patch(1) 맨 페이지 - 윈디하나의 솔라나라




     patch - apply a diff file to an original

     patch [options] [originalfile [patchfile]]

     but usually just

     patch -pnum <patchfile

     patch takes a patch file patchfile containing  a  difference
     listing  produced  by  the  diff  program  and applies those
     differences to one or more original files, producing patched
     versions.  Normally the patched versions are put in place of
     the originals.  Backups can be made; see the -b or  --backup
     option.   The  names  of the files to be patched are usually
     taken from the patch file, but if there's just one  file  to
     be  patched  it can be specified on the command line as ori-

     Upon startup, patch attempts to determine the  type  of  the
     diff  listing,  unless  overruled  by  a  -c (--context), -e
     (--ed), -n (--normal), or -u  (--unified)  option.   Context
     diffs  (old-style,  new-style, and unified) and normal diffs
     are applied by the patch program itself, while ed diffs  are
     simply fed to the ed(1) editor via a pipe.

     patch tries to skip any leading garbage, apply the diff, and
     then  skip  any  trailing  garbage.   Thus you could feed an
     article or message containing a diff listing to  patch,  and
     it  should  work.   If the entire diff is indented by a con-
     sistent amount, if lines end in CRLF, or if a diff is encap-
     sulated one or more times by prepending "- " to lines start-
     ing with "-" as specified by Internet RFC 934, this is taken
     into  account.   After  removing indenting or encapsulation,
     lines beginning with # are ignored, as they  are  considered
     to be comments.

     With context diffs, and  to  a  lesser  extent  with  normal
     diffs,  patch  can detect when the line numbers mentioned in
     the patch are incorrect, and attempts to  find  the  correct
     place to apply each hunk of the patch.  As a first guess, it
     takes the line number mentioned for the hunk, plus or  minus
     any  offset  used in applying the previous hunk.  If that is
     not the correct place, patch scans both forwards  and  back-
     wards  for  a set of lines matching the context given in the
     hunk.  First patch looks for a place where all lines of  the
     context  match.   If no such place is found, and it's a con-
     text diff, and the maximum fuzz factor is set to 1 or  more,
     then  another  scan  takes place ignoring the first and last
     line of context.  If that fails, and the maximum fuzz factor
     is  set  to  2  or more, the first two and last two lines of
     context are ignored, and another scan is made.  (The default
     maximum fuzz factor is 2.)

     Hunks with less prefix context than  suffix  context  (after
     applying  fuzz) must apply at the start of the file if their
     first line number is 1.  Hunks with more prefix context than
     suffix  context  (after applying fuzz) must apply at the end
     of the file.

     If patch cannot find a place to install  that  hunk  of  the
     patch, it puts the hunk out to a reject file, which normally
     is the name of the output file plus a .rej suffix, or  #  if
     .rej  would  generate  a file name that is too long (if even
     appending the single character # makes  the  file  name  too
     long, then # replaces the file name's last character).

     The rejected hunk comes out in unified or context diff  for-
     mat.   If  the input was a normal diff, many of the contexts
     are simply null.  The line  numbers  on  the  hunks  in  the
     reject  file  may  be different than in the patch file: they
     reflect the approximate location  patch  thinks  the  failed
     hunks belong in the new file rather than the old one.

     As each hunk is completed, you are told if the hunk  failed,
     and  if  so  which  line (in the new file) patch thought the
     hunk should go on.  If the hunk is installed at a  different
     line  from  the  line  number specified in the diff, you are
     told the offset.  A single large offset may indicate that  a
     hunk was installed in the wrong place.  You are also told if
     a fuzz factor was used to make the match, in which case  you
     should also be slightly suspicious.  If the --verbose option
     is given, you are also told about hunks that match exactly.

     If no original file origfile is  specified  on  the  command
     line,  patch  tries  to  figure out from the leading garbage
     what the name of the file to edit is,  using  the  following

     First, patch takes an ordered list of candidate  file  names
     as follows:

      +o If the header is that of a context diff, patch takes  the
        old  and new file names in the header.  A name is ignored
        if it does not have enough slashes to satisfy  the  -pnum
        or  --strip=num  option.   The  name  /dev/null  is  also

      +o If there is an Index: line in the leading garbage and  if
        either  the old and new names are both absent or if patch
        is conforming to POSIX,  patch  takes  the  name  in  the
        Index: line.

