZIP 1.10, if they contain encrypted members or if they
     have been produced in a pipe or on  a  non-seekable  device.
     The  old  versions  of  zip or PKZIP would create an archive
     with an incorrect format.  The old  versions  can  list  the
     contents  of  the  zip  file  but  cannot  extract it anyway
     (because of the new compression algorithm).  If you  do  not
     use  encryption  and use regular disk files, you do not have
     to care about this problem.

     Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated prop-
     erly.   Only stream-LF format zip files are expected to work
     with zip.  Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi's  BILF
     program.  This version of zip handles some of the conversion
     internally.  When using Kermit to transfer  zip  files  from
     VMS  to  MSDOS,  type  "set  file  type block" on VMS.  When
     transfering from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file type fixed" on
     VMS.  In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

     Under some older VMS versions, zip may hang for file specif-
     ications that use DECnet syntax foo::*.*.

     On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those  includ-
     ing  an  exclamation  mark or a hash sign.  This is a bug in
     OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next  don't  find  such
     names.   Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by
     this bug.

     Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes  displayed  by
     DIR is (for compatibility) the amount returned by the 16-bit
     version of DosQueryPathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2  1.3  and  2.0
     would  report  different  EA sizes when DIRing a file.  How-
     ever,  the  structure  layout   returned   by   the   32-bit
     DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different, it uses extra padding
     bytes and link pointers (it's a linked  list)  to  have  all
     fields  on  4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC
     OS/2 versions. Therefore the value reported  by  zip  (which
     uses  this  32-bit-mode  size) differs from that reported by
     DIR.  zip stores the 32-bit format for portability, even the
     16-bit  MS-C-compiled  version  running on OS/2 1.3, so even
     this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

     Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.

     Currently distributed under the Info-ZIP license.

     Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales,  Jean-
     loup  Gailly, Onno van der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Man-
     drichenko, John Bush and Paul Kienitz.

     Original copyright:

     Permission is granted to any individual  or  institution  to
     use,  copy,  or redistribute this software so long as all of
     the original files are included, that it  is  not  sold  for
     profit, and that this copyright notice is retained.



     Please send bug reports and comments using the web page  at:   For bug reports, please include the ver-
     sion of zip (see zip -h), the make options used  to  compile
     it  (see  zip -v),  the machine and operating system in use,
     and as much additional information as possible.

     Thanks to R. P. Byrne  for  his  Shrink.Pas  program,  which
     inspired  this  project, and from which the shrink algorithm
     was stolen; to Phil Katz for placing in  the  public  domain
     the  zip  file format, compression format, and .ZIP filename
     extension, and for accepting minor changes to the file  for-
     mat; to Steve Burg for clarifications on the deflate format;
     to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for  providing  some
     useful  ideas for the compression algorithm; to Keith Peter-
     sen, Rich Wales, Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing
     a  mailing  list and ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use;
     and most importantly, to the Info-ZIP group  itself  (listed
     in  the file infozip.who) without whose tireless testing and
     bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possi-
     ble.   Finally  we  should  thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP
     moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into  this  mess
     in  the first place.  The manual page was rewritten for Unix
     by R. P. C. Rodgers and updated by E. Gordon for zip 3.0.

     This  software  was   built   from   source   available   at    The  original
     community  source  was  downloaded   from

     Further information about this software can be found on  the
     open    source   community   website   at
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