wget(1) 맨 페이지 - 윈디하나의 솔라나라




     Wget - The non-interactive network downloader.

     wget [option]... [URL]...

     GNU Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of
     files from the Web.  It supports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP
     protocols, as well as retrieval through HTTP proxies.

     Wget is non-interactive, meaning that it can work in the
     background, while the user is not logged on.  This allows
     you to start a retrieval and disconnect from the system,
     letting Wget finish the work.  By contrast, most of the Web
     browsers require constant user's presence, which can be a
     great hindrance when transferring a lot of data.

     Wget can follow links in HTML, XHTML, and CSS pages, to
     create local versions of remote web sites, fully recreating
     the directory structure of the original site.  This is
     sometimes referred to as "recursive downloading."  While
     doing that, Wget respects the Robot Exclusion Standard
     (/robots.txt).  Wget can be instructed to convert the links
     in downloaded files to point at the local files, for offline

     Wget has been designed for robustness over slow or unstable
     network connections; if a download fails due to a network
     problem, it will keep retrying until the whole file has been
     retrieved.  If the server supports regetting, it will
     instruct the server to continue the download from where it
     left off.

  Option Syntax
     Since Wget uses GNU getopt to process command-line
     arguments, every option has a long form along with the short
     one.  Long options are more convenient to remember, but take
     time to type.  You may freely mix different option styles,
     or specify options after the command-line arguments.  Thus
     you may write:

             wget -r --tries=10 http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ -o log

     The space between the option accepting an argument and the
     argument may be omitted.  Instead of -o log you can write

     You may put several options that do not require arguments
     together, like:

             wget -drc <URL>

     This is completely equivalent to:

             wget -d -r -c <URL>

     Since the options can be specified after the arguments, you
     may terminate them with --.  So the following will try to
     download URL -x, reporting failure to log:

             wget -o log -- -x

     The options that accept comma-separated lists all respect
     the convention that specifying an empty list clears its
     value.  This can be useful to clear the .wgetrc settings.
     For instance, if your .wgetrc sets "exclude_directories" to
     /cgi-bin, the following example will first reset it, and
     then set it to exclude /~nobody and /~somebody.  You can
     also clear the lists in .wgetrc.

             wget -X " -X /~nobody,/~somebody

     Most options that do not accept arguments are boolean
     options, so named because their state can be captured with a
     yes-or-no ("boolean") variable.  For example, --follow-ftp
     tells Wget to follow FTP links from HTML files and, on the
     other hand, --no-glob tells it not to perform file globbing
     on FTP URLs.  A boolean option is either affirmative or
     negative (beginning with --no).  All such options share
     several properties.

     Unless stated otherwise, it is assumed that the default
     behavior is the opposite of what the option accomplishes.
     For example, the documented existence of --follow-ftp
     assumes that the default is to not follow FTP links from
     HTML pages.

     Affirmative options can be negated by prepending the --no-
     to the option name; negative options can be negated by
     omitting the --no- prefix.  This might seem superfluous---if
     the default for an affirmative option is to not do
     something, then why provide a way to explicitly turn it off?
     But the startup file may in fact change the default.  For
     instance, using "follow_ftp = on" in .wgetrc makes Wget
     follow FTP links by default, and using --no-follow-ftp is
     the only way to restore the factory default from the command

  Basic Startup Options
         Display the version of Wget.

         Print a help message describing all of Wget's command-
         line options.

         Go to background immediately after startup.  If no
         output file is specified via the -o, output is
         redirected to wget-log.

     -e command
     --execute command
         Execute command as if it were a part of .wgetrc.  A
         command thus invoked will be executed after the commands
         in .wgetrc, thus taking precedence over them.  If you
         need to specify more than one wgetrc command, use
         multiple instances of -e.

  Logging and Input File Options
     -o logfile
         Log all messages to logfile.  The messages are normally
         reported to standard error.

     -a logfile
         Append to logfile.  This is the same as -o, only it
         appends to logfile instead of overwriting the old log
         file.  If logfile does not exist, a new file is created.

         Turn on debug output, meaning various information
         important to the developers of Wget if it does not work
         properly.  Your system administrator may have chosen to
         compile Wget without debug support, in which case -d
         will not work.  Please note that compiling with debug
         support is always safe---Wget compiled with the debug
         support will not print any debug info unless requested
         with -d.

         Turn off Wget's output.

         Turn on verbose output, with all the available data.
         The default output is verbose.

         Turn off verbose without being completely quiet (use -q
         for that), which means that error messages and basic
         information still get printed.

         Output bandwidth as type.  The only accepted value is

     -i file
         Read URLs from a local or external file.  If - is
         specified as file, URLs are read from the standard
         input. (Use ./- to read from a file literally named -.)

         If this function is used, no URLs need be present on the
         command line.  If there are URLs both on the command
         line and in an input file, those on the command lines
         will be the first ones to be retrieved.  If --force-html
         is not specified, then file should consist of a series
         of URLs, one per line.

         However, if you specify --force-html, the document will
         be regarded as html.  In that case you may have problems
         with relative links, which you can solve either by
         adding "<base href="url">" to the documents or by
         specifying --base=url on the command line.

         If the file is an external one, the document will be
         automatically treated as html if the Content-Type
         matches text/html.  Furthermore, the file's location
         will be implicitly used as base href if none was

         Downloads files covered in local Metalink file. Metalink
         version 3 and 4 are supported.

         Keeps downloaded Metalink's files with a bad hash. It
         appends .badhash to the name of Metalink's files which
         have a checksum mismatch, except without overwriting
         existing files.

         Issues HTTP HEAD request instead of GET and extracts
         Metalink metadata from response headers. Then it
         switches to Metalink download.  If no valid Metalink
         metadata is found, it falls back to ordinary HTTP
         download.  Enables Content-Type:
         application/metalink4+xml files download/processing.

         Set the Metalink application/metalink4+xml metaurl
         ordinal NUMBER. From 1 to the total number of
         "application/metalink4+xml" available.  Specify 0 or inf
         to choose the first good one.  Metaurls, such as those
         from a --metalink-over-http, may have been sorted by
         priority key's value; keep this in mind to choose the
         right NUMBER.

         Set preferred location for Metalink resources. This has
         effect if multiple resources with same priority are

         When input is read from a file, force it to be treated
         as an HTML file.  This enables you to retrieve relative
         links from existing HTML files on your local disk, by
         adding "<base href="url">" to HTML, or using the --base
         command-line option.

     -B URL
         Resolves relative links using URL as the point of
         reference, when reading links from an HTML file
         specified via the -i/--input-file option (together with
         --force-html, or when the input file was fetched
         remotely from a server describing it as HTML). This is
         equivalent to the presence of a "BASE" tag in the HTML
         input file, with URL as the value for the "href"

         For instance, if you specify http://foo/bar/a.html for
         URL, and Wget reads ../baz/b.html from the input file,
         it would be resolved to http://foo/baz/b.html.

         Specify the location of a startup file you wish to use
         instead of the default one(s). Use --no-config to
         disable reading of config files.  If both --config and
         --no-config are given, --no-config is ignored.

         Logs all URL rejections to logfile as comma separated
         values.  The values include the reason of rejection, the
         URL and the parent URL it was found in.

  Download Options
         When making client TCP/IP connections, bind to ADDRESS
         on the local machine.  ADDRESS may be specified as a
         hostname or IP address.  This option can be useful if
         your machine is bound to multiple IPs.

         [libcares only] This address overrides the route for DNS
         requests. If you ever need to circumvent the standard
         settings from /etc/resolv.conf, this option together
         with --dns-servers is your friend.  ADDRESS must be
         specified either as IPv4 or IPv6 address.  Wget needs to
         be built with libcares for this option to be available.

         [libcares only] The given address(es) override the
         standard nameserver addresses,  e.g. as configured in
         /etc/resolv.conf.  ADDRESSES may be specified either as
         IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, comma-separated.  Wget needs to
         be built with libcares for this option to be available.

     -t number
         Set number of tries to number. Specify 0 or inf for
         infinite retrying.  The default is to retry 20 times,
         with the exception of fatal errors like "connection
         refused" or "not found" (404), which are not retried.

     -O file
         The documents will not be written to the appropriate
         files, but all will be concatenated together and written
         to file.  If - is used as file, documents will be
         printed to standard output, disabling link conversion.
         (Use ./- to print to a file literally named -.)

         Use of -O is not intended to mean simply "use the name
         file instead of the one in the URL;" rather, it is
         analogous to shell redirection:  wget -O file http://foo
         is intended to work like wget -O - http://foo > file;
         file will be truncated immediately, and all downloaded
         content will be written there.

         For this reason, -N (for timestamp-checking) is not
         supported in combination with -O: since file is always
         newly created, it will always have a very new timestamp.
         A warning will be issued if this combination is used.

         Similarly, using -r or -p with -O may not work as you
         expect: Wget won't just download the first file to file
         and then download the rest to their normal names: all
         downloaded content will be placed in file. This was
         disabled in version 1.11, but has been reinstated (with
         a warning) in 1.11.2, as there are some cases where this
         behavior can actually have some use.

