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pcresyntax

Name
     PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions

Pcre Regular Expression Syntax Summary

     The full syntax and semantics  of  the  regular  expressions
     that  are supported by PCRE are described in the pcrepattern
     documentation. This document contains a quick-reference sum-
     mary of the syntax.

Quoting

       \x         where x is non-alphanumeric is a literal x
       \Q...\E    treat enclosed characters as literal

Characters

       \a         alarm, that is, the BEL character (hex 07)
       \cx        "control-x", where x is any ASCII character
       \e         escape (hex 1B)
       \f         form feed (hex 0C)
       \n         newline (hex 0A)
       \r         carriage return (hex 0D)
       \t         tab (hex 09)
       \0dd       character with octal code 0dd
       \ddd       character with octal code ddd, or backreference
       \o{ddd..}  character with octal code ddd..
       \xhh       character with hex code hh
       \x{hhh..}  character with hex code hhh..

     Note that \0dd is always an octal code, and that \8  and  \9
     are the literal characters "8" and "9".

Character Types

       .          any character except newline;
                    in dotall mode, any character whatsoever
       \C         one data unit, even in UTF mode (best avoided)
       \d         a decimal digit
       \D         a character that is not a decimal digit
       \h         a horizontal white space character
       \H         a character that  is  not  a  horizontal  white
     space character
       \N         a character that is not a newline
       \p{xx}     a character with the xx property
       \P{xx}     a character without the xx property
       \R         a newline sequence
       \s         a white space character
       \S         a character that is not a white space character
       \v         a vertical white space character
       \V         a character that is not a vertical white  space
     character

       \w         a "word" character
       \W         a "non-word" character
       \X         a Unicode extended grapheme cluster

     By default, \d, \s, and \w match only ASCII characters, even
     in  UTF-8  mode or in the 16- bit and 32-bit libraries. How-
     ever, if locale-specific matching is happening,  \s  and  \w
     may  also  match  characters  with  code points in the range
     128-255. If the PCRE_UCP option is  set,  the  behaviour  of
     these  escape sequences is changed to use Unicode properties
     and they match many more characters.

GENERAL CATEGORY PROPERTIES FOR \p and \P

       C          Other
       Cc         Control
       Cf         Format
       Cn         Unassigned
       Co         Private use
       Cs         Surrogate

       L          Letter
       Ll         Lower case letter
       Lm         Modifier letter
       Lo         Other letter
       Lt         Title case letter
       Lu         Upper case letter
       L&         Ll, Lu, or Lt

       M          Mark
       Mc         Spacing mark
       Me         Enclosing mark
       Mn         Non-spacing mark

       N          Number
       Nd         Decimal number
       Nl         Letter number
       No         Other number

       P          Punctuation
       Pc         Connector punctuation
       Pd         Dash punctuation
       Pe         Close punctuation
       Pf         Final punctuation
       Pi         Initial punctuation
       Po         Other punctuation
       Ps         Open punctuation

       S          Symbol
       Sc         Currency symbol
       Sk         Modifier symbol
       Sm         Mathematical symbol

       So         Other symbol

       Z          Separator
       Zl         Line separator
       Zp         Paragraph separator
       Zs         Space separator

PCRE SPECIAL CATEGORY PROPERTIES FOR \p and \P

       Xan        Alphanumeric: union of properties L and N
       Xps        POSIX space: property Z or tab, NL, VT, FF, CR
       Xsp        Perl space: property Z or tab, NL, VT, FF, CR
       Xuc        Univerally-named character: one that can be
                    represented by a Universal Character Name
       Xwd        Perl word: property Xan or underscore

     Perl and POSIX space are now the same. Perl added VT to  its
     space  character  set  at  release  5.18 and PCRE changed at
     release 8.34.

