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System Administration Commands                                        route(8)

       route - manually manipulate the routing tables

       route [-fnvq] sub-command [ [modifiers] args]

       route [-fnvq] [-p [-R root-dir]] add [modifiers] destination gateway
                 [-name route-name] [args]

       route [-fnvq] [-p [-R root-dir]] delete [modifiers]
                {destination gateway | -name route-name} [args]

       route [-fnvq] change | get [modifiers] {destination | -name route-name}
             [gateway [args]]

       route [-fn] monitor [modifiers]

       route [-fnvq] flush [modifiers]

       route -p [-R root-dir] show

       route manually manipulates the network routing tables. These tables are
       normally maintained by the system routing daemon, such as  in.routed(8)
       and in.ripngd(8).

       route  supports a limited number of general options, but a rich command
       language. Users can specify an arbitrary request that can be  delivered
       by means of the programmatic interface discussed in route(4P).

       route  uses a routing socket and the message types RTM_ADD, RTM_DELETE,
       RTM_GET, and RTM_CHANGE. While the  {PRIV_SYS_IP_CONFIG}  privilege  is
       required to modify routing tables, the RTM_GET operation is allowed for
       non-privileged users. The Network Management rights profile allows run‐
       ning route with the {PRIV_SYS_IP_CONFIG} privilege.

       Persistent  static route configuration can also be specified at install
       time through the System Configuration profiles. For more information on
       System  Configuration profiles, see the ip-interface-management(5) man‐
       ual page.

       -f             Flush the routing tables of all gateway entries. If  you
                      use  the  -f option in conjunction with any of the route
                      sub-commands, route flushes the gateways before perform‐
                      ing the sub-command. Specify the table to flush by plac‐
                      ing the inet or inet6 modifier immediately after the  -f
                      option.  If  unspecified, flushing IPv4 (inet) routes is
                      the default.

       -n             Prevent attempts to print host and network names symbol‐
                      ically  when  reporting  actions.  This option is useful
                      when name servers are unavailable.

       -p             Make changes to  the  network  route  tables  persistent
                      across  system restarts. The operation is applied to the
                      network routing tables first and, if successful, is then
                      applied  to  the  list  of  saved  routes used at system
                      startup. In determining whether an  operation  was  suc‐
                      cessful, a failure to add a route that already exists or
                      to delete a route that is not in the  routing  table  is
                      ignored.  To  update  an  existing persistent route, the
                      persistent route must be deleted and then re-added. Par‐
                      ticular care should be taken when using host.

       -q             Suppress all output.

       -R root-dir    Specify  an alternate root directory where route applies
                      changes. This option is ignored unless used in  conjunc‐
                      tion  with  the  -p  option. When -R is specified, route
                      changes are applied only to the list of saved routes  to
                      be  used  at startup, not to the network routing tables.
                      In addition, certain checks, such as  the  existence  of
                      network interfaces used with -ifp, are skipped.

       -v             Print additional details in verbose mode.

       The following subcommands are supported:

       add        Add a route.

       change     Change aspects of a route (such as its gateway).

       delete     Delete a specific route.

       flush      Remove all gateway entries from the routing table.

       get        Look up and display the route for a destination.

       monitor    Continuously  report  any changes to the routing information
                  base, routing lookup misses, or suspected network partition‐

       show       Display  the list of routes to be applied at system startup.
                  Can be used only in conjunction with the -p option.

       The add and delete sub-commands have the following syntax:

         route [ -fnvq ] cmd destination gateway [metric/netmask]

       where cmd is add or delete, destination is the destination host or net‐
       work,  and  gateway  is the next-hop intermediary through which packets
       should be routed. Modifiers described in OPERANDS can  be  placed  any‐
       where on the command line.

       The get and change sub-commands have the following syntax:

         route [ -fnvq ] cmd destination [gateway [metric/netmask]]

       where cmd is get or change, destination is the destination host or net‐
       work, and gateway is the next-hop intermediary  through  which  packets
       should  be  routed.  Modifiers described in OPERANDS can be placed any‐
       where on the command line.

