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     man - macros to format Reference Manual pages

     nroff -man filename...

     troff -man filename...

     These macros are used to lay out the reference pages in this
     manual.  If  filename contains format input for a preproces-
     sor, the commands shown above  must  be  piped  through  the
     appropriate  preprocessor.  This is handled automatically by
     the man(1) command. See the Conventions section.

     Any text argument t may be zero to six words. Quotes may  be
     used  to  include  SPACE  characters in a "word". If text is
     empty, the special treatment is applied to  the  next  input
     line  with text to be printed. In this way .I may be used to
     italicize a whole line, or .SB may be  used  to  make  small
     bold letters.

     A prevailing indent distance is remembered  between  succes-
     sive indented paragraphs, and is reset to default value upon
     reaching a non-indented paragraph. Default units for indents
     i are ens.

     Type font and size are reset to default values  before  each
     paragraph,  and  after processing font and size setting mac-

     These strings are predefined by -man:

             `r', `(Reg)' in nroff.

             Change to default type size.

     * n.t.l. = next text line; p.i. = prevailing indent

     tab(); cw(1i) cw(1i) cw(1i) cw(2.5i)  cw(1i)  cw(1i)  cw(1i)
     cw(2.5i)    RequestCauseIf    noExplanation    BreakArgument
     .Btnot=n.t.l.*Text  is  in  bold  font.   .BItnot=n.t.l.Join
     words,  alternating  bold  and  italic.   .BRtnot=n.t.l.Join
     words, alternating bold and  roman.   .DTno.5i  1i...Restore
     default tabs.  .HPiyesi=p.i.*T{ Begin paragraph with hanging
     indent. Set prevailing indent to i.  T} .Itnot=n.t.l.Text is
     italic.   .IBtnot=n.t.l.Join  words,  alternating italic and
     bold.    .IPx   iyesx=""Same   as   .TP    with    tag    x.
     .IRtnot=n.t.l.T{  Join  words, alternating italic and roman.
     T} .IXtno-Index macro, for SunSoft internal use.   .LPyes-T{
     Begin  left-aligned paragraph. Set prevailing indent to .5i.
     T} .Pyes-Same as .LP.  .PDdnod=.4vT{ Set  vertical  distance
     between  paragraphs.   T} .PPyes-Same as .LP.  .REyes-T{ End
     of  relative  indent.  Restores   prevailing   indent.    T}
     .RBtnot=n.t.l.Join   words,   alternating  roman  and  bold.
     .RItnot=n.t.l.T{ Join words, alternating roman  and  italic.
     T} .RSiyesi=p.i.T{ Start relative indent, increase indent by
     i. Sets prevailing indent to .5i  for  nested  indents.   T}
     .SBtno-T{  Reduce  size  of text by 1 point, make text bold.
     T} .SHtyes-Section Heading.   .SMtnot=n.t.l.Reduce  size  of
     text by 1 point.  .SStyest=n.t.l.Section Subheading.  .THn s
     d f myes-T{ Begin reference page n, of of section  s;  d  is
     the  date  of  the  most recent change. If present, f is the
     left page footer; m is the main page (center)  header.  Sets
     prevailing indent and tabs to .5i.  T} .TPiyesi=p.i.T{ Begin
     indented paragraph, with the tag  given  on  the  next  text
     line.  Set  prevailing  indent to i.  T} .TXt pno-T{ Resolve
     the title abbreviation t; join to punctuation mark (or text)
     p.  T}

     When formatting a manual page, man examines the  first  line
     to  determine  whether  it  requires special processing. For
     example a first line consisting of:

     `\" t

     indicates that the manual  page  must  be  run  through  the
     tbl(1) preprocessor.

     A typical manual page for a command or function is laid  out
     as follows:

     .TH title[1-9]
         The name of the command or function, which serves as the
         title of the manual page. This is followed by the number
         of the section in which it appears.