         A combination with -nc is only accepted if the given
         output file does not exist.

         Note that a combination with -k is only permitted when
         downloading a single document, as in that case it will
         just convert all relative URIs to external ones; -k
         makes no sense for multiple URIs when they're all being
         downloaded to a single file; -k can be used only when
         the output is a regular file.

         If a file is downloaded more than once in the same
         directory, Wget's behavior depends on a few options,
         including -nc.  In certain cases, the local file will be
         clobbered, or overwritten, upon repeated download.  In
         other cases it will be preserved.

         When running Wget without -N, -nc, -r, or -p,
         downloading the same file in the same directory will
         result in the original copy of file being preserved and
         the second copy being named file.1.  If that file is
         downloaded yet again, the third copy will be named
         file.2, and so on.  (This is also the behavior with -nd,
         even if -r or -p are in effect.)  When -nc is specified,
         this behavior is suppressed, and Wget will refuse to
         download newer copies of file.  Therefore,
         ""no-clobber"" is actually a misnomer in this
         mode---it's not clobbering that's prevented (as the
         numeric suffixes were already preventing clobbering),
         but rather the multiple version saving that's prevented.

         When running Wget with -r or -p, but without -N, -nd, or
         -nc, re-downloading a file will result in the new copy
         simply overwriting the old.  Adding -nc will prevent
         this behavior, instead causing the original version to
         be preserved and any newer copies on the server to be

         When running Wget with -N, with or without -r or -p, the
         decision as to whether or not to download a newer copy
         of a file depends on the local and remote timestamp and
         size of the file.  -nc may not be specified at the same
         time as -N.

         A combination with -O/--output-document is only accepted
         if the given output file does not exist.

         Note that when -nc is specified, files with the suffixes
         .html or .htm will be loaded from the local disk and
         parsed as if they had been retrieved from the Web.

         Before (over)writing a file, back up an existing file by
         adding a .1 suffix (_1 on VMS) to the file name.  Such
         backup files are rotated to .2, .3, and so on, up to
         backups (and lost beyond that).

         Do not try to obtain credentials from .netrc file. By
         default .netrc file is searched for credentials in case
         none have been passed on command line and authentication
         is required.

         Continue getting a partially-downloaded file.  This is
         useful when you want to finish up a download started by
         a previous instance of Wget, or by another program.  For

                 wget -c ftp://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/ls-lR.Z

         If there is a file named ls-lR.Z in the current
         directory, Wget will assume that it is the first portion
         of the remote file, and will ask the server to continue
         the retrieval from an offset equal to the length of the
         local file.

         Note that you don't need to specify this option if you
         just want the current invocation of Wget to retry
         downloading a file should the connection be lost midway
         through.  This is the default behavior.  -c only affects
         resumption of downloads started prior to this invocation
         of Wget, and whose local files are still sitting around.

         Without -c, the previous example would just download the
         remote file to ls-lR.Z.1, leaving the truncated ls-lR.Z
         file alone.

         If you use -c on a non-empty file, and the server does
         not support continued downloading, Wget will restart the
         download from scratch and overwrite the existing file

         Beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use -c on a file which
         is of equal size as the one on the server, Wget will
         refuse to download the file and print an explanatory
         message.  The same happens when the file is smaller on
         the server than locally (presumably because it was
         changed on the server since your last download
         attempt)---because "continuing" is not meaningful, no
         download occurs.

         On the other side of the coin, while using -c, any file
         that's bigger on the server than locally will be
         considered an incomplete download and only
         "(length(remote) - length(local))" bytes will be
         downloaded and tacked onto the end of the local file.
         This behavior can be desirable in certain cases---for
         instance, you can use wget -c to download just the new
         portion that's been appended to a data collection or log

         However, if the file is bigger on the server because
         it's been changed, as opposed to just appended to,
         you'll end up with a garbled file.  Wget has no way of
         verifying that the local file is really a valid prefix
         of the remote file.  You need to be especially careful
         of this when using -c in conjunction with -r, since
         every file will be considered as an "incomplete
         download" candidate.

         Another instance where you'll get a garbled file if you
         try to use -c is if you have a lame HTTP proxy that
         inserts a "transfer interrupted" string into the local
         file.  In the future a "rollback" option may be added to
         deal with this case.

         Note that -c only works with FTP servers and with HTTP
         servers that support the "Range" header.

         Start downloading at zero-based position OFFSET.  Offset
         may be expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the `k'
         suffix, or megabytes with the `m' suffix, etc.

         --start-pos has higher precedence over --continue.  When
         --start-pos and --continue are both specified, wget will
         emit a warning then proceed as if --continue was absent.

         Server support for continued download is required,
         otherwise --start-pos cannot help.  See -c for details.

         Select the type of the progress indicator you wish to
         use.  Legal indicators are "dot" and "bar".

         The "bar" indicator is used by default.  It draws an
         ASCII progress bar graphics (a.k.a "thermometer"
         display) indicating the status of retrieval.  If the
         output is not a TTY, the "dot" bar will be used by

         Use --progress=dot to switch to the "dot" display.  It
         traces the retrieval by printing dots on the screen,
         each dot representing a fixed amount of downloaded data.

         The progress type can also take one or more parameters.
         The parameters vary based on the type selected.
         Parameters to type are passed by appending them to the
         type sperated by a colon (:) like this:

         When using the dotted retrieval, you may set the style
         by specifying the type as dot:style.  Different styles
         assign different meaning to one dot.  With the "default"
         style each dot represents 1K, there are ten dots in a
         cluster and 50 dots in a line.  The "binary" style has a
         more "computer"-like orientation---8K dots, 16-dots
         clusters and 48 dots per line (which makes for 384K
         lines).  The "mega" style is suitable for downloading
         large files---each dot represents 64K retrieved, there
         are eight dots in a cluster, and 48 dots on each line
         (so each line contains 3M).  If "mega" is not enough
         then you can use the "giga" style---each dot represents
         1M retrieved, there are eight dots in a cluster, and 32
         dots on each line (so each line contains 32M).

         With --progress=bar, there are currently two possible
         parameters, force and noscroll.

         When the output is not a TTY, the progress bar always
         falls back to "dot", even if --progress=bar was passed
         to Wget during invocation. This behaviour can be
         overridden and the "bar" output forced by using the
         "force" parameter as --progress=bar:force.

         By default, the bar style progress bar scroll the name
         of the file from left to right for the file being
         downloaded if the filename exceeds the maximum length
         allotted for its display.  In certain cases, such as
         with --progress=bar:force, one may not want the
         scrolling filename in the progress bar.  By passing the
         "noscroll" parameter, Wget can be forced to display as
         much of the filename as possible without scrolling
         through it.

         Note that you can set the default style using the
         "progress" command in .wgetrc.  That setting may be
         overridden from the command line.  For example, to force
         the bar output without scrolling, use

         Force wget to display the progress bar in any verbosity.

         By default, wget only displays the progress bar in
         verbose mode.  One may however, want wget to display the
         progress bar on screen in conjunction with any other
         verbosity modes like --no-verbose or --quiet.  This is
         often a desired a property when invoking wget to
         download several small/large files.  In such a case,
         wget could simply be invoked with this parameter to get
         a much cleaner output on the screen.

         This option will also force the progress bar to be
         printed to stderr when used alongside the --logfile

         Turn on time-stamping.

         Do not send If-Modified-Since header in -N mode. Send
         preliminary HEAD request instead. This has only effect
         in -N mode.

         Don't set the local file's timestamp by the one on the

         By default, when a file is downloaded, its timestamps
         are set to match those from the remote file. This allows
         the use of --timestamping on subsequent invocations of
         wget. However, it is sometimes useful to base the local
         file's timestamp on when it was actually downloaded; for
         that purpose, the --no-use-server-timestamps option has
         been provided.

         Print the headers sent by HTTP servers and responses
         sent by FTP servers.

         When invoked with this option, Wget will behave as a Web
         spider, which means that it will not download the pages,
         just check that they are there.  For example, you can
         use Wget to check your bookmarks:

                 wget --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html

         This feature needs much more work for Wget to get close
         to the functionality of real web spiders.

     -T seconds
         Set the network timeout to seconds seconds.  This is
         equivalent to specifying --dns-timeout,
         --connect-timeout, and --read-timeout, all at the same

         When interacting with the network, Wget can check for
         timeout and abort the operation if it takes too long.
         This prevents anomalies like hanging reads and infinite
         connects.  The only timeout enabled by default is a
         900-second read timeout.  Setting a timeout to 0
         disables it altogether.  Unless you know what you are
         doing, it is best not to change the default timeout

         All timeout-related options accept decimal values, as
         well as subsecond values.  For example, 0.1 seconds is a
         legal (though unwise) choice of timeout.  Subsecond
         timeouts are useful for checking server response times
         or for testing network latency.

         Set the DNS lookup timeout to seconds seconds.  DNS
         lookups that don't complete within the specified time
         will fail.  By default, there is no timeout on DNS
         lookups, other than that implemented by system

         Set the connect timeout to seconds seconds.  TCP
         connections that take longer to establish will be
         aborted.  By default, there is no connect timeout, other
         than that implemented by system libraries.