       The monitor sub-command has the following syntax:

         route monitor [ -inet | -inet6 ]

       route executes its sub-commands on routes to  destinations  by  way  of
       gateways.  A  name  can  also be specified for the route with the -name
       modifier, when the route is created persistently. The name  is  ignored
       for  non-persistent  routes. Subsequent operations on the route can use
       this name with the -name modifier instead of the destination and  gate‐
       way.  Note  that  the  default  route is not named "default". It can be
       named anything (other than "default") when it is created, and that name
       can be used to refer to that default route.

   Destinations and Gateways
       By  default,  destination and gateway addresses are interpreted as IPv4
       addresses. All symbolic names are tried first as  a  host  name,  using
       getipnodebyname(3C).  If this lookup fails in the AF_INET case, getnet‐
       byname(3C) interprets the name as that of a network.

       Including an optional modifier on the command line before  the  address
       changes how the route sub-command interprets it.

       The following modifiers are supported:

       -inet     Force  the address to be interpreted as an IPv4 address, that
                 is, under the AF_INET address family.

       -inet6    Force the address to be interpreted as an IPv6 address,  that
                 is, under the AF_INET6 address family.

       For  IPv4 addresses, routes to a particular host are by default distin‐
       guished from those to a network by interpreting  the  Internet  address
       specified  as  the  destination. If the destination has a local address
       part (that is, the portion not covered by the netmask) of 0, or if  the
       destination  is  resolved  as  the symbolic name of a network, then the
       route is assumed to be to a network; otherwise, it is presumed to be  a
       route to a host.

       You can force this selection by using one of the following modifiers:

       -host    Force the destination to be interpreted as a host.

       -net     Force the destination to be interpreted as a network.

       For example:

       tab();  lw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) DestinationDestination
       Equivalent _ 128.32-host 128.32.130-host -net
       128.32128.32.0.0 -net  128.32.130128.32.130.0

       Two modifiers avoid confusion between addresses and keywords (for exam‐
       ple, host used as a symbolic host name). You can distinguish a destina‐
       tion  by  preceding  it  with  the -dst modifier. You can distinguish a
       gateway address by using the -gateway modifier. If the  destination  is
       directly  reachable by way of an interface requiring no intermediary IP
       router to act as a gateway, this can be indicated by using the  -inter‐
       face or -iface modifier.

       In the following example, the route does not refer to an external gate‐
       way (router), but rather to one of the  machine's  interfaces.  Packets
       with IP destination addresses matching the destination and mask on such
       a route are sent  out  on  the  interface  identified  by  the  gateway
       address.  For  interfaces using the ARP protocol, this type of route is
       used to specify that all matching destinations are local to the  physi‐
       cal link. That is, a host could be configured to ARP for all addresses,
       without regard to the configured interface netmask, by adding a default
       route using this command. For example:

         example# route add default hostname -interface

       where  gateway  address  hostname  is the name or IP address associated
       with the network interface over which all matching  packets  should  be
       sent.  On  a  host with a single network interface, hostname is usually
       the same as  the  nodename  returned  by  the  uname  -n  command.  See

       For  backward  compatibility  with  older  systems,  directly reachable
       routes can also be specified by placing a 0 after the gateway address:

         example# route add default hostname 0

       This value was once a route metric, but this metric is no longer  used.
       If the value is specified as 0, then the destination is directly reach‐
       able (equivalent to specifying -interface). If it is non-zero but  can‐
       not be interpreted as a subnet mask, then a gateway is used (default).

       With  the  AF_INET address family or an IPv4 address, a separate subnet
       mask can be specified. This can be specified in one  of  the  following

           o      IP address following the gateway address . This is typically
                  specified in  decimal  dot  notation  as  for  inet_addr(3C)
                  rather than in symbolic form.

           o      IP address following the netmask qualifier.

           o      Slash  character and a decimal length appended to the desti‐
                  nation address.

       If a subnet mask is not specified, the mask used is the subnet mask  of
       the  output  interface selected by the gateway address, if the classful
       network of the destination is the same as the classful network  of  the
       interface.  Otherwise,  the  classful  network mask for the destination
       address is used.

