pcretest(1) 맨 페이지 - 윈디하나의 솔라나라




     pcretest - a program  for  testing  Perl-compatible  regular


     pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]

     pcretest was written as a test program for the PCRE  regular
     expression  library  itself,  but  it  can  also be used for
     experimenting  with  regular  expressions.   This   document
     describes  the  features of the test program; for details of
     the regular  expressions  themselves,  see  the  pcrepattern
     documentation.  For  details  of  the  PCRE library function
     calls and their options, see the pcreapi , pcre16 and pcre32

     The input for pcretest is a sequence of  regular  expression
     patterns  and strings to be matched, as described below. The
     output shows the result of each match. Options on  the  com-
     mand  line and the patterns control PCRE options and exactly
     what is output.

     As  PCRE  has  evolved,  it  has  acquired  many   different
     features,  and as a result, pcretest now has rather a lot of
     obscure options for testing every possible feature. Some  of
     these  options are specifically designed for use in conjunc-
     tion with the test script and data files  that  are  distri-
     buted  as part of PCRE, and are unlikely to be of use other-
     wise. They are all documented here, but without much justif-

Input Data Format

     Input to pcretest is processed line by line, either by  cal-
     ling  the  C library's fgets() function, or via the libread-
     line library (see below). In Unix-like environments, fgets()
     treats any bytes other than newline as data characters. How-
     ever, in some Windows environments  character  26  (hex  1A)
     causes  an  immediate  end  of  file, and no further data is
     read. For maximum portability, therefore, it  is  safest  to
     use only ASCII characters in pcretest input files.

     The input is processed using using C's string functions,  so
     must  not  contain  binary  zeroes, even though in Unix-like
     environments, fgets() treats any bytes other than newline as
     data characters.


     From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built.
     The  original  one supports 8-bit character strings, whereas
     the newer 16-bit library supports character strings  encoded
     in  16-bit  units. From release 8.32, a third library can be
     built, supporting character strings encoded in 32-bit units.
     The   pcretest  program  can  be  used  to  test  all  three
     libraries. However, it is itself  still  an  8-bit  program,
     reading  8-bit input and writing 8-bit output.  When testing
     the 16-bit or 32-bit library, the patterns and data  strings
     are converted to 16- or 32-bit format before being passed to
     the PCRE library functions. Results are converted  to  8-bit
     for output.

     References  to  functions  and  structures   of   the   form
     pcre[16|32]_xx  below  mean  "pcre_xx  when  using the 8-bit
     library,  pcre16_xx  when  using  the  16-bit  library,   or
     pcre32_xx when using the 32-bit library".

Command Line Options

     -8        If both the 8-bit library  has  been  built,  this
               option  causes the 8-bit library to be used (which
               is the default); if the 8-bit library has not been
               built, this option causes an error.

     -16       If both the 8-bit or the 32-bit,  and  the  16-bit
               libraries  have been built, this option causes the
               16-bit library to be  used.  If  only  the  16-bit
               library  has  been  built, this is the default (so
               has no effect). If only the 8-bit  or  the  32-bit
               library  has  been  built,  this  option causes an

     -32       If both the 8-bit or the 16-bit,  and  the  32-bit
               libraries  have been built, this option causes the
               32-bit library to be  used.  If  only  the  32-bit
               library  has  been  built, this is the default (so
               has no effect). If only the 8-bit  or  the  16-bit
               library  has  been  built,  this  option causes an

     -b        Behave as if each pattern has the  /B  (show  byte
               code)  modifier; the internal form is output after

     -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and
               all   available  information  about  the  optional
               features that are included,  and  then  exit  with
               zero exit code. All other options are ignored.

     -C option Output information  about  a  specific  build-time
               option,  then exit. This functionality is intended
               for use in scripts such as RunTest. The  following
               options  output the value and set the exit code as

                 ebcdic-nl  the code for LF (= NL) in  an  EBCDIC
                              0x15 or 0x25
                              0 if used in an ASCII environment
                              exit code is always 0
                 linksize   the configured internal link size (2,
               3, or 4)
                              exit code is set to the link size
                 newline    the default newline setting:
                              CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
                              exit code is always 0
                 bsr         the  default  setting  for  what  \R
                              ANYCRLF or ANY
                              exit code is always 0

               The following options output 1 for true or  0  for
               false, and set the exit code to the same value:

                 ebcdic     compiled for an EBCDIC environment
                 jit        just-in-time support is available
                 pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
                 pcre32     the 32-bit library was built
                 pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
                 ucp        Unicode property support is available
                 utf        UTF-8  and/or  UTF-16  and/or  UTF-32
                              is available

               If an unknown option is given, an error message is
               output; the exit code is 0.

     -d        Behave as if  each  pattern  has  the  /D  (debug)
               modifier;  the internal form and information about
               the compiled pattern is output after  compilation;
               -d is equivalent to -b -i.