         Set the read (and write) timeout to seconds seconds.
         The "time" of this timeout refers to idle time: if, at
         any point in the download, no data is received for more
         than the specified number of seconds, reading fails and
         the download is restarted.  This option does not
         directly affect the duration of the entire download.

         Of course, the remote server may choose to terminate the
         connection sooner than this option requires.  The
         default read timeout is 900 seconds.

         Limit the download speed to amount bytes per second.
         Amount may be expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the k
         suffix, or megabytes with the m suffix.  For example,
         --limit-rate=20k will limit the retrieval rate to
         20KB/s.  This is useful when, for whatever reason, you
         don't want Wget to consume the entire available

         This option allows the use of decimal numbers, usually
         in conjunction with power suffixes; for example,
         --limit-rate=2.5k is a legal value.

         Note that Wget implements the limiting by sleeping the
         appropriate amount of time after a network read that
         took less time than specified by the rate.  Eventually
         this strategy causes the TCP transfer to slow down to
         approximately the specified rate.  However, it may take
         some time for this balance to be achieved, so don't be
         surprised if limiting the rate doesn't work well with
         very small files.

     -w seconds
         Wait the specified number of seconds between the
         retrievals.  Use of this option is recommended, as it
         lightens the server load by making the requests less
         frequent.  Instead of in seconds, the time can be
         specified in minutes using the "m" suffix, in hours
         using "h" suffix, or in days using "d" suffix.

         Specifying a large value for this option is useful if
         the network or the destination host is down, so that
         Wget can wait long enough to reasonably expect the
         network error to be fixed before the retry.  The waiting
         interval specified by this function is influenced by
         "--random-wait", which see.

         If you don't want Wget to wait between every retrieval,
         but only between retries of failed downloads, you can
         use this option.  Wget will use linear backoff, waiting
         1 second after the first failure on a given file, then
         waiting 2 seconds after the second failure on that file,
         up to the maximum number of seconds you specify.

         By default, Wget will assume a value of 10 seconds.

         Some web sites may perform log analysis to identify
         retrieval programs such as Wget by looking for
         statistically significant similarities in the time
         between requests. This option causes the time between
         requests to vary between 0.5 and 1.5 * wait seconds,
         where wait was specified using the --wait option, in
         order to mask Wget's presence from such analysis.

         A 2001 article in a publication devoted to development
         on a popular consumer platform provided code to perform
         this analysis on the fly.  Its author suggested blocking
         at the class C address level to ensure automated
         retrieval programs were blocked despite changing DHCP-
         supplied addresses.

         The --random-wait option was inspired by this ill-
         advised recommendation to block many unrelated users
         from a web site due to the actions of one.

         Don't use proxies, even if the appropriate *_proxy
         environment variable is defined.

     -Q quota
         Specify download quota for automatic retrievals.  The
         value can be specified in bytes (default), kilobytes
         (with k suffix), or megabytes (with m suffix).

         Note that quota will never affect downloading a single
         file.  So if you specify wget -Q10k
         https://example.com/ls-lR.gz, all of the ls-lR.gz will
         be downloaded.  The same goes even when several URLs are
         specified on the command-line.  However, quota is
         respected when retrieving either recursively, or from an
         input file.  Thus you may safely type wget -Q2m -i
         sites---download will be aborted when the quota is

         Setting quota to 0 or to inf unlimits the download

         Turn off caching of DNS lookups.  Normally, Wget
         remembers the IP addresses it looked up from DNS so it
         doesn't have to repeatedly contact the DNS server for
         the same (typically small) set of hosts it retrieves
         from.  This cache exists in memory only; a new Wget run
         will contact DNS again.

         However, it has been reported that in some situations it
         is not desirable to cache host names, even for the
         duration of a short-running application like Wget.  With
         this option Wget issues a new DNS lookup (more
         precisely, a new call to "gethostbyname" or
         "getaddrinfo") each time it makes a new connection.
         Please note that this option will not affect caching
         that might be performed by the resolving library or by
         an external caching layer, such as NSCD.

         If you don't understand exactly what this option does,
         you probably won't need it.


         Change which characters found in remote URLs must be
         escaped during generation of local filenames.
         Characters that are restricted by this option are
         escaped, i.e. replaced with %HH, where HH is the
         hexadecimal number that corresponds to the restricted
         character. This option may also be used to force all
         alphabetical cases to be either lower- or uppercase.

         By default, Wget escapes the characters that are not
         valid or safe as part of file names on your operating
         system, as well as control characters that are typically
         unprintable.  This option is useful for changing these
         defaults, perhaps because you are downloading to a non-
         native partition, or because you want to disable
         escaping of the control characters, or you want to
         further restrict characters to only those in the ASCII
         range of values.

         The modes are a comma-separated set of text values. The
         acceptable values are unix, windows, nocontrol, ascii,
         lowercase, and uppercase. The values unix and windows
         are mutually exclusive (one will override the other), as
         are lowercase and uppercase. Those last are special
         cases, as they do not change the set of characters that
         would be escaped, but rather force local file paths to
         be converted either to lower- or uppercase.

         When "unix" is specified, Wget escapes the character /
         and the control characters in the ranges 0--31 and
         128--159.  This is the default on Unix-like operating

         When "windows" is given, Wget escapes the characters \,
         |, /, :, ?, ", *, <, >, and the control characters in
         the ranges 0--31 and 128--159.  In addition to this,
         Wget in Windows mode uses + instead of : to separate
         host and port in local file names, and uses @ instead of
         ? to separate the query portion of the file name from
         the rest.  Therefore, a URL that would be saved as
         www.xemacs.org:4300/search.pl?input=blah in Unix mode
         would be saved as
         www.xemacs.org+4300/search.pl@input=blah in Windows
         mode.  This mode is the default on Windows.

         If you specify nocontrol, then the escaping of the
         control characters is also switched off. This option may
         make sense when you are downloading URLs whose names
         contain UTF-8 characters, on a system which can save and
         display filenames in UTF-8 (some possible byte values
         used in UTF-8 byte sequences fall in the range of values
         designated by Wget as "controls").

         The ascii mode is used to specify that any bytes whose
         values are outside the range of ASCII characters (that
         is, greater than 127) shall be escaped. This can be
         useful when saving filenames whose encoding does not
         match the one used locally.

         Force connecting to IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.  With
         --inet4-only or -4, Wget will only connect to IPv4
         hosts, ignoring AAAA records in DNS, and refusing to
         connect to IPv6 addresses specified in URLs.
         Conversely, with --inet6-only or -6, Wget will only
         connect to IPv6 hosts and ignore A records and IPv4

         Neither options should be needed normally.  By default,
         an IPv6-aware Wget will use the address family specified
         by the host's DNS record.  If the DNS responds with both
         IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, Wget will try them in sequence
         until it finds one it can connect to.  (Also see
         "--prefer-family" option described below.)

         These options can be used to deliberately force the use
         of IPv4 or IPv6 address families on dual family systems,
         usually to aid debugging or to deal with broken network
         configuration.  Only one of --inet6-only and
         --inet4-only may be specified at the same time.  Neither
         option is available in Wget compiled without IPv6

         When given a choice of several addresses, connect to the
         addresses with specified address family first.  The
         address order returned by DNS is used without change by

         This avoids spurious errors and connect attempts when
         accessing hosts that resolve to both IPv6 and IPv4
         addresses from IPv4 networks.  For example, www.kame.net
         resolves to 2001:200:0:8002:203:47ff:fea5:3085 and to  When the preferred family is "IPv4",
         the IPv4 address is used first; when the preferred
         family is "IPv6", the IPv6 address is used first; if the
         specified value is "none", the address order returned by
         DNS is used without change.

         Unlike -4 and -6, this option doesn't inhibit access to
         any address family, it only changes the order in which
         the addresses are accessed.  Also note that the
         reordering performed by this option is stable---it
         doesn't affect order of addresses of the same family.
         That is, the relative order of all IPv4 addresses and of
         all IPv6 addresses remains intact in all cases.

         Consider "connection refused" a transient error and try
         again.  Normally Wget gives up on a URL when it is
         unable to connect to the site because failure to connect
         is taken as a sign that the server is not running at all
         and that retries would not help.  This option is for
         mirroring unreliable sites whose servers tend to
         disappear for short periods of time.

         Specify the username user and password password for both
         FTP and HTTP file retrieval.  These parameters can be
         overridden using the --ftp-user and --ftp-password
         options for FTP connections and the --http-user and
         --http-password options for HTTP connections.

         Prompt for a password for each connection established.
         Cannot be specified when --password is being used,
         because they are mutually exclusive.

         Prompt for a user and password using the specified
         command.  If no command is specified then the command in
         the environment variable WGET_ASKPASS is used.  If
         WGET_ASKPASS is not set then the command in the
         environment variable SSH_ASKPASS is used.

         You can set the default command for use-askpass in the
         .wgetrc.  That setting may be overridden from the
         command line.