       Each of the following examples creates an IPv4 route to the destination subnet with a subnet mask of

         example# route add somegateway
         example# route add -netmask somegateway
         example# route add somegateway

       For IPv6, only the slash format is accepted. The following example cre‐
       ates an IPv6 route to the destination 33fe:: with a netmask of 16  one-
       bits followed by 112 zero-bits.

         example# route add -inet6 3ffe::/16 somegateway

       In cases where the gateway does not uniquely identify the output inter‐
       face (for example, when several interfaces have the same address),  you
       can use the -ifp  ifname modifier to specify the interface by name. For
       example, -ifp  lo0 associates the route with the lo0 interface. If  the
       named interface is an underlying interface in an IPMP (IP multipathing)
       group, then requests to add a route will automatically be translated to
       the corresponding IPMP IP interface, and requests to delete or change a
       route on an underlying interface will fail. Note that if the  interface
       associated   with   a  route  through  the  -ifp  modifier  is  removed
       (unplumbed) from the kernel, then that route will be removed  from  the
       routing  table.  If  the interface is subsequently added back (plumbed)
       into the kernel, then the user will have to re-add  the  route  to  the
       routing  tables  unless the route exists in the persistent routing con‐

       When the routing table contains several equal routes, that  is,  routes
       for the same destination and mask, then IP attempts to spread the traf‐
       fic over those routes. The spreading is such that an individual  trans‐
       port  connection uses the same route to avoid packet reordering as seen
       by, for example, TCP. The details of the  spreading  algorithm  is  not
       documented and is likely to evolve over time.

   Routing Flags
       Routes  have associated flags that influence operation of the protocols
       when sending to destinations matched by the routes. These flags can  be
       set  (and  in some cases cleared, indicated by ~) by including the fol‐
       lowing modifiers on the command line:

       tab(); lw(1.32i) cw(1.24i) cw(2.94i) lw(1.32i) lw(1.24i) lw(2.94i) Mod‐
       ifierFlagDescription  _  -interface~RTF_GATEWAYDestination  is directly
       reachable  -iface~RTF_GATEWAYAlias  for  interface   modifier   -stati‐
       cRTF_STATICManually  added  route  -nostatic~RTF_STATICT{ Pretend route
       was added by kernel or routing daemon T} -rejectRTF_REJECTEmit an  ICMP
       unreachable  when matched -blackholeRTF_BLACKHOLESilently discard pack‐
       ets   -proto1RTF_PROTO1Set   protocol   specific   routing   flag    #1
       -proto2RTF_PROTO2Set protocol specific routing flag #2 -privateRTF_PRI‐
       VATEDo not advertise this route -multirtRTF_MULTIRTCreates  the  speci‐
       fied   redundant  route  -setsrcRTF_SETSRCAssigns  the  default  source
       address -indirectRTF_INDIRECTT{ Allows adding routes where  gateway  is
       not on-link T}

       Note  that  source  address  selection through the -setsrc option takes
       precedence over ipadm(8)  usesrc-based  source  address  selection.  In
       other  words,  source address selection is done for routes before it is
       done for interfaces, as the former is more fine-grained.

       The optional -indirect modifier allows adding routes where the  gateway
       is not directly reachable. When an indirect route is the best match for
       a packet to be sent or forwarded, then IP  proceeds  to  look  up  that
       gateway to find a route that is directly reachable. The -indirect modi‐
       fier can be used even if the gateway is directly reachable.

       The optional modifiers -rtt, -rttvar, -sendpipe, -recvpipe, -mtu, -hop‐
       count,  -expire,  and  -ssthresh  provide  initial values to quantities
       maintained in the routing entry by transport level protocols,  such  as
       TCP. These can be individually locked either by preceding each modifier
       to be locked by the -lock meta-modifier,  or  by  specifying  that  all
       ensuing metrics can be locked by the -lockrest meta-modifier.

       Some  transport layer protocols can support only some of these metrics.
       The following optional modifiers are supported:

       -expire      Lifetime for the entry. This optional modifier is not cur‐
                    rently supported.