     .SH NAME
         The name, or list of names,  by  which  the  command  is
         called,  followed  by a dash and then a one-line summary
         of the action performed. All in roman font, this section
         contains  no  troff(1) commands or escapes, and no macro


             The syntax of the  command  and  its  arguments,  as
             typed  on the command line. When in boldface, a word
             must be typed exactly as printed. When in italics, a
             word  can be replaced with an argument that you sup-
             ply. References to bold or italicized items are  not
             capitalized  in other sections, even when they begin
             a sentence.

             Syntactic symbols appear in roman face:

             [ ]
                 An argument,  when  surrounded  by  brackets  is

                 Arguments  separated  by  a  vertical  bar   are
                 exclusive.  You  can  supply  only one item from
                 such a list.

                 Arguments  followed  by  an  ellipsis   can   be
                 repeated.  When  an ellipsis follows a bracketed
                 set, the expression within the brackets  can  be

             If  required,  the  data  declaration,  or  #include
             directive,  is shown first, followed by the function
             declaration. Otherwise, the function declaration  is

         A narrative overview of the command or function's exter-
         nal  behavior. This includes how it interacts with files
         or data, and how it handles the standard input, standard
         output  and standard error. Internals and implementation
         details are normally omitted. This section  attempts  to
         provide  a  succinct overview in answer to the question,
         what does it do?

         Literal text  from  the  synopsis  appears  in  constant
         width,  as  do literal filenames and references to items
         that appear elsewhere in the  reference  manuals.  Argu-
         ments are italicized.

         If a command interprets either subcommands or  an  input
         grammar,  its command interface or input grammar is nor-
         mally described in a USAGE section,  which  follows  the
         OPTIONS  section. The DESCRIPTION section only describes
         the behavior of the command itself, not that of  subcom-

         The list of options along with a description of how each
         affects the command's operation.

         A list of the values the library routine returns to  the
         calling  program  and  the  conditions  that cause these
         values to be returned.

         A list of the values the utility returns to the  calling
         program  or  shell,  and the conditions that cause these
         values to be returned.

     .SH FILES
         A list of files associated with the command or function.

         A comma-separated list of related manual pages, followed
         by references to other published materials.

         A list of diagnostic  messages  and  an  explanation  of

     .SH BUGS
         A description of limitations, known defects, and  possi-
         ble problems associated with the command or function.

     SMF service svc:/application/man-index is used  to  generate
     the  index  files  for -f, -k, and -K options of man(1). The
     SMF service is online by default. The index  files  for  the
     options  are generated during package/system installation if
     the FMRI is specified as an restart_fmri actuator.  Any  man
     page  delivering  packages that use the FMRI as restart_fmri
     actuator for its file actions must deliver a unique symbolic
     link to their man page directory at the following directory:


     The unique symbolic link names should  be  of  package  FMRI
     without scheme, slash character (/) replaced with "%2F", and
     optionally have some or all sequences of numbers of version.
     For instance, for the following package FMRI:


     could supply one of the symbolic link names such as:

     The method of the SMF service, upon  requested  to  generate
     index  files  using  restart_fmri  during  package  install,
     checks the symbolic links.  Based  on  the  newness  of  the
     installed  files,  index  files are generated only as neces-

     Unless used in an IPS package as restart_fmri,  by  default,
     it    generates   index   files   in   /usr/share/man/   and
     /usr/gnu/share/man/.  When  used  in  and  IPS  package   as
     restart_fmri,  it  generates  and  places index files in the
     same directory as the man page source directory of the pack-

                                   Directory  to  save   symbolic
                                   links  to man page directories
                                   needing index  files  for  -f,
                                   -k, and -K queries.

                                   Table of Contents and  keyword

                                   Generated files include:

                                       o   /usr/share/man/man_index/man.idx

                                       o   /usr/share/man/man_index/man.dic

                                       o   /usr/share/man/man_index/man.frq

                                       o   /usr/share/man/man_index/man.pos


See Also
     man(1), nroff(1), troff(1), whatis(1)

     Dale Dougherty and Tim O'Reilly, Unix Text Processing
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