      +o For the purpose of the  following  rules,  the  candidate
        file  names  are considered to be in the order (old, new,
        index), regardless of the order that they appear  in  the

     Then patch selects a file name from the  candidate  list  as

      +o If some of the named files exist, patch selects the first
        name if conforming to POSIX, and the best name otherwise.

      +o If patch is not ignoring RCS,  ClearCase,  Perforce,  and
        SCCS  (see  the -g num or --get=num option), and no named
        files exist but an RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, or SCCS mas-
        ter  is found, patch selects the first named file with an
        RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, or SCCS master.

      +o If no named files exist, no RCS, ClearCase, Perforce,  or
        SCCS master was found, some names are given, patch is not
        conforming to POSIX, and the patch appears  to  create  a
        file,  patch selects the best name requiring the creation
        of the fewest directories.

      +o If no file name results from the  above  heuristics,  you
        are  asked  for  the name of the file to patch, and patch
        selects that name.

     To determine the best of a  nonempty  list  of  file  names,
     patch  first  takes  all the names with the fewest path name
     components; of those, it then takes all the names  with  the
     shortest  basename; of those, it then takes all the shortest
     names; finally, it takes the first remaining name.

     Additionally, if the  leading  garbage  contains  a  Prereq:
     line, patch takes the first word from the prerequisites line
     (normally a version number) and checks the original file  to
     see  if that word can be found.  If not, patch asks for con-
     firmation before proceeding.

     The upshot of all this is that you should be  able  to  say,
     while in a news interface, something like the following:

          | patch -d /usr/src/local/blurfl

     and patch a file in the blurfl directory directly  from  the
     article containing the patch.

     If the patch file contains more than one patch, patch  tries
     to  apply  each  of them as if they came from separate patch
     files.  This means, among other things, that it  is  assumed
     that  the  name  of the file to patch must be determined for
     each diff listing, and that the  garbage  before  each  diff
     listing  contains  interesting things such as file names and
     revision level, as mentioned previously.

     -b  or  --backup
        Make backup files.  That is, when patching a file, rename
        or  copy the original instead of removing it.  When back-
        ing up a file that does not exist, an  empty,  unreadable
        backup  file is created as a placeholder to represent the
        nonexistent file.  See the -V or --version-control option
        for details about how backup file names are determined.

        Back up a file if the  patch  does  not  match  the  file
        exactly and if backups are not otherwise requested.  This
        is the default unless patch is conforming to POSIX.

        Do not back up a file if the patch  does  not  match  the
        file  exactly and if backups are not otherwise requested.
        This is the default if patch is conforming to POSIX.

     -B pref  or  --prefix=pref
        Use the simple method to determine backup file names (see
        the  -V  method  or --version-control method option), and
        append pref to a file name  when  generating  its  backup
        file name.  For example, with -B /junk/ the simple backup
        file name for src/patch/util.c is /junk/src/patch/util.c.

        Write all files in binary mode, except for standard  out-
        put  and  /dev/tty.   When reading, disable the heuristic
        for transforming CRLF line endings into LF line  endings.
        This  option  is  needed  on  POSIX systems when applying
        patches  generated  on  non-POSIX  systems  to  non-POSIX
        files.   (On  POSIX  systems, file reads and writes never
        transform line endings. On Windows, reads and  writes  do
        transform  line endings by default, and patches should be
        generated by diff --binary when line endings are signifi-

     -c  or  --context
        Interpret the patch file as a ordinary context diff.

     -d dir  or  --directory=dir
        Change to the directory  dir  immediately,  before  doing
        anything else.

     -D define  or  --ifdef=define
        Use the #ifdef ... #endif construct to mark changes, with
        define as the differentiating symbol.

        Print the results of applying the patches  without  actu-
        ally changing any files.

     -e  or  --ed
        Interpret the patch file as an ed script.

