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ls

Name
     ls - list contents of directory

Synopsis
     /usr/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHiklLmnopqrRsStuUwvVx1@]
          [-/ c | -/v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all]
          [--block-size size] [--color[=when]] [--file-type]
          [--si] [--time-style style] [file]...


     /usr/xpg4/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHiklLmnopqrRsStuUwvVx1@]
          [-/ c | -/v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all]
          [--block-size size] [--color[=when]] [--file-type]
          [--si] [--time-style style] [file]...


     /usr/xpg6/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHiklLmnopqrRsStuUwvVx1@]
          [-/ c | -/v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all]
          [--block-size size] [--color[=when]] [--file-type]
          [--si] [--time-style style] [file]...

Description
     For each file that is a directory, ls lists the contents  of
     the  directory.  For  each file that is an ordinary file, ls
     repeats its name and any other  information  requested.  The
     output is sorted alphabetically by default. When no argument
     is given, the current directory (.) is listed. When  several
     arguments   are   given,  the  arguments  are  first  sorted
     appropriately, but file arguments appear before  directories
     and their contents.


     There are three major listing formats.  The  default  format
     for  output  directed  to  a  terminal  is multi-column with
     entries sorted down the columns. The -1 option allows single
     column  output and -m enables stream output format. In order
     to determine output formats for the -C, -x, and -m  options,
     ls  uses  an environment variable, COLUMNS, to determine the
     number of character positions available on one output  line.
     If  this  variable  is  not set, the terminfo(4) database is
     used to determine  the  number  of  columns,  based  on  the
     environment  variable,  TERM.  If this information cannot be
     obtained, 80 columns are assumed. If the -w option is  used,
     the argument overrides any other column width.


     The mode printed when the -e, -E, -g, -l, -n, -o, -v, -V, or
     -@  option  is  in effect consists of eleven characters. The
     first character can be one of the following:
     d
         The entry is a directory.


     D
         The entry is a door.


     l
         The entry is a symbolic link.


     b
         The entry is a block special file.


     c
         The entry is a character special file.


     p
         The entry is a FIFO (or "named pipe") special file.


     P
         The entry is an event port.


     s
         The entry is an AF_UNIX address family socket.


     -
         The entry is an ordinary file.



     The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three
     bits  each. The first set refers to the owner's permissions;
     the next to permissions of others in the user-group  of  the
     file; and the last to all others. Within each set, the three
     characters indicate permission to read,  to  write,  and  to
     execute  the  file  as a program, respectively. For a direc-
     tory, execute permission is interpreted to  mean  permission
     to  search the directory for a specified file. The character
     after permissions is an ACL or extended  attributes  indica-
     tor. This character is an @ if extended attributes are asso-
     ciated with the  file  and  the  -@  option  is  in  effect.

     Otherwise,  this character is a plus sign (+) character if a
     non-trivial ACL is associated with the file or a space char-
     acter if not.


     If -/ and/or -% are in  effect,  then  the  extended  system
     attributes  are  printed  when  filesystem supports extended
     system attributes. The display looks as follows:

       $ls -/ c  file
       -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
                       {AHRSadim-u}

       $ls -/ v file
       -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
                       {archive,hidden,readonly,system,appendonly\
                        nodump,immutable, av_modified,\
                        noav_quarantined,nounlink}

       $ls -l -% all file
       -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
                       timestamp: atime    Jun 25 12:56:44 2007
                       timestamp: ctime    May 10 14:20:23 2007
                       timestamp: mtime    May 10 14:17:56 2007
                       timestamp: crtime   May 10 14:17:56 2007




     See the option descriptions of the  -/  and  -%  option  for
     details.


     ls -l (the long list) prints its output as follows  for  the
     POSIX locale:

       -rwxrwxrwx+ 1 smith dev   10876  May 16 9:42 part2




     Reading from right to left, you see that the current  direc-
     tory  holds  one file, named part2. Next, the last time that
     file's contents were modified was 9:42 A.M. on May  16.  The
     file  contains 10,876 characters, or bytes. The owner of the
     file, or the user, belongs to the group dev  (perhaps  indi-
     cating development), and his or her login name is smith. The
     number, in this case 1, indicates the  number  of  links  to
     file  part2  (see cp(1)). The plus sign indicates that there
     is an ACL associated with the file. If  the  -@  option  has
     been  specified,  the presence of extended attributes super-
     sede the presence of an ACL and the plus  sign  is  replaced
     with  an  `at'  sign (@). Finally, the dash and letters tell
     you that user, group, and others have permissions  to  read,
     write, and execute part2.


     The execute (x) symbol occupies the third  position  of  the
     three-character  sequence.  A  - in the third position would
     have indicated a denial of execution permissions.


     The permissions are indicated as follows:

     r
             The file is readable.


     w
             The file is writable.


     x
             The file is executable.


     -
             The indicated permission is not granted.


     s
             The set-user-ID or set-group-ID bit is on,  and  the
             corresponding  user  or  group execution bit is also
             on.


     S
             Undefined bit-state (the set-user-ID or set-group-id
             bit  is  on  and  the user or group execution bit is
             off). For group permissions, this  applies  only  to
             non-regular files.


     t
             The 1000 (octal) bit, or  sticky  bit,  is  on  (see
             chmod(1)), and execution is on.