     -dfa      Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape
               sequence;  this  causes  the  alternative matching
               function,  pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec(),  to   be   used
               instead  of  the standard pcre[16|32]_exec() func-
               tion (more detail is given below).

     -help     Output a brief  summary  these  options  and  then

     -i        Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /I  modifier;
               information  about  the  compiled pattern is given
               after compilation.

     -M        Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape
               sequence; this causes PCRE to discover the minimum
               MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings  by
               calling  pcre[16|32]_exec()  repeatedly  with dif-
               ferent limits.

     -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it
               has been compiled. This is equivalent to adding /M
               to each regular expression. The size is  given  in
               bytes for both libraries.

     -O        Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /O  modifier,
               that is disable auto-possessification for all pat-

     -o osize  Set the number of elements in  the  output  vector
               that  is  used  when calling pcre[16|32]_exec() or
               pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec() to be  osize.  The  default
               value  is  45,  which  is  enough for 14 capturing
               subexpressions for pcre[16|32]_exec() or  22  dif-
               ferent  matches  for  pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec().  The
               vector size can be changed for individual matching
               calls  by  including  \O  in  the  data  line (see

     -p        Behave as if each pattern has the /P modifier; the
               POSIX  wrapper  API  is used to call PCRE. None of
               the other options has any effect when -p  is  set.
               This  option  can  be  used  only  with  the 8-bit

     -q        Do not output the version number  of  pcretest  at
               the start of execution.

     -S size   On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time
               stack to size megabytes.

     -s or -s+ Behave as if each pattern has the /S modifier;  in
               other  words, force each pattern to be studied. If
               -s+ is used,  all  the  JIT  compile  options  are
               passed  to  pcre[16|32]_study(),  causing just-in-
               time optimization to be set up if it is available,
               for  both  full and partial matching. Specific JIT
               compile options can be selected by  following  -s+
               with  a  digit  in the range 1 to 7, which selects
               the JIT compile modes as follows:

                 1  normal match only
                 2  soft partial match only
                 3  normal match and soft partial match
                 4  hard partial match only
                 6  soft and hard partial match
                 7  all three modes (default)

               If -s++ is used instead of -s+ (with or without  a
               following digit), the text "(JIT)" is added to the
               first output line after a match or no  match  when
               JIT-compiled code was actually used.

               Note that there are pattern options that can over-
               ride  -s, either specifying no studying at all, or
               suppressing JIT compilation.

               If the /I or /D option is  present  on  a  pattern
               (requesting  output  about  the compiled pattern),
               information about the result of  studying  is  not
               included  when  studying  is caused only by -s and
               neither -i nor -d is present on the command  line.
               This  behaviour  means  that the output from tests
               that are run with and without -s should be identi-
               cal,  except  when options that output information
               about the actual running of a match are set.

               The -M, -t, and -tm options, which  give  informa-
               tion  about  resources used, are likely to produce
               different output with and without -s.  Output  may
               also  differ  if  the  /C  option is present on an
               individual pattern. This uses  callouts  to  trace
               the  the  matching  process,  and this may be dif-
               ferent between studied and  non-studied  patterns.
               If  the  pattern  contains (*MARK) items there may
               also be differences, for the same reason.  The  -s
               command line option can be overridden for specific
               patterns that should never be studied (see the  /S
               pattern modifier below).

     -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with
               a  timer,  and output the resulting times per com-
               pile, study, or match (in  milliseconds).  Do  not
               set -m with -t, because you will then get the size
               output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be
               distorted.  You  can  control the number of itera-
               tions that are used for  timing  by  following  -t
               with  a  number (as a separate item on the command
               line). For example, "-t 1000" iterates 1000 times.
               The default is to iterate 500000 times.

     -tm       This is like -t except  that  it  times  only  the
               matching phase, not the compile or study phases.

     -T -TM    These behave like -t and -tm, but in addition,  at
               the  end  of  a  run, the total times for all com-
               piles, studies, and matches are output.


     If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it  reads  from
     the  first and writes to the second. If it is given only one
     filename argument, it reads from that  file  and  writes  to
     stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout,
     and prompts for each line of input, using  "re>"  to  prompt
     for  regular  expressions,  and  "data>"  to prompt for data

     When pcretest is built, a configuration option  can  specify
     that  it should be linked with the libreadline library. When
     this is done, if the input is from a terminal,  it  is  read
     using  the  readline()  function. This provides line-editing
     and history facilities. The output  from  the  -help  option
     states whether or not readline() will be used.

     The program handles any number of sets of input on a  single
     input  file.  Each set starts with a regular expression, and
     continues with any  number  of  data  lines  to  be  matched
     against that pattern.