     -E  or  --remove-empty-files
        Remove output files that are empty after the patches have
        been applied.  Normally this option is unnecessary, since
        patch can examine the time stamps on the header to deter-
        mine  whether  a  file should exist after patching.  How-
        ever, if the input is not a context diff or if  patch  is
        conforming  to POSIX, patch does not remove empty patched
        files unless this option is given.  When patch removes  a
        file,  it  also  attempts  to  remove  any empty ancestor

     -f  or  --force
        Assume that the user knows exactly  what  he  or  she  is
        doing,  and do not ask any questions.  Skip patches whose
        headers do not say which file is  to  be  patched;  patch
        files  even  though  they  have the wrong version for the
        Prereq: line in the patch; and assume  that  patches  are
        not  reversed  even  if  they  look  like they are.  This
        option does not suppress commentary; use -s for that.

     -F num  or  --fuzz=num
        Set the maximum fuzz factor.  This option only applies to
        diffs that have context, and causes patch to ignore up to
        that many lines of  context  in  looking  for  places  to
        install a hunk.  Note that a larger fuzz factor increases
        the odds of a faulty patch.  The default fuzz  factor  is
        2.   A fuzz factor greater than or equal to the number of
        lines of context  in  the  context  diff,  ordinarily  3,
        ignores all context.

     -g num  or  --get=num
        This option controls patch's actions when a file is under
        RCS  or  SCCS control, and does not exist or is read-only
        and matches the default version, or when a file is  under
        ClearCase or Perforce control and does not exist.  If num
        is positive, patch gets (or checks out) the file from the
        revision  control  system;  if  zero,  patch ignores RCS,
        ClearCase, Perforce, and SCCS and does not get the  file;
        and  if  negative, patch asks the user whether to get the
        file.  The default value of this option is given  by  the
        value of the PATCH_GET environment variable if it is set;
        if not, the default value is zero.

        Print a summary of options and exit.

     -i patchfile  or  --input=patchfile
        Read the patch from patchfile.  If patchfile is  -,  read
        from standard input, the default.

     -l  or  --ignore-whitespace
        Match patterns loosely, in case tabs or spaces have  been
        munged in your files.  Any sequence of one or more blanks
        in the patch file matches any sequence  in  the  original
        file,  and  sequences  of blanks at the ends of lines are
        ignored.  Normal characters  must  still  match  exactly.
        Each  line  of the context must still match a line in the
        original file.

     --merge or --merge=merge or --merge=diff3
        Merge a patch file into the  original  files  similar  to
        diff3(1) or merge(1).  If a conflict is found, patch out-
        puts a warning and brackets the conflict with <<<<<<< and
        >>>>>>> lines.  A typical conflict will look like this:

          lines from the original file
          original lines from the patch
          new lines from the patch

        The optional argument of --merge  determines  the  output
       format  for conflicts: the diff3 format shows the |||||||
        section with the original lines from the  patch;  in  the
        merge  format, this section is missing.  The merge format
        is the default.

        This option implies --forward and does not  take  the  --
        fuzz=num option into account.

     -n  or  --normal
        Interpret the patch file as a normal diff.

     -N  or  --forward
        When a patch does not apply, patch usually checks if  the
        patch  looks  like  it  has been reversed.  The --forward
        option prevents that.  See also -R.

     -o outfile  or  --output=outfile
        Send output to  outfile  instead  of  patching  files  in
        place.   Do  not use this option if outfile is one of the
        files to be patched.  When outfile is -, send  output  to
        standard output, and send any messages that would usually
        go to standard output to standard error.

     -pnum  or  --strip=num

        Strip the smallest prefix containing num leading  slashes
        from  each file name found in the patch file.  A sequence
        of one or more adjacent slashes is counted  as  a  single
        slash.   This  controls how file names found in the patch
        file are treated, in case you keep your files in  a  dif-
        ferent  directory than the person who sent out the patch.
        For example, supposing the file name in  the  patch  file


     setting -p0 gives the entire file name unmodified, -p1 gives


     without the leading slash, -p4 gives


     and not specifying -p at all just gives you blurfl.c.  What-
     ever  you  end  up  with is looked for either in the current
     directory, or the directory specified by the -d option.

        Conform more strictly to the POSIX standard, as follows.

         +o Take the first existing file from the list (old,  new,
           index) when intuiting file names from diff headers.

         +o Do not remove files that are empty after patching.

         +o Do not ask whether to get files from  RCS,  ClearCase,
           Perforce, or SCCS.