         Turn off internationalized URI (IRI) support. Use --iri
         to turn it on. IRI support is activated by default.

         You can set the default state of IRI support using the
         "iri" command in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden
         from the command line.

         Force Wget to use encoding as the default system
         encoding. That affects how Wget converts URLs specified
         as arguments from locale to UTF-8 for IRI support.

         Wget use the function "nl_langinfo()" and then the
         "CHARSET" environment variable to get the locale. If it
         fails, ASCII is used.

         You can set the default local encoding using the
         "local_encoding" command in .wgetrc. That setting may be
         overridden from the command line.

         Force Wget to use encoding as the default remote server
         encoding.  That affects how Wget converts URIs found in
         files from remote encoding to UTF-8 during a recursive
         fetch. This options is only useful for IRI support, for
         the interpretation of non-ASCII characters.

         For HTTP, remote encoding can be found in HTTP
         "Content-Type" header and in HTML "Content-Type
         http-equiv" meta tag.

         You can set the default encoding using the
         "remoteencoding" command in .wgetrc. That setting may be
         overridden from the command line.

         Force Wget to unlink file instead of clobbering existing
         file. This option is useful for downloading to the
         directory with hardlinks.

  Directory Options
         Do not create a hierarchy of directories when retrieving
         recursively.  With this option turned on, all files will
         get saved to the current directory, without clobbering
         (if a name shows up more than once, the filenames will
         get extensions .n).

         The opposite of -nd---create a hierarchy of directories,
         even if one would not have been created otherwise.  E.g.
         wget -x http://fly.srk.fer.hr/robots.txt will save the
         downloaded file to fly.srk.fer.hr/robots.txt.

         Disable generation of host-prefixed directories.  By
         default, invoking Wget with -r http://fly.srk.fer.hr/
         will create a structure of directories beginning with
         fly.srk.fer.hr/.  This option disables such behavior.

         Use the protocol name as a directory component of local
         file names.  For example, with this option, wget -r
         http://host will save to http/host/... rather than just
         to host/....

         Ignore number directory components.  This is useful for
         getting a fine-grained control over the directory where
         recursive retrieval will be saved.

         Take, for example, the directory at
         ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  If you retrieve it
         with -r, it will be saved locally under
         ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/.  While the -nH option can
         remove the ftp.xemacs.org/ part, you are still stuck
         with pub/xemacs.  This is where --cut-dirs comes in
         handy; it makes Wget not "see" number remote directory
         components.  Here are several examples of how --cut-dirs
         option works.

                 No options        -> ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/
                 -nH               -> pub/xemacs/
                 -nH --cut-dirs=1  -> xemacs/
                 -nH --cut-dirs=2  -> .

                 --cut-dirs=1      -> ftp.xemacs.org/xemacs/

         If you just want to get rid of the directory structure,
         this option is similar to a combination of -nd and -P.
         However, unlike -nd, --cut-dirs does not lose with
         subdirectories---for instance, with -nH --cut-dirs=1, a
         beta/ subdirectory will be placed to xemacs/beta, as one
         would expect.

     -P prefix
         Set directory prefix to prefix.  The directory prefix is
         the directory where all other files and subdirectories
         will be saved to, i.e. the top of the retrieval tree.
         The default is . (the current directory).

  HTTP Options
         Use name as the default file name when it isn't known
         (i.e., for URLs that end in a slash), instead of

         If a file of type application/xhtml+xml or text/html is
         downloaded and the URL does not end with the regexp
         \.[Hh][Tt][Mm][Ll]?, this option will cause the suffix
         .html to be appended to the local filename.  This is
         useful, for instance, when you're mirroring a remote
         site that uses .asp pages, but you want the mirrored
         pages to be viewable on your stock Apache server.
         Another good use for this is when you're downloading
         CGI-generated materials.  A URL like
         http://site.com/article.cgi?25 will be saved as

         Note that filenames changed in this way will be re-
         downloaded every time you re-mirror a site, because Wget
         can't tell that the local X.html file corresponds to
         remote URL X (since it doesn't yet know that the URL
         produces output of type text/html or

         As of version 1.12, Wget will also ensure that any
         downloaded files of type text/css end in the suffix
         .css, and the option was renamed from --html-extension,
         to better reflect its new behavior. The old option name
         is still acceptable, but should now be considered

         As of version 1.19.2, Wget will also ensure that any
         downloaded files with a "Content-Encoding" of br,
         compress, deflate or gzip end in the suffix .br, .Z,
         .zlib and .gz respectively.

         At some point in the future, this option may well be
         expanded to include suffixes for other types of content,
         including content types that are not parsed by Wget.

         Specify the username user and password password on an
         HTTP server.  According to the type of the challenge,
         Wget will encode them using either the "basic"
         (insecure), the "digest", or the Windows "NTLM"
         authentication scheme.

         Another way to specify username and password is in the
         URL itself.  Either method reveals your password to
         anyone who bothers to run "ps".  To prevent the
         passwords from being seen, use the --use-askpass or
         store them in .wgetrc or .netrc, and make sure to
         protect those files from other users with "chmod".  If
         the passwords are really important, do not leave them
         lying in those files either---edit the files and delete
         them after Wget has started the download.

         Turn off the "keep-alive" feature for HTTP downloads.

         Normally, Wget asks the server to keep the connection
         open so that, when you download more than one document
         from the same server, they get transferred over the same
         TCP connection.  This saves time and at the same time
         reduces the load on the server.

         This option is useful when, for some reason, persistent
         (keep-alive) connections don't work for you, for example
         due to a server bug or due to the inability of server-
         side scripts to cope with the connections.

         Disable server-side cache.  In this case, Wget will send
         the remote server an appropriate directive (Pragma: no-
         cache) to get the file from the remote service, rather
         than returning the cached version.  This is especially
         useful for retrieving and flushing out-of-date documents
         on proxy servers.

         Caching is allowed by default.

         Disable the use of cookies.  Cookies are a mechanism for
         maintaining server-side state.  The server sends the
         client a cookie using the "Set-Cookie" header, and the
         client responds with the same cookie upon further
         requests.  Since cookies allow the server owners to keep
         track of visitors and for sites to exchange this
         information, some consider them a breach of privacy.
         The default is to use cookies; however, storing cookies
         is not on by default.

     --load-cookies file
         Load cookies from file before the first HTTP retrieval.
         file is a textual file in the format originally used by
         Netscape's cookies.txt file.

         You will typically use this option when mirroring sites
         that require that you be logged in to access some or all
         of their content.  The login process typically works by
         the web server issuing an HTTP cookie upon receiving and
         verifying your credentials.  The cookie is then resent
         by the browser when accessing that part of the site, and
         so proves your identity.

         Mirroring such a site requires Wget to send the same
         cookies your browser sends when communicating with the
         site.  This is achieved by --load-cookies---simply point
         Wget to the location of the cookies.txt file, and it
         will send the same cookies your browser would send in
         the same situation.  Different browsers keep textual
         cookie files in different locations:
         "Netscape 4.x."
             The cookies are in ~/.netscape/cookies.txt.

         "Mozilla and Netscape 6.x."
             Mozilla's cookie file is also named cookies.txt,
             located somewhere under ~/.mozilla, in the directory
             of your profile.  The full path usually ends up
             looking somewhat like ~/.mozilla/default/some-

         "Internet Explorer."
             You can produce a cookie file Wget can use by using
             the File menu, Import and Export, Export Cookies.
             This has been tested with Internet Explorer 5; it is
             not guaranteed to work with earlier versions.

         "Other browsers."
             If you are using a different browser to create your
             cookies, --load-cookies will only work if you can
             locate or produce a cookie file in the Netscape
             format that Wget expects.

         If you cannot use --load-cookies, there might still be
         an alternative.  If your browser supports a "cookie
         manager", you can use it to view the cookies used when
         accessing the site you're mirroring.  Write down the
         name and value of the cookie, and manually instruct Wget
         to send those cookies, bypassing the "official" cookie

                 wget --no-cookies --header "Cookie: <name>=<value>"

     --save-cookies file
         Save cookies to file before exiting.  This will not save
         cookies that have expired or that have no expiry time
         (so-called "session cookies"), but also see

         When specified, causes --save-cookies to also save
         session cookies.  Session cookies are normally not saved
         because they are meant to be kept in memory and
         forgotten when you exit the browser.  Saving them is
         useful on sites that require you to log in or to visit
         the home page before you can access some pages.  With
         this option, multiple Wget runs are considered a single
         browser session as far as the site is concerned.

         Since the cookie file format does not normally carry
         session cookies, Wget marks them with an expiry
         timestamp of 0.  Wget's --load-cookies recognizes those
         as session cookies, but it might confuse other browsers.

         Also note that cookies so loaded will be treated as
         other session cookies, which means that if you want
         --save-cookies to preserve them again, you must use
         --keep-session-cookies again.

         Unfortunately, some HTTP servers (CGI programs, to be
         more precise) send out bogus "Content-Length" headers,
         which makes Wget go wild, as it thinks not all the
         document was retrieved.  You can spot this syndrome if
         Wget retries getting the same document again and again,
         each time claiming that the (otherwise normal)
         connection has closed on the very same byte.