     Each data line is matched separately and  independently.  If
     you  want  to  do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n
     escape sequence (or \r or \r\n, etc., depending on the  new-
     line  setting)  in a single line of input to encode the new-
     line sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of  data
     lines;  the  input buffer is automatically extended if it is
     too small.

     An empty line signals the end of the data  lines,  at  which
     point  a new regular expression is read. The regular expres-
     sions are given enclosed in any non-alphanumeric  delimiters
     other than backslash, for example:


     White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regu-
     lar expression may be continued over several input lines, in
     which case the newline characters are included within it. It
     is  possible  to include the delimiter within the pattern by
     escaping it, for example


     If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of  the
     pattern,  but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric,
     this does not affect its interpretation.  If the terminating
     delimiter  is immediately followed by a backslash, for exam-


     then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is
     done  to  provide  a way of testing the error condition that
     arises if a pattern finishes with a backslash, because


     is interpreted as the first line of a  pattern  that  starts
     with  "abc/",  causing  pcretest  to read the next line as a
     continuation of the regular expression.

Pattern Modifiers

     A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers,  which
     are  mostly  single  characters, though some of these can be
     qualified by  further  characters.   Following  Perl  usage,
     these  are referred to below as, for example, "the /i modif-
     ier", even though the delimiter  of  the  pattern  need  not
     always  be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modif-
     iers. White space may appear between the final pattern  del-
     imiter  and  the  first  modifier, and between the modifiers
     themselves. For reference, here is a complete list of modif-
     iers.  They  fall  into several groups that are described in
     detail in the following sections.

       /8              set UTF mode
       /9              set PCRE_NEVER_UTF (locks out UTF mode)
       /?              disable UTF validity check
       /+              show remainder of subject after match
       /=              show all captures (not just those that are

       /A              set PCRE_ANCHORED
       /B              show compiled code
       /C              set PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
       /D              same as /B plus /I
       /E              set PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
       /F              flip byte order in compiled pattern
       /f              set PCRE_FIRSTLINE
       /G              find all matches (shorten string)
       /g              find all matches (use startoffset)
       /I              show information about pattern
       /i              set PCRE_CASELESS
       /J              set PCRE_DUPNAMES
       /K              show backtracking control names
       /L              set locale
       /M              show compiled memory size
       /m              set PCRE_MULTILINE
       /N              set PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
       /O              set PCRE_NO_AUTO_POSSESS
       /P              use the POSIX wrapper
       /Q              test external stack check function
       /S              study the pattern after compilation

       /s              set PCRE_DOTALL
       /T              select character tables
       /U              set PCRE_UNGREEDY
       /W              set PCRE_UCP
       /X              set PCRE_EXTRA
       /x              set PCRE_EXTENDED
       /Y              set PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
       /Z              don't show lengths in /B output

       /<any>          set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
       /<anycrlf>      set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
       /<cr>           set PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
       /<crlf>         set PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
       /<lf>           set PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
       /<bsr_anycrlf>  set PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
       /<bsr_unicode>  set PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
       /<JS>           set PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT

  Perl-compatible modifiers

     The /i, /m, /s, and  /x  modifiers  set  the  PCRE_CASELESS,
     respectively, when pcre[16|32]_compile()  is  called.  These
     four  modifier  letters  have  the same effect as they do in
     Perl. For example:


  Modifiers for other PCRE options

     The following table shows additional modifiers  for  setting
     PCRE compile-time options that do not correspond to anything
     in Perl:

       /8              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
       /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library

       /8              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using  the  16-
       /?              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library

       /8              PCRE_UTF32          ) when using  the  32-
       /?              PCRE_NO_UTF32_CHECK )   library

       /9              PCRE_NEVER_UTF
       /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
       /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
       /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
       /f              PCRE_FIRSTLINE

       /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
       /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
       /O              PCRE_NO_AUTO_POSSESS
       /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
       /W              PCRE_UCP
       /X              PCRE_EXTRA
       /Y              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
       /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
       /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
       /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
       /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
       /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
       /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
       /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
       /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT

     The modifiers  that  are  enclosed  in  angle  brackets  are
     literal  strings as shown, including the angle brackets, but
     the letters within can be in either case.  This example sets
     multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:


     As well as turning on the  PCRE_UTF8/16/32  option,  the  /8
     modifier   causes  all  non-printing  characters  in  output
     strings to be printed using the \x{hh...}  notation.  Other-
     wise,  those  less  than 0x100 are output in hex without the
     curly brackets.

     Full details of the PCRE options are given  in  the  pcreapi

  Finding all matches in a string

     Searching for  all  possible  matches  within  each  subject
     string  can  be  requested  by  the /g or /G modifier. After
     finding  a  match,  PCRE  is  called  again  to  search  the
     remainder  of  the subject string. The difference between /g
     and /G is that the former uses the startoffset  argument  to
     pcre[16|32]_exec()  to start searching at a new point within
     the entire string (which  is  in  effect  what  Perl  does),
     whereas  the  latter passes over a shortened substring. This
     makes a difference to the matching process  if  the  pattern
     begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b or \B).