         +o Require that all options precede the files in the com-
           mand line.

         +o Do not backup files when there is a mismatch.

        Use style word to quote output names.  The word should be
        one of the following:

             Output names as-is.

             Quote names for the  shell  if  they  contain  shell
             metacharacters or would cause ambiguous output.

             Quote names  for  the  shell,  even  if  they  would
             normally not require quoting.

        c    Quote names as for a C language string.

             Quote as with c except omit the surrounding  double-
             quote characters.

        You can specify the default value of the  --quoting-style
        option  with  the environment variable QUOTING_STYLE.  If
        that environment variable is not set, the  default  value
        is shell.

     -r rejectfile  or  --reject-file=rejectfile
        Put rejects into rejectfile instead of the  default  .rej
        file.  When rejectfile is -, discard rejects.

     -R  or  --reverse
        Assume that this patch was created with the old  and  new
        files  swapped.   (Yes, I'm afraid that does happen occa-
        sionally, human nature being what it is.)  patch attempts
        to  swap  each  hunk  around before applying it.  Rejects
        come out in the swapped format.  The -R option  does  not
        work  with  ed  diff  scripts because there is too little
        information to reconstruct the reverse operation.

        If the first hunk of a patch fails,  patch  reverses  the
        hunk  to  see  if it can be applied that way.  If it can,
        you are asked if you want to have the -R option set.   If
        it  can't,  the  patch  continues to be applied normally.
        (Note: this method cannot detect a reversed patch  if  it
        is  a  normal  diff and if the first command is an append
        (i.e. it should have been a delete) since appends  always
        succeed, due to the fact that a null context matches any-
        where.  Luckily, most patches add or change lines  rather
        than  delete  them,  so  most reversed normal diffs begin
        with a delete, which fails, triggering the heuristic.)

        Behave as requested when trying  to  modify  a  read-only
        file:  ignore  the  potential problem, warn about it (the
        default), or fail.

        Produce reject files in the specified format (either con-
        text  or  unified).   Without this option, rejected hunks
        come out in unified diff format if the input patch was of
        that format, otherwise in ordinary context diff form.

     -s  or  --silent  or  --quiet
        Work silently, unless an error occurs.

        When looking for  input  files,  follow  symbolic  links.
        Replaces  the  symbolic  links,  instead of modifying the
        files the symbolic links point to.  Git-style patches  to
        symbolic  links will no longer apply.  This option exists
        for backwards compatibility  with  previous  versions  of
        patch; its use is discouraged.

     -t  or  --batch
        Suppress questions  like  -f,  but  make  some  different
        assumptions:   skip  patches whose headers do not contain
        file names (the same as -f); skip patches for  which  the
        file  has  the  wrong version for the Prereq: line in the
        patch; and assume that patches are reversed if they  look
        like they are.

     -T  or  --set-time
        Set the modification and access times  of  patched  files
        from  time  stamps given in context diff headers.  Unless
        specified in the time stamps,  assume  that  the  context
        diff headers use local time.

        Use of this option with time stamps that do  not  include
        time  zones  is  not  recommended,  because patches using
        local time cannot easily be used by people in other  time
        zones,  and  because local time stamps are ambiguous when
        local clocks move backwards during  daylight-saving  time
        adjustments.   Make  sure  that  time stamps include time
        zones, or generate patches with UTC and  use  the  -Z  or
        --set-utc option instead.

     -u  or  --unified
        Interpret the patch file as a unified context diff.

     -v  or  --version
        Print out patch's revision header and  patch  level,  and

     -V method  or  --version-control=method
        Use method to determine backup file  names.   The  method
        can  also  be  given by the PATCH_VERSION_CONTROL (or, if
        that's not set, the  VERSION_CONTROL)  environment  vari-
        able,  which  is  overridden  by this option.  The method
        does not affect whether backup files are made; it affects
        only the names of any backup files that are made.