         With this option, Wget will ignore the "Content-Length"
         header---as if it never existed.

         Send header-line along with the rest of the headers in
         each HTTP request.  The supplied header is sent as-is,
         which means it must contain name and value separated by
         colon, and must not contain newlines.

         You may define more than one additional header by
         specifying --header more than once.

                 wget --header='Accept-Charset: iso-8859-2' \
                      --header='Accept-Language: hr'        \

         Specification of an empty string as the header value
         will clear all previous user-defined headers.

         As of Wget 1.10, this option can be used to override
         headers otherwise generated automatically.  This example
         instructs Wget to connect to localhost, but to specify
         foo.bar in the "Host" header:

                 wget --header="Host: foo.bar" http://localhost/

         In versions of Wget prior to 1.10 such use of --header
         caused sending of duplicate headers.

         Choose the type of compression to be used.  Legal values
         are auto, gzip and none.

         If auto or gzip are specified, Wget asks the server to
         compress the file using the gzip compression format. If
         the server compresses the file and responds with the
         "Content-Encoding" header field set appropriately, the
         file will be decompressed automatically.

         If none is specified, wget will not ask the server to
         compress the file and will not decompress any server
         responses. This is the default.

         Compression support is currently experimental. In case
         it is turned on, please report any bugs to

         Specifies the maximum number of redirections to follow
         for a resource.  The default is 20, which is usually far
         more than necessary. However, on those occasions where
         you want to allow more (or fewer), this is the option to

         Specify the username user and password password for
         authentication on a proxy server.  Wget will encode them
         using the "basic" authentication scheme.

         Security considerations similar to those with
         --http-password pertain here as well.

         Include `Referer: url' header in HTTP request.  Useful
         for retrieving documents with server-side processing
         that assume they are always being retrieved by
         interactive web browsers and only come out properly when
         Referer is set to one of the pages that point to them.

         Save the headers sent by the HTTP server to the file,
         preceding the actual contents, with an empty line as the

     -U agent-string
         Identify as agent-string to the HTTP server.

         The HTTP protocol allows the clients to identify
         themselves using a "User-Agent" header field.  This
         enables distinguishing the WWW software, usually for
         statistical purposes or for tracing of protocol
         violations.  Wget normally identifies as Wget/version,
         version being the current version number of Wget.

         However, some sites have been known to impose the policy
         of tailoring the output according to the
         "User-Agent"-supplied information.  While this is not
         such a bad idea in theory, it has been abused by servers
         denying information to clients other than (historically)

         Netscape or, more frequently, Microsoft Internet
         Explorer.  This option allows you to change the
         "User-Agent" line issued by Wget.  Use of this option is
         discouraged, unless you really know what you are doing.

         Specifying empty user agent with --user-agent=""
         instructs Wget not to send the "User-Agent" header in
         HTTP requests.

         Use POST as the method for all HTTP requests and send
         the specified data in the request body.  --post-data
         sends string as data, whereas --post-file sends the
         contents of file.  Other than that, they work in exactly
         the same way. In particular, they both expect content of
         the form "key1=value1&key2=value2", with percent-
         encoding for special characters; the only difference is
         that one expects its content as a command-line parameter
         and the other accepts its content from a file. In
         particular, --post-file is not for transmitting files as
         form attachments: those must appear as "key=value" data
         (with appropriate percent-coding) just like everything
         else. Wget does not currently support
         "multipart/form-data" for transmitting POST data; only
         "application/x-www-form-urlencoded". Only one of
         --post-data and --post-file should be specified.

         Please note that wget does not require the content to be
         of the form "key1=value1&key2=value2", and neither does
         it test for it. Wget will simply transmit whatever data
         is provided to it. Most servers however expect the POST
         data to be in the above format when processing HTML

         When sending a POST request using the --post-file
         option, Wget treats the file as a binary file and will
         send every character in the POST request without
         stripping trailing newline or formfeed characters. Any
         other control characters in the text will also be sent
         as-is in the POST request.

         Please be aware that Wget needs to know the size of the
         POST data in advance.  Therefore the argument to
         "--post-file" must be a regular file; specifying a FIFO
         or something like /dev/stdin won't work.  It's not quite
         clear how to work around this limitation inherent in
         HTTP/1.0.  Although HTTP/1.1 introduces chunked transfer
         that doesn't require knowing the request length in
         advance, a client can't use chunked unless it knows it's
         talking to an HTTP/1.1 server.  And it can't know that
         until it receives a response, which in turn requires the
         request to have been completed -- a chicken-and-egg

         Note: As of version 1.15 if Wget is redirected after the
         POST request is completed, its behaviour will depend on
         the response code returned by the server.  In case of a
         301 Moved Permanently, 302 Moved Temporarily or 307
         Temporary Redirect, Wget will, in accordance with
         RFC2616, continue to send a POST request.  In case a
         server wants the client to change the Request method
         upon redirection, it should send a 303 See Other
         response code.

         This example shows how to log in to a server using POST
         and then proceed to download the desired pages,
         presumably only accessible to authorized users:

                 # Log in to the server.  This can be done only once.
                 wget --save-cookies cookies.txt \
                      --post-data `user=foo&password=bar' \

                 # Now grab the page or pages we care about.
                 wget --load-cookies cookies.txt \
                      -p http://example.com/interesting/article.php

         If the server is using session cookies to track user
         authentication, the above will not work because
         --save-cookies will not save them (and neither will
         browsers) and the cookies.txt file will be empty.  In
         that case use --keep-session-cookies along with
         --save-cookies to force saving of session cookies.

         For the purpose of RESTful scripting, Wget allows
         sending of other HTTP Methods without the need to
         explicitly set them using --header=Header-Line.  Wget
         will use whatever string is passed to it after --method
         as the HTTP Method to the server.

         Must be set when additional data needs to be sent to the
         server along with the Method specified using --method.
         --body-data sends string as data, whereas --body-file
         sends the contents of file.  Other than that, they work
         in exactly the same way.

         Currently, --body-file is not for transmitting files as
         a whole.  Wget does not currently support
         "multipart/form-data" for transmitting data; only
         "application/x-www-form-urlencoded". In the future, this
         may be changed so that wget sends the --body-file as a
         complete file instead of sending its contents to the
         server. Please be aware that Wget needs to know the
         contents of BODY Data in advance, and hence the argument
         to --body-file should be a regular file. See --post-file
         for a more detailed explanation.  Only one of
         --body-data and --body-file should be specified.

         If Wget is redirected after the request is completed,
         Wget will suspend the current method and send a GET
         request till the redirection is completed.  This is true
         for all redirection response codes except 307 Temporary
         Redirect which is used to explicitly specify that the
         request method should not change.  Another exception is
         when the method is set to "POST", in which case the
         redirection rules specified under --post-data are

         If this is set to on, experimental (not fully-
         functional) support for "Content-Disposition" headers is
         enabled. This can currently result in extra round-trips
         to the server for a "HEAD" request, and is known to
         suffer from a few bugs, which is why it is not currently
         enabled by default.

         This option is useful for some file-downloading CGI
         programs that use "Content-Disposition" headers to
         describe what the name of a downloaded file should be.

         When combined with --metalink-over-http and
         --trust-server-names, a Content-Type:
         application/metalink4+xml file is named using the
         "Content-Disposition" filename field, if available.

         If this is set to on, wget will not skip the content
         when the server responds with a http status code that
         indicates error.

         If this is set, on a redirect, the local file name will
         be based on the redirection URL.  By default the local
         file name is based on the original URL.  When doing
         recursive retrieving this can be helpful because in many
         web sites redirected URLs correspond to an underlying
         file structure, while link URLs do not.

         If this option is given, Wget will send Basic HTTP
         authentication information (plaintext username and
         password) for all requests, just like Wget 1.10.2 and
         prior did by default.

         Use of this option is not recommended, and is intended
         only to support some few obscure servers, which never
         send HTTP authentication challenges, but accept
         unsolicited auth info, say, in addition to form-based

         Consider given HTTP response codes as non-fatal,
         transient errors.  Supply a comma-separated list of
         3-digit HTTP response codes as argument. Useful to work
         around special circumstances where retries are required,
         but the server responds with an error code normally not
         retried by Wget. Such errors might be 503 (Service
         Unavailable) and 429 (Too Many Requests). Retries
         enabled by this option are performed subject to the
         normal retry timing and retry count limitations of Wget.

         Using this option is intended to support special use
         cases only and is generally not recommended, as it can
         force retries even in cases where the server is actually
         trying to decrease its load. Please use wisely and only
         if you know what you are doing.

  HTTPS (SSL/TLS) Options
     To support encrypted HTTP (HTTPS) downloads, Wget must be
     compiled with an external SSL library. The current default
     is GnuTLS.  In addition, Wget also supports HSTS (HTTP
     Strict Transport Security).  If Wget is compiled without SSL
     support, none of these options are available.