     If any call to pcre[16|32]_exec() in a  /g  or  /G  sequence
     matches  an  empty  string,  the  next call is done with the
     PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and PCRE_ANCHORED flags set  in  order
     to  search  for another, non-empty, match at the same point.
     If this second match fails, the start  offset  is  advanced,
     and  the normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl
     handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split()
     function.  Normally,  the  start  offset  is advanced by one
     character, but if the newline convention recognizes CRLF  as
     a  newline,  and the current character is CR followed by LF,
     an advance of two is used.

  Other modifiers

     There  are  yet  more  modifiers  for  controlling  the  way
     pcretest operates.

     The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the sub-
     string  that  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in
     addition output the remainder of the subject string. This is
     useful  for tests where the subject contains multiple copies
     of the same substring. If the + modifier appears twice,  the
     same  action  is taken for captured substrings. In each case
     the remainder is output on the following line  with  a  plus
     character  following  the  capture  number.  Note  that this
     modifier must not immediately follow the /S modifier because
     /S+ and /S++ have other meanings.

     The /= modifier requests that the values  of  all  potential
     captured  parentheses  be  output after a match. By default,
     only those up to the highest one actually used in the  match
     are   output   (corresponding   to   the  return  code  from
     pcre[16|32]_exec()).   Values   in   the   offsets    vector
     corresponding  to  higher  numbers  should be set to -1, and
     these are output as "<unset>". This modifier gives a way  of
     checking that this is happening.

     The /B modifier is a debugging  feature.  It  requests  that
     pcretest  output a representation of the compiled code after
     compilation. Normally this information contains  length  and
     offset  values; however, if /Z is also present, this data is
     replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for use in the
     automatic  test  scripts; it ensures that the same output is
     generated for different internal link sizes.

     The  /D  modifier  is  a  PCRE  debugging  feature,  and  is
     equivalent  to  /BI,  that is, both the /B and the /I modif-

     The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the  byte  order  of
     the  2-byte  and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This
     facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that  allows  it
     to execute patterns that were compiled on a host with a dif-
     ferent endianness. This feature is not  available  when  the
     POSIX  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P
     pattern modifier is specified. See also  the  section  about
     saving and reloading compiled patterns below.

     The /I modifier requests that  pcretest  output  information
     about  the  compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a
     fixed first character, and so on). It does this  by  calling
     pcre[16|32]_fullinfo()  after  compiling  a  pattern. If the
     pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  In
     this output, the word "char" means a non-UTF character, that
     is, the value of a single data item (8-bit, 16-bit,  or  32-
     bit, depending on the library that is being tested).

     The /K modifier requests pcretest to show names  from  back-
     tracking  control  verbs  that  are  returned  from calls to
     pcre[16|32]_exec().  It  causes   pcretest   to   create   a
     pcre[16|32]_extra  block if one has not already been created
     by  a  call  to  pcre[16|32]_study(),   and   to   set   the
     PCRE_EXTRA_MARK  flag  and  the  mark field within it, every
     time that pcre[16|32]_exec() is called. If the variable that
     the mark field points to is non-NULL for a match, non-match,
     or partial match, pcretest prints the  string  to  which  it
     points.  For  a  match,  this  is shown on a line by itself,
     tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is added to  the  mes-

     The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name  of  a
     locale, for example,


     For this reason, it must be the  last  modifier.  The  given
     locale is set, pcre[16|32]_maketables() is called to build a
     set of character tables for the locale,  and  this  is  then
     passed  to  pcre[16|32]_compile() when compiling the regular
     expression. Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL  is  passed
     as  the  tables  pointer;  that  is,  /L applies only to the
     expression on which it appears.

     The /M modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory block
     used  to  hold  the compiled pattern to be output. This does
     not include the size of the pcre[16|32] block;  it  is  just
     the  actual  compiled  data.  If the pattern is successfully
     studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size  of
     the JIT compiled code is also output.

     The /Q modifier is used to test the use of pcre_stack_guard.
     It  must  be  followed  by `0' or `1', specifying the return
     code to be given from an external function that is passed to
     PCRE and used for stack checking during compilation (see the
     pcreapi documentation for details).

     The /S modifier  causes  pcre[16|32]_study()  to  be  called
     after the expression has been compiled, and the results used
     when the expression is matched. There are a number of quali-
     fying characters that may follow /S.  They may appear in any

     If   /S   is    followed    by    an    exclamation    mark,
     pcre[16|32]_study()       is       called      with      the
     PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, causing it always to  return
     a  pcre_extra  block, even when studying discovers no useful

     If /S is followed by a second  S  character,  it  suppresses
     studying, even if it was requested externally by the -s com-
     mand line option. This makes it  possible  to  specify  that
     certain  patterns  are  always studied, and others are never
     studied, independently of -s. This feature is  used  in  the
     test files in a few cases where the output is different when
     the pattern is studied.