        The value of method  is  like  the  GNU  Emacs  `version-
        control'  variable;  patch  also recognizes synonyms that
        are more descriptive.  The valid values  for  method  are
        (unique abbreviations are accepted):

        existing  or  nil

           Make numbered backups of files that already have them,
           otherwise simple backups.  This is the default.

        numbered  or  t
           Make numbered backups.  The numbered backup file  name
           for F is F.~N~ where N is the version number.

        simple  or  never
           Make simple  backups.   The  -B  or  --prefix,  -Y  or
           --basename-prefix,  and -z or --suffix options specify
           the simple backup file name.  If none of these options
           are  given, then a simple backup suffix is used; it is
           the  value  of  the  SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX  environment
           variable if set, and is .orig otherwise.

        With numbered or simple backups, if the backup file  name
        is too long, the backup suffix ~ is used instead; if even
        appending ~ would make the name too long, then ~ replaces
        the last character of the file name.

        Output extra information about the work being done.

     -x num  or  --debug=num
        Set internal debugging flags of interest  only  to  patch

     -Y pref  or  --basename-prefix=pref
        Use the simple method to determine backup file names (see
        the  -V  method  or --version-control method option), and
        prefix pref to the basename of a file name when  generat-
        ing its backup file name.  For example, with -Y .del/ the
        simple  backup  file   name   for   src/patch/util.c   is

     -z suffix  or  --suffix=suffix
        Use the simple method to determine backup file names (see
        the  -V  method  or --version-control method option), and
        use suffix as the suffix.  For  example,  with  -z -  the
        backup     file     name    for    src/patch/util.c    is

     -Z  or  --set-utc
        Set the modification and access times  of  patched  files
        from  time  stamps  given in context diff headers. Unless
        specified in the time stamps,  assume  that  the  context
        diff  headers  use Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, often
        known as GMT).  Also see the -T or --set-time option.

        The -Z or --set-utc and -T or --set-time options normally
        refrain from setting a file's time if the file's original
        time does not match the time given in the  patch  header,
        or  if its contents do not match the patch exactly.  How-
        ever, if the -f or --force option is given, the file time
        is set regardless.

        Due to the  limitations  of  diff  output  format,  these
        options  cannot  update the times of files whose contents
        have not changed.  Also, if you use  these  options,  you
        should  remove  (e.g.  with  make clean)  all  files that
        depend on the patched files, so that later invocations of
        make do not get confused by the patched files' times.

        This specifies whether patch gets  missing  or  read-only
        files  from RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, or SCCS by default;
        see the -g or --get option.

        If set, patch conforms more strictly to the  POSIX  stan-
        dard by default:  see the --posix option.

        Default value of the --quoting-style option.

        Extension to use for simple backup file names instead  of

        Directory to put temporary files in; patch uses the first
        environment  variable  in this list that is set.  If none
        are set, the default is system-dependent; it is  normally
        /tmp on Unix hosts.

        Selects  version   control   style;   see   the   -v   or
        --version-control option.

        temporary files

        controlling terminal; used to get  answers  to  questions
        asked of the user

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

     box; cbp-1 | cbp-1 l | l .  ATTRIBUTE TYPE ATTRIBUTE VALUE =

     Availability   text/gnu-patch = Stability Uncommitted

See Also
     diff(1), ed(1), merge(1).

     Marshall T. Rose and Einar A. Stefferud,  Proposed  Standard
     for     Message     Encapsulation,    Internet    RFC    934
     <URL:> (1985-01).

Notes for Patch Senders
     There are several things you should bear in mind if you  are
     going to be sending out patches.

     Create your patch systematically.  A good method is the com-
     mand  diff -Naur old new  where old and new identify the old
     and new directories.  The names old and new should not  con-
     tain  any  slashes.   The diff command's headers should have
     dates and times in Universal  Time  using  traditional  Unix
     format, so that patch recipients can use the -Z or --set-utc
     option.  Here is an example command, using Bourne shell syn-

          LC_ALL=C TZ=UTC0 diff -Naur gcc-2.7 gcc-2.8

     Tell your recipients how to apply the patch by telling  them
     which  directory  to  cd to, and which patch options to use.
     The option string -Np1 is recommended.  Test your  procedure
     by pretending to be a recipient and applying your patch to a
     copy of the original files.

     You can save people a lot of grief by keeping a patchlevel.h
     file  which  is  patched to increment the patch level as the
     first diff in the patch file you send out.   If  you  put  a
     Prereq:  line  in  with  the  patch, it won't let them apply
     patches out of order without some warning.