         Choose the secure protocol to be used.  Legal values are
         auto, SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, TLSv1_1, TLSv1_2 and PFS.  If
         auto is used, the SSL library is given the liberty of
         choosing the appropriate protocol automatically, which
         is achieved by sending a TLSv1 greeting. This is the

         Specifying SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, TLSv1_1 or TLSv1_2
         forces the use of the corresponding protocol.  This is
         useful when talking to old and buggy SSL server
         implementations that make it hard for the underlying SSL
         library to choose the correct protocol version.
         Fortunately, such servers are quite rare.

         Specifying PFS enforces the use of the so-called Perfect
         Forward Security cipher suites. In short, PFS adds
         security by creating a one-time key for each SSL
         connection. It has a bit more CPU impact on client and
         server.  We use known to be secure ciphers (e.g. no MD4)
         and the TLS protocol.

         When in recursive mode, only HTTPS links are followed.

         Don't check the server certificate against the available
         certificate authorities.  Also don't require the URL
         host name to match the common name presented by the

         As of Wget 1.10, the default is to verify the server's
         certificate against the recognized certificate
         authorities, breaking the SSL handshake and aborting the
         download if the verification fails.  Although this
         provides more secure downloads, it does break
         interoperability with some sites that worked with
         previous Wget versions, particularly those using self-
         signed, expired, or otherwise invalid certificates.
         This option forces an "insecure" mode of operation that
         turns the certificate verification errors into warnings
         and allows you to proceed.

         If you encounter "certificate verification" errors or
         ones saying that "common name doesn't match requested
         host name", you can use this option to bypass the
         verification and proceed with the download.  Only use
         this option if you are otherwise convinced of the site's
         authenticity, or if you really don't care about the
         validity of its certificate.  It is almost always a bad
         idea not to check the certificates when transmitting
         confidential or important data.  For
         self-signed/internal certificates, you should download
         the certificate and verify against that instead of
         forcing this insecure mode.  If you are really sure of
         not desiring any certificate verification, you can
         specify --check-certificate=quiet to tell wget to not
         print any warning about invalid certificates, albeit in
         most cases this is the wrong thing to do.

         Use the client certificate stored in file.  This is
         needed for servers that are configured to require
         certificates from the clients that connect to them.
         Normally a certificate is not required and this switch
         is optional.

         Specify the type of the client certificate.  Legal
         values are PEM (assumed by default) and DER, also known
         as ASN1.

         Read the private key from file.  This allows you to
         provide the private key in a file separate from the

         Specify the type of the private key.  Accepted values
         are PEM (the default) and DER.

         Use file as the file with the bundle of certificate
         authorities ("CA") to verify the peers.  The
         certificates must be in PEM format.

         Without this option Wget looks for CA certificates at
         the system-specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL
         installation time.

         Specifies directory containing CA certificates in PEM
         format.  Each file contains one CA certificate, and the
         file name is based on a hash value derived from the
         certificate.  This is achieved by processing a
         certificate directory with the "c_rehash" utility
         supplied with OpenSSL.  Using --ca-directory is more
         efficient than --ca-certificate when many certificates
         are installed because it allows Wget to fetch
         certificates on demand.

         Without this option Wget looks for CA certificates at
         the system-specified locations, chosen at OpenSSL
         installation time.

         Specifies a CRL file in file.  This is needed for
         certificates that have been revocated by the CAs.

         Tells wget to use the specified public key file (or
         hashes) to verify the peer.  This can be a path to a
         file which contains a single public key in PEM or DER
         format, or any number of base64 encoded sha256 hashes
         preceded by "sha256//" and separated by ";"

         When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection, the server
         sends a certificate indicating its identity. A public
         key is extracted from this certificate and if it does
         not exactly match the public key(s) provided to this
         option, wget will abort the connection before sending or
         receiving any data.


         [OpenSSL and LibreSSL only] Use file as the source of
         random data for seeding the pseudo-random number
         generator on systems without /dev/urandom.

         On such systems the SSL library needs an external source
         of randomness to initialize.  Randomness may be provided
         by EGD (see --egd-file below) or read from an external
         source specified by the user.  If this option is not
         specified, Wget looks for random data in $RANDFILE or,
         if that is unset, in $HOME/.rnd.

         If you're getting the "Could not seed OpenSSL PRNG;
         disabling SSL." error, you should provide random data
         using some of the methods described above.

         [OpenSSL only] Use file as the EGD socket.  EGD stands
         for Entropy Gathering Daemon, a user-space program that
         collects data from various unpredictable system sources
         and makes it available to other programs that might need
         it.  Encryption software, such as the SSL library, needs
         sources of non-repeating randomness to seed the random
         number generator used to produce cryptographically
         strong keys.

         OpenSSL allows the user to specify his own source of
         entropy using the "RAND_FILE" environment variable.  If
         this variable is unset, or if the specified file does
         not produce enough randomness, OpenSSL will read random
         data from EGD socket specified using this option.

         If this option is not specified (and the equivalent
         startup command is not used), EGD is never contacted.
         EGD is not needed on modern Unix systems that support

         Wget supports HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security, RFC
         6797) by default.  Use --no-hsts to make Wget act as a
         non-HSTS-compliant UA. As a consequence, Wget would
         ignore all the "Strict-Transport-Security" headers, and
         would not enforce any existing HSTS policy.

         By default, Wget stores its HSTS database in
         ~/.wget-hsts.  You can use --hsts-file to override this.
         Wget will use the supplied file as the HSTS database.
         Such file must conform to the correct HSTS database
         format used by Wget. If Wget cannot parse the provided
         file, the behaviour is unspecified.

         The Wget's HSTS database is a plain text file. Each line
         contains an HSTS entry (ie. a site that has issued a
         "Strict-Transport-Security" header and that therefore
         has specified a concrete HSTS policy to be applied).
         Lines starting with a dash ("#") are ignored by Wget.
         Please note that in spite of this convenient human-
         readability hand-hacking the HSTS database is generally
         not a good idea.

         An HSTS entry line consists of several fields separated
         by one or more whitespace:

         "<hostname> SP [<port>] SP <include subdomains> SP
         <created> SP <max-age>"

         The hostname and port fields indicate the hostname and
         port to which the given HSTS policy applies. The port
         field may be zero, and it will, in most of the cases.
         That means that the port number will not be taken into
         account when deciding whether such HSTS policy should be
         applied on a given request (only the hostname will be
         evaluated). When port is different to zero, both the
         target hostname and the port will be evaluated and the
         HSTS policy will only be applied if both of them match.
         This feature has been included for testing/development
         purposes only.  The Wget testsuite (in testenv/) creates
         HSTS databases with explicit ports with the purpose of
         ensuring Wget's correct behaviour. Applying HSTS
         policies to ports other than the default ones is
         discouraged by RFC 6797 (see Appendix B "Differences
         between HSTS Policy and Same-Origin Policy"). Thus, this
         functionality should not be used in production
         environments and port will typically be zero. The last
         three fields do what they are expected to. The field
         include_subdomains can either be 1 or 0 and it signals
         whether the subdomains of the target domain should be
         part of the given HSTS policy as well. The created and
         max-age fields hold the timestamp values of when such
         entry was created (first seen by Wget) and the HSTS-
         defined value `max-age', which states how long should
         that HSTS policy remain active, measured in seconds
         elapsed since the timestamp stored in created. Once that
         time has passed, that HSTS policy will no longer be
         valid and will eventually be removed from the database.

         If you supply your own HSTS database via --hsts-file, be
         aware that Wget may modify the provided file if any
         change occurs between the HSTS policies requested by the
         remote servers and those in the file. When Wget exists,
         it effectively updates the HSTS database by rewriting
         the database file with the new entries.

         If the supplied file does not exist, Wget will create
         one. This file will contain the new HSTS entries. If no
         HSTS entries were generated (no
         "Strict-Transport-Security" headers were sent by any of
         the servers) then no file will be created, not even an
         empty one. This behaviour applies to the default
         database file (~/.wget-hsts) as well: it will not be
         created until some server enforces an HSTS policy.

         Care is taken not to override possible changes made by
         other Wget processes at the same time over the HSTS
         database. Before dumping the updated HSTS entries on the
         file, Wget will re-read it and merge the changes.

         Using a custom HSTS database and/or modifying an
         existing one is discouraged.  For more information about
         the potential security threats arised from such
         practice, see section 14 "Security Considerations" of
         RFC 6797, specially section 14.9 "Creative Manipulation
         of HSTS Policy Store".

         Use file as the destination WARC file.

         Use string into as the warcinfo record.

         Set the maximum size of the WARC files to size.

         Write CDX index files.

         Do not store records listed in this CDX file.

         Do not compress WARC files with GZIP.

         Do not calculate SHA1 digests.

         Do not store the log file in a WARC record.

         Specify the location for temporary files created by the
         WARC writer.

  FTP Options
         Specify the username user and password password on an

         FTP server.  Without this, or the corresponding startup
         option, the password defaults to -wget@, normally used
         for anonymous FTP.