     If the /S modifier is followed by a + character, the call to
     pcre[16|32]_study()  is made with all the JIT study options,
     requesting just-in-time optimization support if it is avail-
     able,  for  both normal and partial matching. If you want to
     restrict the JIT compiling modes, you can follow /S+ with  a
     digit in the range 1 to 7:

       1  normal match only
       2  soft partial match only
       3  normal match and soft partial match
       4  hard partial match only
       6  soft and hard partial match
       7  all three modes (default)

     If /S++ is used instead of /S+ (with or without a  following
     digit),  the  text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line
     after a match or no match when JIT-compiled code  was  actu-
     ally used.

     Note that there is also an independent /+ modifier; it  must
     not  be  given immediately after /S or /S+ because this will
     be misinterpreted.

     If JIT studying is successful, the compiled  JIT  code  will
     automatically be used when pcre[16|32]_exec() is run, except
     when incompatible run-time options are specified.  For  more
     details,  see  the  pcrejit  documentation.  See also the \J
     escape sequence below for a way of setting the size  of  the
     JIT stack.

     Finally, if /S is followed by a minus character, JIT  compi-
     lation is suppressed, even if it was requested externally by
     the -s command  line  option.  This  makes  it  possible  to
     specify that JIT is never to be used for certain patterns.

     The /T modifier must be  followed  by  a  single  digit.  It
     causes  a  specific  set  of built-in character tables to be
     passed to pcre[16|32]_compile(). It is used in the  standard
     PCRE  tests  to  check  behaviour  with  different character
     tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:

       0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
       1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters

     In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128
     are identified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.

  Using the POSIX wrapper API

     The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via  the  POSIX
     wrapper  API  rather than its native API. This supports only
     the 8-bit library. When /P is set, the  following  modifiers
     set options for the regcomp() function:

       /i    REG_ICASE
       /m    REG_NEWLINE
       /N    REG_NOSUB
       /s    REG_DOTALL     )
       /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
       /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
       /8    REG_UTF8       )

     The /+ modifier works as described above. All  other  modif-
     iers are ignored.

  Locking out certain modifiers

     PCRE can be compiled with or  without  support  for  certain
     features  such as UTF-8/16/32 or Unicode properties. Accord-
     ingly, the standard tests are split up into a number of dif-
     ferent  files  that  are  selected  for running depending on
     which features are available. When updating the tests, it is
     all  too  easy to put a new test into the wrong file by mis-
     take; for example, to put a test that requires  UTF  support
     into  a  file that is used when it is not available. To help
     detect such mistakes as early as possible, there is a facil-
     ity for locking out specific modifiers. If an input line for
     pcretest starts with the string "< forbid  "  the  following
     sequence  of  characters  is  taken  as  a list of forbidden
     modifiers. For example, in the test files that must not  use
     UTF or Unicode property support, this line appears:

       < forbid 8W

     This locks out the /8 and /W modifiers. An  immediate  error
     is  given  if  they  are  subsequently  encountered.  If the
     character string contains  <  but  not  >,  all  the  multi-
     character modifiers that begin with < are locked out. Other-
     wise, such modifiers must be explicitly listed, for example:

       < forbid <JS><cr>

     There must be a single space between < and "forbid" for this
     feature  to  be  recognised.  If  there  is not, the line is
     interpreted either as a request to  re-load  a  pre-compiled
     or, if there is a another < character,  as  a  pattern  that
     uses < as its delimiter.

Data Lines

     Before each data line is passed to pcre[16|32]_exec(), lead-
     ing  and  trailing  white  space  is removed, and it is then
     scanned for \ escapes. Some of  these  are  pretty  esoteric
     features, intended for checking out some of the more compli-
     cated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordinary"
     regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these.
     The following escapes are recognized:

       \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
       \b         backspace (\x08)
       \e         escape (\x27)
       \f         form feed (\x0c)
       \n         newline (\x0a)
       \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
                    (any number of digits)
       \r         carriage return (\x0d)
       \t         tab (\x09)
       \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
       \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
                    a byte unless > 255 in  UTF-8  or  16-bit  or
     32-bit mode
       \o{dd...}  octal character (any number of octal digits}
       \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
       \x{hh...}   hexadecimal  character  (any  number  of   hex
       \A            pass    the    PCRE_ANCHORED    option    to
                    or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
       \B            pass    the    PCRE_NOTBOL     option     to
                    or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
       \Cdd       call pcre[16|32]_copy_substring() for substring
                    after a successful match  (number  less  than
       \Cname      call  pcre[16|32]_copy_named_substring()   for