     You can create a file by sending out a  diff  that  compares
     /dev/null  or  an  empty  file  dated  the Epoch (1970-01-01
     00:00:00 UTC) to the file you want  to  create.   This  only
     works  if  the file you want to create doesn't exist already
     in the target directory.  Conversely, you can remove a  file
     by  sending  out a context diff that compares the file to be
     deleted with an empty file dated the Epoch.  The  file  will
     be removed unless patch is conforming to POSIX and the -E or
     --remove-empty-files option is not given.  An  easy  way  to
     generate  patches that create and remove files is to use GNU
     diff's -N or --new-file option.

     If the recipient is supposed to use the -pN option,  do  not
     send output that looks like this:

          diff -Naur v2.0.29/prog/README prog/README
          --- v2.0.29/prog/README   Mon Mar 10 15:13:12 1997
          +++ prog/README   Mon Mar 17 14:58:22 1997

     because  the  two  file  names  have  different  numbers  of
     slashes,  and different versions of patch interpret the file
     names differently.  To avoid  confusion,  send  output  that
     looks like this instead:

          diff -Naur v2.0.29/prog/README v2.0.30/prog/README
          --- v2.0.29/prog/README   Mon Mar 10 15:13:12 1997
          +++ v2.0.30/prog/README   Mon Mar 17 14:58:22 1997

     Avoid sending patches that compare backup  file  names  like
     README.orig,  since this might confuse patch into patching a
     backup file instead of the real file.  Instead, send patches
     that  compare  the  same base file names in different direc-
     tories, e.g. old/README and new/README.

     Take care not to send out reversed patches, since  it  makes
     people wonder whether they already applied the patch.

     Try not to have your patch modify derived  files  (e.g.  the
     file configure where there is a line configure:
     in your makefile), since the recipient  should  be  able  to
     regenerate the derived files anyway.  If you must send diffs
     of derived files, generate the diffs  using  UTC,  have  the
     recipients  apply the patch with the -Z or --set-utc option,
     and have them remove any  unpatched  files  that  depend  on
     patched files (e.g. with make clean).

     While you may be able to get  away  with  putting  582  diff
     listings  into  one  file,  it may be wiser to group related
     patches into separate files in case something goes haywire.

     Diagnostics generally indicate  that  patch  couldn't  parse
     your patch file.

     If the --verbose option is given, the message  Hmm...  indi-
     cates  that  there is unprocessed text in the patch file and
     that patch is attempting to intuit whether there is a  patch
     in that text and, if so, what kind of patch it is.

     patch's exit status is 0 if all hunks are  applied  success-
     fully, 1 if some hunks cannot be applied or there were merge
     conflicts, and 2 if there is  more  serious  trouble.   When
     applying a set of patches in a loop it behooves you to check
     this exit status so you don't apply a later patch to a  par-
     tially patched file.

     Context diffs cannot  reliably  represent  the  creation  or
     deletion of empty files, empty directories, or special files
     such as symbolic links.  Nor can they represent  changes  to
     file  metadata  like  ownership, permissions, or whether one
     file is a hard link to another.  If changes like  these  are
     also  required,  separate instructions (e.g. a shell script)
     to accomplish them should accompany the patch.

     patch cannot tell if the line  numbers  are  off  in  an  ed
     script,  and  can  detect  bad line numbers in a normal diff
     only when it finds a change or  deletion.   A  context  diff
     using  fuzz  factor 3 may have the same problem.  You should
     probably do a context diff in these  cases  to  see  if  the
     changes  made sense.  Of course, compiling without errors is
     a pretty good indication that  the  patch  worked,  but  not

     patch usually produces the correct results, even when it has
     to   do  a  lot  of  guessing.   However,  the  results  are
     guaranteed to be correct only when the patch is  applied  to
     exactly the same version of the file that the patch was gen-
     erated from.

Compatibility Issues
     The POSIX standard  specifies  behavior  that  differs  from
     patch's  traditional behavior.  You should be aware of these
     differences if you must interoperate with patch versions 2.1
     and earlier, which do not conform to POSIX.