SCRIPT NAMES FOR \p AND \P

     Arabic,  Armenian,  Avestan,  Balinese,  Bamum,   Bassa_Vah,
     Batak,  Bengali, Bopomofo, Brahmi, Braille, Buginese, Buhid,
     Canadian_Aboriginal,  Carian,  Caucasian_Albanian,   Chakma,
     Cham,  Cherokee,  Common, Coptic, Cuneiform, Cypriot, Cyril-
     lic, Deseret,  Devanagari,  Duployan,  Egyptian_Hieroglyphs,
     Elbasan,  Ethiopic,  Georgian,  Glagolitic, Gothic, Grantha,
     Greek, Gujarati, Gurmukhi,  Han,  Hangul,  Hanunoo,  Hebrew,
     Hiragana,            Imperial_Aramaic,            Inherited,
     Inscriptional_Pahlavi,   Inscriptional_Parthian,   Javanese,
     Kaithi,  Kannada,  Katakana,  Kayah_Li,  Kharoshthi,  Khmer,
     Khojki, Khudawadi,  Lao,  Latin,  Lepcha,  Limbu,  Linear_A,
     Linear_B,  Lisu,  Lycian,  Lydian, Mahajani, Malayalam, Man-
     daic,     Manichaean,      Meetei_Mayek,      Mende_Kikakui,
     Meroitic_Cursive,  Meroitic_Hieroglyphs,  Miao, Modi, Mongo-
     lian, Mro,  Myanmar,  Nabataean,  New_Tai_Lue,  Nko,  Ogham,
     Ol_Chiki,    Old_Italic,    Old_North_Arabian,   Old_Permic,
     Old_Persian, Old_South_Arabian, Old_Turkic, Oriya,  Osmanya,
     Pahawh_Hmong,  Palmyrene, Pau_Cin_Hau, Phags_Pa, Phoenician,
     Psalter_Pahlavi,  Rejang,  Runic,   Samaritan,   Saurashtra,
     Sharada, Shavian, Siddham, Sinhala, Sora_Sompeng, Sundanese,
     Syloti_Nagri, Syriac, Tagalog, Tagbanwa,  Tai_Le,  Tai_Tham,
     Tai_Viet, Takri, Tamil, Telugu, Thaana, Thai, Tibetan, Tifi-
     nagh, Tirhuta, Ugaritic, Vai, Warang_Citi, Yi.

Character Classes

       [...]       positive character class
       [^...]      negative character class
       [x-y]       range (can be used for hex characters)
       [[:xxx:]]   positive POSIX named set

       [[:^xxx:]]  negative POSIX named set

       alnum       alphanumeric
       alpha       alphabetic
       ascii       0-127
       blank       space or tab
       cntrl       control character
       digit       decimal digit
       graph       printing, excluding space
       lower       lower case letter
       print       printing, including space
       punct       printing, excluding alphanumeric
       space       white space
       upper       upper case letter
       word        same as \w
       xdigit      hexadecimal digit

     In PCRE, POSIX character  set  names  recognize  only  ASCII
     characters  by default, but some of them use Unicode proper-
     ties if PCRE_UCP is set. You can use \Q...\E inside a  char-
     acter class.

Quantifiers

       ?           0 or 1, greedy
       ?+          0 or 1, possessive
       ??          0 or 1, lazy
       *           0 or more, greedy
       *+          0 or more, possessive
       *?          0 or more, lazy
       +           1 or more, greedy
       ++          1 or more, possessive
       +?          1 or more, lazy
       {n}         exactly n
       {n,m}       at least n, no more than m, greedy
       {n,m}+      at least n, no more than m, possessive
       {n,m}?      at least n, no more than m, lazy
       {n,}        n or more, greedy
       {n,}+       n or more, possessive
       {n,}?       n or more, lazy

Anchors and Simple Assertions

       \b          word boundary
       \B          not a word boundary
       ^           start of subject
                    also after internal newline in multiline mode
       \A          start of subject
       $           end of subject
                    also before newline at end of subject
                    also before  internal  newline  in  multiline
     mode

       \Z          end of subject
                    also before newline at end of subject
       \z          end of subject
       \G          first matching position in subject

Match Point Reset

       \K          reset start of match

     \K is honoured in positive assertions, but ignored in  nega-
     tive ones.

Alternation

       expr|expr|expr...

Capturing

       (...)           capturing group
       (?<name>...)    named capturing group (Perl)
       (?'name'...)    named capturing group (Perl)
       (?P<name>...)   named capturing group (Python)
       (?:...)         non-capturing group
       (?|...)         non-capturing group; reset  group  numbers
     for
                        capturing groups in each alternative

Atomic Groups

       (?>...)         atomic, non-capturing group

Comment

       (?#....)        comment (not nestable)

Option Setting

       (?i)            caseless
       (?J)            allow duplicate names
       (?m)            multiline
       (?s)            single line (dotall)
       (?U)            default ungreedy (lazy)
       (?x)            extended (ignore white space)
       (?-...)         unset option(s)

     The following are recognized only at the  very  start  of  a
     pattern or after one of the newline or \R options with simi-
     lar syntax. More than one of them may appear.