                    "name" after a successful match (name termin-
                    ated by next non alphanumeric character)
       \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout
       \C-        do not supply a callout function
       \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is
       \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is
                    reached for the nth time
       \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
                    data; this is  used  as  the  callout  return
       \D         use the pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec() match function
       \F         only shortest match for pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
       \Gdd       call pcre[16|32]_get_substring() for  substring
                    after a successful match  (number  less  than
       \Gname     call pcre[16|32]_get_named_substring() for sub-
                    "name" after a successful match (name termin-
                    ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
       \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
                    number of digits)
       \L         call pcre[16|32]_get_substringlist() after a
                    successful match
       \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
                    MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
       \N            pass    the    PCRE_NOTEMPTY    option    to
                    or  pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec();  if  used  twice,
     pass the
                    PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
       \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
                    pcre[16|32]_exec()  to  dd  (any  number   of
       \P           pass   the   PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT   option    to
                    or  pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec();  if  used  twice,
     pass the
                    PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
       \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
                    (any number of digits)
       \R           pass   the   PCRE_DFA_RESTART    option    to
       \S         output details of memory get/free calls  during
       \Y          pass  the  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE  option   to
                    or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
       \Z            pass    the    PCRE_NOTEOL     option     to

                    or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
       \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16|32]_CHECK option to
                    pcre[16|32]_exec() or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
       \>dd       start the match at  offset  dd  (optional  "-";
                    any number of digits); this  sets  the  star-
                    argument    for     pcre[16|32]_exec()     or
       \<cr>        pass   the    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR    option    to
                    or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
       \<lf>        pass   the    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF    option    to
                    or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
       \<crlf>      pass   the   PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF   option    to
                    or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
       \<anycrlf>  pass  the   PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF   option   to
                    or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
       \<any>       pass   the   PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY    option    to
                    or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()

     The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of  the  /8
     modifier  on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may
     be any number  of  hexadecimal  digits  inside  the  braces;
     invalid values provoke error messages.

     Note that \xhh specifies one byte rather than one  character
     in  UTF-8  mode; this makes it possible to construct invalid
     UTF-8 sequences for testing purposes.  On  the  other  hand,
     \x{hh}  is  interpreted  as a UTF-8 character in UTF-8 mode,
     generating more than one byte if the value is  greater  than
     127.   When  testing  the  8-bit  library not in UTF-8 mode,
     \x{hh} generates one byte for  values  less  than  256,  and
     causes an error for greater values.

     In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh}  values  are  accepted.
     This makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences
     for testing purposes.

     In UTF-32  mode,  all  4-  to  8-digit  \x{...}  values  are
     accepted. This makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-32
     sequences for testing purposes.

     The escapes that specify line ending sequences  are  literal
     strings,  exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting
     should be present in any data line.

     A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  any-
     thing else. If the very last character is a backslash, it is
     ignored. This gives a way of passing an empty line as  data,
     since a real empty line terminates the data input.

     The \J escape provides a way of setting  the  maximum  stack
     size  that is used by the just-in-time optimization code. It
     is ignored if JIT optimization is not being used.  Providing
     a  stack  that  is  larger than the default 32K is necessary
     only for very complicated patterns.

     If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre[16|32]_exec()  several
     times,   with   different  values  in  the  match_limit  and
     match_limit_recursion fields of the  pcre[16|32]_extra  data
     structure,  until  it  finds  the  minimum  numbers for each
     parameter that allow pcre[16|32]_exec() to complete  without
     error.  Because  this  is  testing a specific feature of the
     normal interpretive pcre[16|32]_exec() execution, the use of
     any  JIT optimization that might have been set up by the /S+
     qualifier of -s+ option is disabled.

     The match_limit number is a measure of the amount  of  back-
     tracking  that  takes  place,  and  checking  it  out can be
     instructive. For most simple matches, the  number  is  quite
     small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
     possibilities,  it  can  become  large  very  quickly   with
     increasing     length     of     subject     string.     The
     match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how much  stack
     (or,  if  PCRE  is  compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap)
     memory is needed to complete the match attempt.

     When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower
     than  the  size  set  by  the  -O  command  line  option (or
     defaulted  to  45);  \O  applies  only  to   the   call   of
     pcre[16|32]_exec() for the line in which it appears.

     If the /P modifier was present on the pattern,  causing  the
     POSIX  wrapper  API  to  be  used,  the  only option-setting
     sequences that have any effect are \B, \N, and  \Z,  causing
     REG_NOTBOL,  REG_NOTEMPTY,  and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to
     be passed to regexec().

the Alternative Matching Function

     By default, pcretest uses the standard PCRE  matching  func-
     tion,  pcre[16|32]_exec() to match each data line. PCRE also
     supports     an     alternative      matching      function,
     pcre[16|32]_dfa_test(),  which  operates in a different way,
     and has some restrictions. The differences between  the  two
     functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.