      +o In  traditional  patch,  the  -p  option's  operand   was
        optional,  and  a  bare -p was equivalent to -p0.  The -p
        option  now  requires  an  operand,  and  -p 0   is   now
        equivalent   to  -p0.   For  maximum  compatibility,  use
        options like -p0 and -p1.

        Also,  traditional  patch  simply  counted  slashes  when
        stripping  path  prefixes; patch now counts pathname com-
        ponents.  That is, a sequence of  one  or  more  adjacent
        slashes now counts as a single slash.  For maximum porta-
        bility, avoid  sending  patches  containing  //  in  file

      +o In traditional patch, backups were  enabled  by  default.
        This  behavior  is  now  enabled  with the -b or --backup

        Conversely, in POSIX patch, backups are never made,  even
        when there is a mismatch.  In GNU patch, this behavior is
        enabled with the --no-backup-if-mismatch  option,  or  by
        conforming to POSIX with the --posix option or by setting
        the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable.

        The -b suffix option of traditional patch  is  equivalent
        to the -b -z suffix options of GNU patch.

      +o Traditional patch used a  complicated  (and  incompletely
        documented)  method  to intuit the name of the file to be
        patched from the patch header.  This method did not  con-
        form  to  POSIX, and had a few gotchas.  Now patch uses a
        different, equally complicated  (but  better  documented)
        method  that  is  optionally POSIX-conforming; we hope it
        has fewer gotchas.  The two methods are compatible if the
        file names in the context diff header and the Index: line
        are all identical after prefix-stripping.  Your patch  is
        normally  compatible if each header's file names all con-
        tain the same number of slashes.

      +o When traditional patch asked the user a question, it sent
        the  question  to standard error and looked for an answer
        from the first file in the following list that was a ter-
        minal:   standard  error,  standard output, /dev/tty, and
        standard input.  Now patch sends  questions  to  standard
        output and gets answers from /dev/tty.  Defaults for some
        answers have been changed so that patch never  goes  into
        an infinite loop when using default answers.

      +o Traditional patch exited with a status value that counted
        the  number  of  bad hunks, or with status 1 if there was
        real trouble.  Now patch exits  with  status  1  if  some
        hunks failed, or with 2 if there was real trouble.

      +o Limit yourself to  the  following  options  when  sending
        instructions  meant  to be executed by anyone running GNU
        patch, traditional patch, or a  patch  that  conforms  to
        POSIX.  Spaces are significant in the following list, and
        operands are required.

           -d dir
           -D define
           -o outfile
           -r rejectfile

     Please report bugs via email to <>.

     If code has been duplicated (for instance with  #ifdef  OLD-
     CODE  ...  #else ... #endif), patch is incapable of patching
     both versions, and, if it works at all,  will  likely  patch
     the wrong one, and tell you that it succeeded to boot.

     If you apply a patch you've already applied, patch thinks it
     is a reversed patch, and offers to un-apply the patch.  This
     could be construed as a feature.

     Computing how to merge a hunk is significantly  harder  than
     using the standard fuzzy algorithm.  Bigger hunks, more con-
     text, a bigger offset from  the  original  location,  and  a
     worse match all slow the algorithm down.

     Copyright (C) 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988 Larry Wall.
     Copyright (C) 1989, 1990,  1991,  1992,  1993,  1994,  1995,
     1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2009 Free Software
     Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies
     of  this  manual provided the copyright notice and this per-
     mission notice are preserved on all copies.

     Permission is granted to copy and distribute  modified  ver-
     sions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copy-
     ing, provided that the entire resulting derived work is dis-
     tributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to
     this one.

     Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of
     this  manual  into  another language, under the above condi-
     tions for modified versions,  except  that  this  permission
     notice may be included in translations approved by the copy-
     right holders instead of in the original English.

     Larry Wall wrote the original version of patch.  Paul Eggert
     removed  patch's  arbitrary limits; added support for binary
     files, setting file times, and deleting files; and  made  it
     conform  better  to POSIX.  Other contributors include Wayne
     Davison, who added unidiff support, and David MacKenzie, who
     added    configuration    and   backup   support.    Andreas
     Gr[:u]nbacher added support for merging.

     This  software  was   built   from   source   available   at    The  original
     community       source       was       downloaded       from

     Further information about this software can be found on  the
     open        source        community        website        at
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