       -hopcount    Maximum hop count. This optional modifier is not currently

       -mtu         Maximum MTU in bytes.

       -recvpipe    Receive pipe size in bytes.

       -rtt         Round trip time in microseconds.

       -rttvar      Round trip time variance in microseconds.

       -sendpipe    Send pipe size in bytes.

       -ssthresh    Send pipe size threshold in bytes.

       -secattr     Security attributes of the route. This modifier is  avail‐
                    able  only  if  the  system  is configured with the Oracle
                    Solaris Trusted Extensions feature.

                    The -secattr modifier has the following format:




                    In the first form, above, the val for min_sl and max_sl is
                    a  sensitivity label in either hex or string form. The val
                    for doi is a non-negative integer. The  route  will  apply
                    only for packets with the same domain of interpretation as
                    defined by the doi  value  and  within  the  accreditation
                    range  defined  by the min_sl and max_sl values. The cipso
                    keyword is optional and  set  by  default.  Valid  min_sl,
                    max_sl  and  doi  keyword/value  pairs are mandatory. Note
                    that if val contains a space, it must be protected by dou‐
                    ble quotes.

                    The  second  form,  above, is equivalent to specifying the
                    first form with the same VAL for min_sl  and  max_sl.  The
                    second  form  should  be used for the get command, because
                    get uses only a single sensitivity label.

       The modifiers host and net are taken to  be  equivalent  to  -host  and
       -net.  To  specify  a symbolic address that matches one of these names,
       use the dst or gateway keyword to distinguish  it.  For  example:  -dst

       The  following two flags are also accepted for compatibility with older
       systems, but have no effect.

       tab();  lw(2.84i)  cw(2.66i)   lw(2.84i)   lw(2.66i)   ModifierFlag   _
       -cloningRTF_CLONING -xresolveRTF_XRESOLVE

       The -ifa  hostname modifier is also accepted, but has no effect.

       /etc/hosts       List of host names and net addresses

       /etc/networks    List of network names and addresses

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()  box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i) ATTRIBUTE TYPEAT‐
       TRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/network

       uname(1),     ioctl(2),     getipnodebyname(3C),      getnetbyname(3C),
       inet_addr(3C),  arp(4P),  ip(4P), route(4P), routing(4P), ip-interface-
       management(5),  hosts(5),  networks(5),  attributes(7),  privileges(7),
       in.ripngd(8), in.routed(8), netstat(8), routed(8)

       add [ host| network] destination:gateway flags

           The  specified  route  is  being  added  to  the tables. The values
           printed are from the routing table entry supplied in  the  ioctl(2)
           call.  If  the  gateway address used was not the primary address of
           the gateway (the first one  returned  by  getipnodebyname(3C))  the
           gateway address is printed numerically as well as symbolically.

       delete [ host| network] destination:gateway flags
       change [ host| network] destination:gateway flags

           As add, but when deleting or changing an entry.

       destination done

           When  the  -f  flag is specified, or the flush sub-command is used,
           each routing table entry deleted is indicated  with  a  message  of
           this form.

       Network is unreachable

           An attempt to add a route failed because the gateway listed was not
           on a directly-connected network. Give the next-hop gateway instead.

       not in table

           A delete operation was attempted for an entry that is  not  in  the

       entry exists

           An  add  operation was attempted for a route that already exists in
           the kernel.

       routing table overflow

           An operation was attempted, but the system was unable  to  allocate
           memory to create the new entry.

       insufficient privileges

           An  attempt to add, delete, change, or flush a route failed because
           the calling process does not have appropriate privileges.

       Specifying that destinations are local (with the  -interface  modifier)
       assumes that the routers implement proxy ARP, meaning that they respond
       to ARP queries for all reachable destinations. Normally,  using  either
       router  discovery or RIP is more reliable and scalable than using proxy
       ARP. See in.routed(8) man page for information related to RIP.

       Combining the all destinations are local route with subnet  or  network
       routes  can  lead  to  unpredictable  results.  The  search order as it
       relates to the all destinations are local route are undefined  and  can
       vary from release to release.

Oracle Solaris 11.4               3 Nov 2021                          route(8)
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