       (*LIMIT_MATCH=d) set the match limit to d (decimal number)
       (*LIMIT_RECURSION=d) set the recursion limit to d (decimal
     number)

       (*NO_AUTO_POSSESS)        no         auto-possessification
     (PCRE_NO_AUTO_POSSESS)
       (*NO_START_OPT)      no      start-match      optimization
     (PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE)
       (*UTF8)         set UTF-8 mode: 8-bit library (PCRE_UTF8)
       (*UTF16)          set   UTF-16   mode:   16-bit    library
     (PCRE_UTF16)
       (*UTF32)          set   UTF-32   mode:   32-bit    library
     (PCRE_UTF32)
       (*UTF)          set appropriate UTF mode for  the  library
     in use
       (*UCP)          set PCRE_UCP (use Unicode  properties  for
     \d etc)

     Note that LIMIT_MATCH and LIMIT_RECURSION  can  only  reduce
     the  value  of  the limits set by the caller of pcre_exec(),
     not increase them.

Newline Convention

     These are recognized only at the very start of  the  pattern
     or after option settings with a similar syntax.

       (*CR)           carriage return only
       (*LF)           linefeed only
       (*CRLF)         carriage return followed by linefeed
       (*ANYCRLF)      all three of the above
       (*ANY)          any Unicode newline sequence

What \r Matches

     These are recognized only at the very start of  the  pattern
     or after option setting with a similar syntax.

       (*BSR_ANYCRLF)  CR, LF, or CRLF
       (*BSR_UNICODE)  any Unicode newline sequence

Lookahead and Lookbehind Assertions

       (?=...)         positive look ahead
       (?!...)         negative look ahead
       (?<=...)        positive look behind
       (?<!...)        negative look behind

     Each top-level branch of a look behind must be  of  a  fixed
     length.

Backreferences

       \n              reference by number (can be ambiguous)
       \gn             reference by number
       \g{n}           reference by number

       \g{-n}          relative reference by number
       \k<name>        reference by name (Perl)
       \k'name'        reference by name (Perl)
       \g{name}        reference by name (Perl)
       \k{name}        reference by name (.NET)
       (?P=name)       reference by name (Python)

Subroutine References (possibly Recursive)

       (?R)            recurse whole pattern
       (?n)            call subpattern by absolute number
       (?+n)           call subpattern by relative number
       (?-n)           call subpattern by relative number
       (?&name)        call subpattern by name (Perl)
       (?P>name)       call subpattern by name (Python)
       \g<name>        call subpattern by name (Oniguruma)
       \g'name'        call subpattern by name (Oniguruma)
       \g<n>           call subpattern by absolute  number  (Oni-
     guruma)
       \g'n'           call subpattern by absolute  number  (Oni-
     guruma)
       \g<+n>          call subpattern by relative  number  (PCRE
     extension)
       \g'+n'          call subpattern by relative  number  (PCRE
     extension)
       \g<-n>          call subpattern by relative  number  (PCRE
     extension)
       \g'-n'          call subpattern by relative  number  (PCRE
     extension)

Conditional Patterns

       (?(condition)yes-pattern)
       (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)

       (?(n)...        absolute reference condition
       (?(+n)...       relative reference condition
       (?(-n)...       relative reference condition
       (?(<name>)...   named reference condition (Perl)
       (?('name')...   named reference condition (Perl)
       (?(name)...     named reference condition (PCRE)
       (?(R)...        overall recursion condition
       (?(Rn)...       specific group recursion condition
       (?(R&name)...   specific recursion condition
       (?(DEFINE)...   define subpattern for reference
       (?(assert)...   assertion condition

Backtracking Control

     The following act immediately they are reached:

       (*ACCEPT)       force successful match

       (*FAIL)         force backtrack; synonym (*F)
       (*MARK:NAME)     set  name  to  be  passed  back;  synonym
     (*:NAME)

     The following act  only  when  a  subsequent  match  failure
     causes  a  backtrack  to  reach them. They all force a match
     failure, but they differ in what happens  afterwards.  Those
     that advance the start-of-match point do so only if the pat-
     tern is not anchored.

       (*COMMIT)       overall failure, no  advance  of  starting
     point
       (*PRUNE)        advance to next starting character
       (*PRUNE:NAME)   equivalent to (*MARK:NAME)(*PRUNE)
       (*SKIP)         advance to current matching position
       (*SKIP:NAME)    advance to position  corresponding  to  an
     earlier
                       (*MARK:NAME); if not found, the (*SKIP) is
     ignored
       (*THEN)         local failure, backtrack to next  alterna-
     tion
       (*THEN:NAME)    equivalent to (*MARK:NAME)(*THEN)

Callouts

       (?C)      callout
       (?Cn)     callout with data n

See Also

     pcrepattern(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3), pcrematching(3),
     pcre(3).

Author

     Philip Hazel
     University Computing Service
     Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.

Revision

     Last updated: 08 January 2014
     Copyright (c) 1997-2014 University of Cambridge.
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