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ping

Name
     ping - send ICMP (ICMP6)  ECHO_REQUEST  packets  to  network
     hosts

Synopsis
     /usr/sbin/ping host [timeout]


     /usr/sbin/ping -s [-l | -U] [-abdlLnrRv] [-A addr_family]

          [-c traffic_class] [-g gateway [-g gateway...]]

          [-N next_hop_router] [-F flow_label] [-I interval]

          [-i interface] [-P tos] [-p port] [-t ttl] host

          [data_size] [npackets]

Description
     The  utility  ping  utilizes  the  ICMP  (ICMP6   in   IPv6)
     protocol's  ECHO_REQUEST  datagram to elicit an ICMP (ICMP6)
     ECHO_RESPONSE from the specified host or network gateway. If
     host responds, ping will display:

       host is alive




     ...on the standard output and exit. Otherwise, after timeout
     seconds, it will write:

       no answer from host




     The default value of timeout is 20 seconds.


     When you specify the s flag, sends one datagram  per  second
     (adjust  with  -I)  and  prints one line of output for every
     ECHO_RESPONSE that it receives. ping produces no  output  if
     there  is  no  response.  In this second form, ping computes
     round trip times and packet loss statistics; it  displays  a
     summary of this information upon termination or timeout. The
     default data_size is 56 bytes, or you  can  specify  a  size
     with the data_size command-line argument. If you specify the
     optional npackets, ping sends ping requests until it  either
     sends npackets requests or receives npackets replies.

     When using ping for fault isolation, first  ping  the  local
     host to verify that the local network interface is running.

Options
     The following options are supported:

     -A addr_family
         Specify  the  address  family  of   the   target   host.
         addr_family  can be either inet or inet6. Address family
         determines which protocol to use.  For  an  argument  of
         inet, IPv4 is used. For inet6, IPv6 is used.

         By default, if the name of a host is provided,  not  the
         literal  IP  address, and a valid IPv6 address exists in
         the name service database, ping will use  this  address.
         Otherwise, if the name service database contains an IPv4
         address, it will try the IPv4 address.

         Specify the address family inet or inet6 to override the
         default  behavior.  If  the  argument specified is inet,
         ping will use the IPv4 address associated with the  host
         name.  If  none exists, ping will state that the host is
         unknown and exit. It does not try  to  determine  if  an
         IPv6 address exists in the name service database.

         If the specified argument is inet6, ping uses  the  IPv6
         address  that  is associated with the host name. If none
         exists, ping states that the host is unknown and exits.


     -F flow_label
         Specify the flow label of probe packets. The value  must
         be  an  integer  in  the  range  from 0 to 1048575. This
         option is valid only on IPv6.


     -D
         Turn off fragmentation. For IPv4, this means setting the
         Don't Fragment bit. For IPv4 and IPv6, this means do not
         allow fragmentation as the datagrams are  sent.  If  the
         data_size  exceeds  the MTU, then ping might report that
         sending failed due to Message too long.


     -I interval
         Turn on the statistics mode  and  specify  the  interval
         between  successive  transmissions.  The  default is one
         second. See the discussion of the -s option.

     -L
         Turn  off  loopback  of  multicast  packets.   Normally,
         members are in the host group on the outgoing interface,
         a copy of the multicast packets will be delivered to the
         local machine.


     -N next_hop_router
         Specify a next-hop router so that the probe packet  goes
         through  the specified router along its path to the tar-
         get host. This option essentially  bypasses  the  system
         routing table and leaves the probe packet header unmodi-
         fied. Only one next-hop router can be specified.


     -P tos
         Set the type of service (tos) in probe  packets  to  the
         specified  value. The default is zero. The value must be
         an integer in the range from 0 to 255. Gateways also  in
         the path can route the probe packet differently, depend-
         ing upon the value of tos  that  is  set  in  the  probe
         packet. This option is valid only on IPv4.


     -R
         Record route. Sets the IPv4 record route  option,  which
         stores  the  route of the packet inside the IPv4 header.
         The contents of the record route are only printed if the
         -v and -s options are given. They are only set on return
         packets if the target host preserves  the  record  route
         option  across  echos,  or  the -l option is given. This
         option is valid only on IPv4.


     -U
         Send UDP packets instead of ICMP (ICMP6)  packets.  ping
         sends  UDP  packets  to  consecutive  ports expecting to
         receive back ICMP (ICMP6) PORT_UNREACHABLE from the tar-
         get host.


     -a
         ping all addresses, both IPv4  and  IPv6,  of  the  mul-
         tihomed  destination.  The output appears as if ping has
         been run once for each IP address of the destination. If
         this  option  is used together with -A, ping probes only
         the addresses that are of the specified address  family.
         When  used with the -s option and npackets is not speci-
         fied, ping continuously probes the destination addresses
         in a round robin fashion. If npackets is specified, ping
         sends npackets number of probes to each  IP  address  of
         the destination and then exits.