     If a data line contains the \D escape sequence,  or  if  the
     command  line  contains  the  -dfa  option,  the alternative
     matching function is used.  This function finds all possible
     matches  at  a  given  point.  If,  however,  the  \F escape
     sequence is present in the data line,  it  stops  after  the
     first  match  is found. This is always the shortest possible

Default Output from Pcretest

     This section describes the output when the  normal  matching
     function, pcre[16|32]_exec(), is being used.

     When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured
     substrings  that  pcre[16|32]_exec()  returns, starting with
     number 0 for the string that matched the whole pattern. Oth-
     erwise,   it   outputs   "No   match"  when  the  return  is
     PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial  match:"  followed  by  the
     partially matching substring when pcre[16|32]_exec() returns
     PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is the entire  substring
     that  was inspected during the partial match; it may include
     characters before the actual match  start  if  a  lookbehind
     assertion,  \K,  \b,  or  \B  was  involved.)  For any other
     return, pcretest outputs the PCRE negative error number  and
     a  short  descriptive  phrase.  If the error is a failed UTF
     string check, the offset of the start of the failing charac-
     ter  and  the reason code are also output, provided that the
     size of the output vector is at least two. Here is an  exam-
     ple of an interactive pcretest run.

       $ pcretest
       PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30

         re> /^abc(\d+)/
       data> abc123
        0: abc123
        1: 123
       data> xyz
       No match

     Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that
     is  set  are not returned by pcre[16|32]_exec(), and are not
     shown by pcretest. In the following example, there  are  two
     capturing  substrings,  but  when  the  first  data  line is
     matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not  shown.  An
     "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the
     second data line.

         re> /(a)|(b)/
       data> a
        0: a
        1: a

       data> b
        0: b
        1: <unset>
        2: b

     If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are
     output as \xhh escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF
     mode is not set. Otherwise  they  are  output  as  \x{hh...}
     escapes.  See below for the definition of non-printing char-
     acters. If the pattern has the /+ modifier, the  output  for
     substring  0  is  followed  by  the  the rest of the subject
     string, identified by "0+" like this:

         re> /cat/+
       data> cataract
        0: cat
        0+ aract

     If the pattern has the /g or /G  modifier,  the  results  of
     successive  matching  attempts  are output in sequence, like

         re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g
       data> Mississippi
        0: iss
        1: ss
        0: iss
        1: ss
        0: ipp
        1: pp

     "No match" is output only if the first match attempt  fails.
     Here  is  an example of a failure message (the offset 4 that
     is specified by \>4 is past the end of the subject string):

         re> /xyz/
       data> xyz\>4
       Error -24 (bad offset value)

     If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a  data
     line  that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted
     by the convenience functions are output  with  C,  G,  or  L
     after the string number instead of a colon. This is in addi-
     tion to the normal full list. The string  length  (that  is,
     the  return  from  the  extraction  function)  is  given  in
     parentheses after each string for \C and \G.

     Note that whereas patterns can  be  continued  over  several
     lines  (a  plain ">" prompt is used for continuations), data
     lines may not. However newlines can be included in  data  by
     means  of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n, etc., depending on the
     newline sequence setting).

Output from the Alternative Matching Function

     When      the      alternative      matching       function,
     pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec(),  is  used (by means of the \D escape
     sequence or the -dfa command line option), the  output  con-
     sists  of  a list of all the matches that start at the first
     point in the subject where there is at least one match.  For

         re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
       data> yellow tangerine\D
        0: tangerine
        1: tang
        2: tan

     (Using the normal matching function on this data finds  only
     "tang".)  The  longest matching string is always given first
     (and numbered zero). After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,  the
     output is "Partial match:", followed by the partially match-
     ing substring. (Note that this is the entire substring  that
     was inspected during the partial match; it may include char-
     acters before the actual match start if a lookbehind  asser-
     tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)

     If /g is present on the  pattern,  the  search  for  further
     matches  resumes  at the end of the longest match. For exam-

         re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
       data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
        0: tangerine
        1: tang
        2: tan
        0: tang
        1: tan
        0: tan

     Since the matching function does not support substring  cap-
     ture,  the escape sequences that are concerned with captured
     substrings are not relevant.

Restarting After a Partial Match

     When  the  alternative  matching  function  has  given   the
     PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL  return, indicating that the subject par-
     tially matched the pattern, you can restart the  match  with
     additional  subject data by means of the \R escape sequence.
     For example:

       data> 23ja\P\D

       Partial match: 23ja
       data> n05\R\D
        0: n05

     For further information  about  partial  matching,  see  the
     pcrepartial documentation.