         Another way to specify username and password is in the
         URL itself.  Either method reveals your password to
         anyone who bothers to run "ps".  To prevent the
         passwords from being seen, store them in .wgetrc or
         .netrc, and make sure to protect those files from other
         users with "chmod".  If the passwords are really
         important, do not leave them lying in those files
         either---edit the files and delete them after Wget has
         started the download.

         Don't remove the temporary .listing files generated by
         FTP retrievals.  Normally, these files contain the raw
         directory listings received from FTP servers.  Not
         removing them can be useful for debugging purposes, or
         when you want to be able to easily check on the contents
         of remote server directories (e.g. to verify that a
         mirror you're running is complete).

         Note that even though Wget writes to a known filename
         for this file, this is not a security hole in the
         scenario of a user making .listing a symbolic link to
         /etc/passwd or something and asking "root" to run Wget
         in his or her directory.  Depending on the options used,
         either Wget will refuse to write to .listing, making the
         globbing/recursion/time-stamping operation fail, or the
         symbolic link will be deleted and replaced with the
         actual .listing file, or the listing will be written to
         a .listing.number file.

         Even though this situation isn't a problem, though,
         "root" should never run Wget in a non-trusted user's
         directory.  A user could do something as simple as
         linking index.html to /etc/passwd and asking "root" to
         run Wget with -N or -r so the file will be overwritten.

         Turn off FTP globbing.  Globbing refers to the use of
         shell-like special characters (wildcards), like *, ?, [
         and ] to retrieve more than one file from the same
         directory at once, like:

                 wget ftp://gnjilux.srk.fer.hr/*.msg

         By default, globbing will be turned on if the URL
         contains a globbing character.  This option may be used
         to turn globbing on or off permanently.

         You may have to quote the URL to protect it from being
         expanded by your shell.  Globbing makes Wget look for a
         directory listing, which is system-specific.  This is
         why it currently works only with Unix FTP servers (and
         the ones emulating Unix "ls" output).

         Disable the use of the passive FTP transfer mode.
         Passive FTP mandates that the client connect to the
         server to establish the data connection rather than the
         other way around.

         If the machine is connected to the Internet directly,
         both passive and active FTP should work equally well.
         Behind most firewall and NAT configurations passive FTP
         has a better chance of working.  However, in some rare
         firewall configurations, active FTP actually works when
         passive FTP doesn't.  If you suspect this to be the
         case, use this option, or set "passive_ftp=off" in your
         init file.

         Preserve remote file permissions instead of permissions
         set by umask.

         By default, when retrieving FTP directories recursively
         and a symbolic link is encountered, the symbolic link is
         traversed and the pointed-to files are retrieved.
         Currently, Wget does not traverse symbolic links to
         directories to download them recursively, though this
         feature may be added in the future.

         When --retr-symlinks=no is specified, the linked-to file
         is not downloaded.  Instead, a matching symbolic link is
         created on the local filesystem.  The pointed-to file
         will not be retrieved unless this recursive retrieval
         would have encountered it separately and downloaded it
         anyway.  This option poses a security risk where a
         malicious FTP Server may cause Wget to write to files
         outside of the intended directories through a specially
         crafted .LISTING file.

         Note that when retrieving a file (not a directory)
         because it was specified on the command-line, rather
         than because it was recursed to, this option has no
         effect.  Symbolic links are always traversed in this

  FTPS Options
         This option tells Wget to use FTPS implicitly. Implicit

         FTPS consists of initializing SSL/TLS from the very
         beginning of the control connection. This option does
         not send an "AUTH TLS" command: it assumes the server
         speaks FTPS and directly starts an SSL/TLS connection.
         If the attempt is successful, the session continues just
         like regular FTPS ("PBSZ" and "PROT" are sent, etc.).
         Implicit FTPS is no longer a requirement for FTPS
         implementations, and thus many servers may not support
         it. If --ftps-implicit is passed and no explicit port
         number specified, the default port for implicit FTPS,
         990, will be used, instead of the default port for the
         "normal" (explicit) FTPS which is the same as that of
         FTP, 21.

         Do not resume the SSL/TLS session in the data channel.
         When starting a data connection, Wget tries to resume
         the SSL/TLS session previously started in the control
         connection.  SSL/TLS session resumption avoids
         performing an entirely new handshake by reusing the
         SSL/TLS parameters of a previous session. Typically, the
         FTPS servers want it that way, so Wget does this by
         default. Under rare circumstances however, one might
         want to start an entirely new SSL/TLS session in every
         data connection.  This is what --no-ftps-resume-ssl is

         All the data connections will be in plain text. Only the
         control connection will be under SSL/TLS. Wget will send
         a "PROT C" command to achieve this, which must be
         approved by the server.

         Fall back to FTP if FTPS is not supported by the target
         server. For security reasons, this option is not
         asserted by default. The default behaviour is to exit
         with an error.  If a server does not successfully reply
         to the initial "AUTH TLS" command, or in the case of
         implicit FTPS, if the initial SSL/TLS connection attempt
         is rejected, it is considered that such server does not
         support FTPS.

  Recursive Retrieval Options
         Turn on recursive retrieving.    The default maximum
         depth is 5.

     -l depth
         Specify recursion maximum depth level depth.

         This option tells Wget to delete every single file it
         downloads, after having done so.  It is useful for pre-
         fetching popular pages through a proxy, e.g.:

                 wget -r -nd --delete-after http://whatever.com/~popular/page/

         The -r option is to retrieve recursively, and -nd to not
         create directories.

         Note that --delete-after deletes files on the local
         machine.  It does not issue the DELE command to remote
         FTP sites, for instance.  Also note that when
         --delete-after is specified, --convert-links is ignored,
         so .orig files are simply not created in the first

         After the download is complete, convert the links in the
         document to make them suitable for local viewing.  This
         affects not only the visible hyperlinks, but any part of
         the document that links to external content, such as
         embedded images, links to style sheets, hyperlinks to
         non-HTML content, etc.

         Each link will be changed in one of the two ways:

         *   The links to files that have been downloaded by Wget
             will be changed to refer to the file they point to
             as a relative link.

             Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links
             to /bar/img.gif, also downloaded, then the link in
             doc.html will be modified to point to
             ../bar/img.gif.  This kind of transformation works
             reliably for arbitrary combinations of directories.

         *   The links to files that have not been downloaded by
             Wget will be changed to include host name and
             absolute path of the location they point to.

             Example: if the downloaded file /foo/doc.html links
             to /bar/img.gif (or to ../bar/img.gif), then the
             link in doc.html will be modified to point to

         Because of this, local browsing works reliably: if a
         linked file was downloaded, the link will refer to its
         local name; if it was not downloaded, the link will
         refer to its full Internet address rather than
         presenting a broken link.  The fact that the former
         links are converted to relative links ensures that you
         can move the downloaded hierarchy to another directory.

         Note that only at the end of the download can Wget know
         which links have been downloaded.  Because of that, the
         work done by -k will be performed at the end of all the

         This option converts only the filename part of the URLs,
         leaving the rest of the URLs untouched. This filename
         part is sometimes referred to as the "basename",
         although we avoid that term here in order not to cause

         It works particularly well in conjunction with
         --adjust-extension, although this coupling is not
         enforced. It proves useful to populate Internet caches
         with files downloaded from different hosts.

         Example: if some link points to //foo.com/bar.cgi?xyz
         with --adjust-extension asserted and its local
         destination is intended to be ./foo.com/bar.cgi?xyz.css,
         then the link would be converted to
         //foo.com/bar.cgi?xyz.css. Note that only the filename
         part has been modified. The rest of the URL has been
         left untouched, including the net path ("//") which
         would otherwise be processed by Wget and converted to
         the effective scheme (ie. "http://").

         When converting a file, back up the original version
         with a .orig suffix.  Affects the behavior of -N.

         Turn on options suitable for mirroring.  This option
         turns on recursion and time-stamping, sets infinite
         recursion depth and keeps FTP directory listings.  It is
         currently equivalent to -r -N -l inf

         This option causes Wget to download all the files that
         are necessary to properly display a given HTML page.
         This includes such things as inlined images, sounds, and
         referenced stylesheets.

         Ordinarily, when downloading a single HTML page, any
         requisite documents that may be needed to display it
         properly are not downloaded.  Using -r together with -l
         can help, but since Wget does not ordinarily distinguish
         between external and inlined documents, one is generally
         left with "leaf documents" that are missing their

         For instance, say document 1.html contains an "<IMG>"
         tag referencing 1.gif and an "<A>" tag pointing to
         external document 2.html.  Say that 2.html is similar
         but that its image is 2.gif and it links to 3.html.  Say
         this continues up to some arbitrarily high number.