     -b
         Bypass the global IPsec  policy  and  send  and  receive
         packets  in  the  clear  for  this connection only. This
         option can be used to troubleshoot network  connectivity
         independent  of  IPsec.  Because  this  option  bypasses
         system-wide policy for this connection, it can  only  be
         used  by  superuser or a user granted the sys_net_config
         privilege.


     -c traffic_class
         Specify the traffic class of probe  packets.  The  value
         must  be an integer in the range from 0 to 255. Gateways
         along the path can route the probe  packet  differently,
         depending  upon  the  value  of traffic_class set in the
         probe packet. This option is valid only on IPv6.


     -d
         Set the SO_DEBUG socket option.


     -g gateway
         Specify a loose source route gateway so that  the  probe
         packet goes through the specified host along the path to
         the target host. The maximum number of gateways is 8 for
         IPv4  and  127  for IPv6. Note that some factors such as
         the link MTU can further limit the  number  of  gateways
         for IPv6.


     -i interface_address
         Specify the outgoing interface address to use for multi-
         cast  packets  for  IPv4  and both multicast and unicast
         packets for IPv6. The default interface address for mul-
         ticast  packets is determined from the (unicast) routing
         tables. interface_address can be a literal  IP  address,
         for  example,  10.123.100.99,  or an interface name, for
         example, eri0, or an interface index, for example 2.


     -l
         Use to send the probe packet to the given host and  back
         again using loose source routing. Usually specified with
         the -R option. If any gateways are specified  using  -g,
         they  are  visited  twice, both to and from the destina-
         tion. This option is ignored if the -U option is used.


     -n
         Show network addresses as numbers. ping normally does  a
         reverse name lookup on the IP addresses it extracts from
         the packets received. The -n option blocks  the  reverse
         lookup,  so  ping  prints  IP  addresses instead of host
         names.


     -p port
         Set the base UDP port number used in probes. This option
         is used with the -U option. The default base port number
         is 33434. The ping utility starts setting  the  destina-
         tion  port number of UDP packets to this base and incre-
         ments it by one at each probe.


     -r
         Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to  a
         host  on  an  attached  network. If the host is not on a
         directly attached network, an error  is  returned.  This
         option  can  be  used  to  ping  a local host through an
         interface that has been dropped by  the  router  daemon.
         See in.routed(1M).


     -s
         Send one datagram per second and collect statistics.


     -t ttl
         Specify the IPv4 time to live, or IPv6  hop  limit,  for
         unicast  and multicast packets. The default time to live
         (hop limit) for unicast packets  can  be  set  with  the
         ipadm(1M)  set-prop  subcommand, using the icmp_ipv4_ttl
         property for IPv4 and  the  icmp_ipv6_hoplimit  property
         for  IPv6. The default time to live (hop limit) for mul-
         ticast is one hop. See EXAMPLES.  For  further  informa-
         tion, seeipadm(1M).

         Note -

           You might observe property names that begin  with  "_"
           (underbar). These properties are private to a protocol
           and are subject to change or removal. See ipadm(1M).

     -v
         Verbose output. List any  ICMP  (ICMP6)  packets,  other
         than replies from the target host.

Operands
     host
         The network host

Environment Variables
     If MACHINE_THAT_GOES_PING is set to a non-null  value,  then
     ping(1M)  will treat this as if the --s option was provided.
     Care should be taken when using this from a script.

Examples
     Example 1 Using ping With IPv6


     This example shows ping sending probe  packets  to  all  the
     IPv6  addresses  of the host xyz, one at a time. It sends an
     ICMP6 ECHO_REQUEST every second until  the  user  interrupts
     it.


       istanbul% ping -s -A inet6 -a xyz

       PING xyz: 56 data bytes

       64 bytes from xyz (4::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=0. time=0.479 ms

       64 bytes from xyz (fec0::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=1. time=0.843 ms

       64 bytes from xyz (4::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=2. time=0.516 ms

       64 bytes from xyz (fec0::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=3. time=4.943 ms

       64 bytes from xyz (4::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=4. time=0.485 ms

       64 bytes from xyz (fec0::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=5. time=2.201 ms

       ^C

       ----xyz PING Statistics----

       6 packets transmitted, 6 packets received, 0% packet loss

       round-trip (ms)  min/avg/stddev = 0.479/1.583/4.943/1.823

     Example 2 Using ipadm to Set Hop Limits


     The following commands use ipadm(1M) to set  IPv4  and  IPv6
     hop limits.


       # ipadm set-prop -p _ipv6_hoplimit=100 icmp

       # ipadm set-prop -p _ipv4_ttl=100 icmp

Exit Status
     The following exit values are returned:

     0
         Successful operation; the machine is alive.


     non-zero
         An error has occurred. Either a malformed  argument  has
         been specified, or the machine was not alive.

Attributes
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:



     tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)  ATTRI-
     BUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitynetwork/ping

See Also
     ifconfig(1M),     in.routed(1M),     ipadm(1M),     ndd(1M),
     netstat(1M),   rpcinfo(1M),  traceroute(1M),  attributes(5),
     icmp(7P), icmp6(7P)
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