     If the pattern contains  any  callout  requests,  pcretest's
     callout  function is called during matching. This works with
     both matching functions. By  default,  the  called  function
     displays the callout number, the start and current positions
     in the text at the callout time, and the next  pattern  item
     to be tested. For example:

         0    ^  ^     \d

     This output indicates that callout number 0 occurred  for  a
     match  attempt  starting at the fourth character of the sub-
     ject string, when the pointer was at the  seventh  character
     of the data, and when the next pattern item was \d. Just one
     circumflex is output if the start and current positions  are
     the same.

     Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic  callouts,
     inserted  as  a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this
     case, instead of showing the callout number, the  offset  in
     the pattern, preceded by a plus, is output. For example:

         re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
       data> E*
        +0 ^      \d?
        +3 ^      [A-E]
        +8 ^^     \*
       +10 ^ ^
        0: E*

     If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional  line  is
     output  whenever  a  change  of latest mark is passed to the
     callout function. For example:

         re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
       data> abc
        +0 ^       a
        +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
       +10 ^^      b
       Latest Mark: X
       +11 ^ ^     c

       +12 ^  ^
        0: abc

     The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the
     same  for  the rest of the match, so nothing more is output.
     If, as a result of backtracking, the mark reverts  to  being
     unset, the text "<unset>" is output.

     The callout function in  pcretest  returns  zero  (carry  on
     matching)  by  default,  but you can use a \C item in a data
     line (as described above) to change this and  other  parame-
     ters of the callout.

     Inserting callouts can be helpful  when  using  pcretest  to
     check  complicated regular expressions. For further informa-
     tion about callouts, see the pcrecallout documentation.

Non-printing Characters

     When pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version  of
     a  pattern,  bytes  other  than 32-126 are always treated as
     non-printing characters  are  are  therefore  shown  as  hex

     When pcretest is outputting text that is a matched part of a
     subject  string,  it  behaves in the same way, unless a dif-
     ferent locale has been set for the  pattern  (using  the  /L
     modifier).  In  this case, the isprint() function to distin-
     guish printing and non-printing characters.

Saving and Reloading Compiled Patterns

     The facilities described in this section are  not  available
     when  the  POSIX  interface  to PCRE is being used, that is,
     when the /P pattern modifier is specified.

     When the POSIX interface  is  not  in  use,  you  can  cause
     pcretest to write a compiled pattern to a file, by following
     the modifiers with > and a file name.  For example:

       /pattern/im >/some/file

     See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion  about
     saving  and  re-using  compiled  patterns.  Note that if the
     pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization,  the
     JIT data cannot be saved.

     The data that is written is binary. The  first  eight  bytes
     are  the length of the compiled pattern data followed by the
     length of the optional study  data,  each  written  as  four
     bytes  in big-endian order (most significant byte first). If
     there is no study data (either the pattern was not  studied,
     or  studying  did not return any data), the second length is
     zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the  com-
     piled  pattern.  If  there  is  additional  study data, this
     (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the  com-
     piled  pattern.  After writing the file, pcretest expects to
     read a new pattern.

     A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by  specifying
     <  and  a  file  name instead of a pattern. There must be no
     space between < and the file name, which must not contain  a
     <  character,  as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line
     as a pattern delimited by < characters. For example:

        re> </some/file
       Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
       No study data

     If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimiza-
     tion,  the JIT information cannot be saved and restored, and
     so is lost. When  the  pattern  has  been  loaded,  pcretest
     proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.

     You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different  host
     and reload it there, even if the new host has opposite endi-
     anness to the one on which the  pattern  was  compiled.  For
     example,  you  can  compile  on  an i86 machine and run on a
     SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded  on  a  host  with
     different  endianness,  the  confirmation message is changed

       Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file

     The test suite contains  some  saved  pre-compiled  patterns
     with  different  endianness.  These  are reloaded using "<!"
     instead of just "<". This suppresses  the  "(byte-inverted)"
     text  so  that  the output is the same on all hosts. It also
     forces debugging output once the pattern has been reloaded.

     File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or rela-
     tive,  but  note that the shell facility of expanding a file
     name that starts with a tilde (~) is not available.

     The ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended
     for testing and experimentation. It is not intended for pro-
     duction use because only a single pattern can be written  to
     a file. Furthermore, there is no facility for supplying cus-
     tom character tables for use with a reloaded pattern. If the
     original pattern was compiled with custom tables, an attempt
     to match a subject string using a reloaded pattern is likely
     to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load
     a file that is not in the  correct  format,  the  result  is

See Also

     pcre(3), pcre16(3), pcre32(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3),
     pcrejit,  pcrematching(3),  pcrepartial(d),  pcrepattern(3),


     Philip Hazel
     University Computing Service
     Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.


     Last updated: 23 February 2017
     Copyright (c) 1997-2017 University of Cambridge.
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