         If one executes the command:

                 wget -r -l 2 http://<site>/1.html

         then 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, 2.gif, and 3.html will be
         downloaded.  As you can see, 3.html is without its
         requisite 3.gif because Wget is simply counting the
         number of hops (up to 2) away from 1.html in order to
         determine where to stop the recursion.  However, with
         this command:

                 wget -r -l 2 -p http://<site>/1.html

         all the above files and 3.html's requisite 3.gif will be
         downloaded.  Similarly,

                 wget -r -l 1 -p http://<site>/1.html

         will cause 1.html, 1.gif, 2.html, and 2.gif to be
         downloaded.  One might think that:

                 wget -r -l 0 -p http://<site>/1.html

         would download just 1.html and 1.gif, but unfortunately
         this is not the case, because -l 0 is equivalent to -l
         inf---that is, infinite recursion.  To download a single
         HTML page (or a handful of them, all specified on the
         command-line or in a -i URL input file) and its (or
         their) requisites, simply leave off -r and -l:

                 wget -p http://<site>/1.html

         Note that Wget will behave as if -r had been specified,
         but only that single page and its requisites will be
         downloaded.  Links from that page to external documents
         will not be followed.  Actually, to download a single
         page and all its requisites (even if they exist on
         separate websites), and make sure the lot displays
         properly locally, this author likes to use a few options
         in addition to -p:

                 wget -E -H -k -K -p http://<site>/<document>

         To finish off this topic, it's worth knowing that Wget's
         idea of an external document link is any URL specified
         in an "<A>" tag, an "<AREA>" tag, or a "<LINK>" tag
         other than "<LINK REL="stylesheet">".

         Turn on strict parsing of HTML comments.  The default is
         to terminate comments at the first occurrence of -->.

         According to specifications, HTML comments are expressed
         as SGML declarations.  Declaration is special markup
         that begins with <! and ends with >, such as <!DOCTYPE
         ...>, that may contain comments between a pair of --
         delimiters.  HTML comments are "empty declarations",
         SGML declarations without any non-comment text.
         Therefore, <!--foo--> is a valid comment, and so is
         <!--one-- --two-->, but <!--1--2--> is not.

         On the other hand, most HTML writers don't perceive
         comments as anything other than text delimited with <!--
         and -->, which is not quite the same.  For example,
         something like <!------------> works as a valid comment
         as long as the number of dashes is a multiple of four
         (!).  If not, the comment technically lasts until the
         next --, which may be at the other end of the document.
         Because of this, many popular browsers completely ignore
         the specification and implement what users have come to
         expect: comments delimited with <!-- and -->.

         Until version 1.9, Wget interpreted comments strictly,
         which resulted in missing links in many web pages that
         displayed fine in browsers, but had the misfortune of
         containing non-compliant comments.  Beginning with
         version 1.9, Wget has joined the ranks of clients that
         implements "naive" comments, terminating each comment at
         the first occurrence of -->.

         If, for whatever reason, you want strict comment
         parsing, use this option to turn it on.

  Recursive Accept/Reject Options
     -A acclist --accept acclist
     -R rejlist --reject rejlist
         Specify comma-separated lists of file name suffixes or
         patterns to accept or reject. Note that if any of the
         wildcard characters, *, ?, [ or ], appear in an element
         of acclist or rejlist, it will be treated as a pattern,
         rather than a suffix.  In this case, you have to enclose
         the pattern into quotes to prevent your shell from
         expanding it, like in -A "*.mp3" or -A `*.mp3'.

     --accept-regex urlregex
     --reject-regex urlregex
         Specify a regular expression to accept or reject the
         complete URL.

     --regex-type regextype
         Specify the regular expression type.  Possible types are
         posix or pcre.  Note that to be able to use pcre type,
         wget has to be compiled with libpcre support.

     -D domain-list
         Set domains to be followed.  domain-list is a comma-
         separated list of domains.  Note that it does not turn
         on -H.

     --exclude-domains domain-list
         Specify the domains that are not to be followed.

         Follow FTP links from HTML documents.  Without this
         option, Wget will ignore all the FTP links.

         Wget has an internal table of HTML tag / attribute pairs
         that it considers when looking for linked documents
         during a recursive retrieval.  If a user wants only a
         subset of those tags to be considered, however, he or
         she should be specify such tags in a comma-separated
         list with this option.

         This is the opposite of the --follow-tags option.  To
         skip certain HTML tags when recursively looking for
         documents to download, specify them in a comma-separated

         In the past, this option was the best bet for
         downloading a single page and its requisites, using a
         command-line like:

                 wget --ignore-tags=a,area -H -k -K -r http://<site>/<document>

         However, the author of this option came across a page
         with tags like "<LINK REL="home" HREF="/">" and came to
         the realization that specifying tags to ignore was not
         enough.  One can't just tell Wget to ignore "<LINK>",
         because then stylesheets will not be downloaded.  Now
         the best bet for downloading a single page and its
         requisites is the dedicated --page-requisites option.


         Ignore case when matching files and directories.  This
         influences the behavior of -R, -A, -I, and -X options,
         as well as globbing implemented when downloading from
         FTP sites.  For example, with this option, -A "*.txt"
         will match file1.txt, but also file2.TXT, file3.TxT, and
         so on.  The quotes in the example are to prevent the
         shell from expanding the pattern.

         Enable spanning across hosts when doing recursive

         Follow relative links only.  Useful for retrieving a
         specific home page without any distractions, not even
         those from the same hosts.

     -I list
         Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish
         to follow when downloading.  Elements of list may
         contain wildcards.

     -X list
         Specify a comma-separated list of directories you wish
         to exclude from download.  Elements of list may contain

         Do not ever ascend to the parent directory when
         retrieving recursively.  This is a useful option, since
         it guarantees that only the files below a certain
         hierarchy will be downloaded.

     Wget supports proxies for both HTTP and FTP retrievals.  The
     standard way to specify proxy location, which Wget
     recognizes, is using the following environment variables:

         If set, the http_proxy and https_proxy variables should
         contain the URLs of the proxies for HTTP and HTTPS
         connections respectively.

         This variable should contain the URL of the proxy for
         FTP connections.  It is quite common that http_proxy and
         ftp_proxy are set to the same URL.

         This variable should contain a comma-separated list of
         domain extensions proxy should not be used for.  For
         instance, if the value of no_proxy is .mit.edu, proxy
         will not be used to retrieve documents from MIT.

Exit Status
     Wget may return one of several error codes if it encounters

     0   No problems occurred.

     1   Generic error code.

     2   Parse error---for instance, when parsing command-line
         options, the .wgetrc or .netrc...

     3   File I/O error.

     4   Network failure.

     5   SSL verification failure.

     6   Username/password authentication failure.

     7   Protocol errors.

     8   Server issued an error response.

     With the exceptions of 0 and 1, the lower-numbered exit
     codes take precedence over higher-numbered ones, when
     multiple types of errors are encountered.

     In versions of Wget prior to 1.12, Wget's exit status tended
     to be unhelpful and inconsistent. Recursive downloads would
     virtually always return 0 (success), regardless of any
     issues encountered, and non-recursive fetches only returned
     the status corresponding to the most recently-attempted

         Default location of the global startup file.

         User startup file.

     You are welcome to submit bug reports via the GNU Wget bug
     tracker (see

     Before actually submitting a bug report, please try to
     follow a few simple guidelines.

     1.  Please try to ascertain that the behavior you see really
         is a bug.  If Wget crashes, it's a bug.  If Wget does
         not behave as documented, it's a bug.  If things work
         strange, but you are not sure about the way they are
         supposed to work, it might well be a bug, but you might
         want to double-check the documentation and the mailing

     2.  Try to repeat the bug in as simple circumstances as
         possible.  E.g. if Wget crashes while downloading wget
         -rl0 -kKE -t5 --no-proxy http://example.com -o /tmp/log,
         you should try to see if the crash is repeatable, and if
         will occur with a simpler set of options.  You might
         even try to start the download at the page where the
         crash occurred to see if that page somehow triggered the

         Also, while I will probably be interested to know the
         contents of your .wgetrc file, just dumping it into the
         debug message is probably a bad idea.  Instead, you
         should first try to see if the bug repeats with .wgetrc
         moved out of the way.  Only if it turns out that .wgetrc
         settings affect the bug, mail me the relevant parts of
         the file.

     3.  Please start Wget with -d option and send us the
         resulting output (or relevant parts thereof).  If Wget
         was compiled without debug support, recompile it---it is
         much easier to trace bugs with debug support on.

         Note: please make sure to remove any potentially
         sensitive information from the debug log before sending
         it to the bug address.  The "-d" won't go out of its way
         to collect sensitive information, but the log will
         contain a fairly complete transcript of Wget's
         communication with the server, which may include
         passwords and pieces of downloaded data.  Since the bug
         address is publically archived, you may assume that all
         bug reports are visible to the public.

     4.  If Wget has crashed, try to run it in a debugger, e.g.
         "gdb `which wget` core" and type "where" to get the
         backtrace.  This may not work if the system
         administrator has disabled core files, but it is safe to

See Also
     This is not the complete manual for GNU Wget.  For more
     complete information, including more detailed explanations
     of some of the options, and a number of commands available
     for use with .wgetrc files and the -e option, see the GNU
     Info entry for wget.

     Originally written by Hrvoje Nikšić <hniksic@xemacs.org>.

     Copyright (c) 1996-2011, 2015, 2018 Free Software
     Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
     License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the
     Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with
     no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy
     of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
     Documentation License".
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