     T
             The 1000 bit is turned  on,  and  execution  is  off
             (undefined bit-state).


  /usr/bin/ls
     l
          Mandatory locking occurs during access  (on  a  regular
          file,  the  set-group-ID bit is on and the group execu-
          tion bit is off).


  /usr/xpg4/bin/ls and /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
     L
          Mandatory locking occurs during access  (on  a  regular
          file,   the  set-group-ID  bit  is  on  and  the  group
          execution bit is off).



     For user and group permissions, the third position is  some-
     times occupied by a character other than x or -. s or S also
     can occupy this position, referring  to  the  state  of  the
     set-ID  bit,  whether  it  be the user's or the group's. The
     ability to assume the same ID as the user  during  execution
     is,  for  example,  used during login when you begin as root
     but need to assume the identity of the user you login as.


     In the case of the sequence  of  group  permissions,  l  can
     occupy  the  third  position. l refers to mandatory file and
     record locking. This permission describes a  file's  ability
     to  allow other files to lock its reading or writing permis-
     sions during access.


     For others permissions, the third position can  be  occupied
     by  t  or  T. These refer to the state of the sticky bit and
     execution permissions.

Options
     The following options are supported:

  /usr/bin/ls, /usr/xpg4/bin/ls, and /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
     The following options are supported for all three versions:

     -a
     --all
         Lists all entries, including those that begin with a dot
         (.), which are normally not listed.


     -A
     --almost-all
         Lists all entries, including those that begin with a dot
         (.), with the exception of the working directory (.) and
         the parent directory (..).


     -b
     --escape
         Forces printing of non-printable characters to be in the
         octal \ddd notation.

     -B
     --ignore-backups
         Do not display any files ending with a tilde (~).


     -c
         Uses time of  last  modification  of  the  i-node  (file
         created, mode changed, and so forth) for sorting (-t) or
         printing (-l or -n).


     -C
         Multi-column  output  with  entries  sorted   down   the
         columns. This is the default output format.


     -d
         If an argument is a directory, lists only its name  (not
         its contents). Often used with -l to get the status of a
         directory.


     -e
         The same as -l, except displays time to the second,  and
         with  one format for all files regardless of age: mmm dd
         hh:mm:ss yyyy.


     -E
         The same as -l, except displays time to  the  nanosecond
         and  with  one  format  for all files regardless of age:
         yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.nnnnnnnnn (ISO 8601:2000 format).

         In addition, this option displays the offset from UTC in
         ISO  8601:2000  standard  format  (+hhmm or -hhmm) or no
         characters if the offset is indeterminable.  The  offset
         reflects the appropriate standard or alternate offset in
         force at the file's displayed date and time,  under  the
         current timezone.


     -f
         Forces each argument to be interpreted  as  a  directory
         and  list the name found in each slot. This option turns
         off -l, -t, -s, -S, and -r, and turns on -a.  The  order
         is the order in which entries appear in the directory.

     -F
     --classify
         Append a symbol after certain types of files to indicate
         the file type. The following symbols are used:

         /
              Directory


         >
              Door file


         |
              Named pipe (FIFO)


         @
              Symbolic link


         =
              Socket


         *
              Executable



     -g
         The same as -l, except that the owner is not printed.


     -h
     --human-readable
         All sizes are scaled to a  human  readable  format,  for
         example,  14K,  234M,  2.7G, or 3.0T. Scaling is done by
         repetitively dividing by  1024.  The  last  --si  or  -h
         option determines the divisor used.


     -H
     --dereference-command-line
         If an argument is a  symbolic  link  that  references  a
         directory,  this  option  evaluates the file information
         and file type of the directory that the link references,
         rather  than those of the link itself. However, the name
         of the link is displayed,  rather  than  the  referenced
         directory.


     -i
     --inode
         For each file, prints the i-node  number  in  the  first
         column of the report.

     -k
         All sizes are printed in kbytes. Equivalent to  --block-
         size=1024.


     -l
         Lists in  long  format,  giving  mode,  ACL  indication,
         number  of  links, owner, group, size in bytes, and time
         of last modification for each file (see above).  If  the
         file  is a special file, the size field instead contains
         the major and minor device numbers. If the time of  last
         modification is greater than six months ago, it is shown
         in the format `month date year' for  the  POSIX  locale.
         When the LC_TIME locale category is not set to the POSIX
         locale, a different format of  the  time  field  can  be
         used.  Files modified within six months show `month date
         time'. If the file is a symbolic link, the  filename  is
         printed followed by "->" and the path name of the refer-
         enced file.


     -L
     --dereference
         If an argument is a symbolic link, this option evaluates
         the file information and file type of the file or direc-
         tory that the link references, rather than those of  the
         link itself. However, the name of the link is displayed,
         rather than the referenced file or directory.


     -m
         Streams output format. Files are listed across the page,
         separated by commas.


     -n
     --numeric-uid-gid
         The same as -l, except that the owner's UID and  group's
         GID  numbers  are  printed,  rather  than the associated
         character strings.


     -o
     --no-group
         The same as -l, except that the group is not printed.


     -p
         Puts a slash (/) after each filename if the  file  is  a
         directory.


     -q
     --hide-control-chars
         Forces printing  of  non-printable  characters  in  file
         names as the character question mark (?).


     -r
     --reverse
         Reverses the order of sort to  get  reverse  alphabetic,
         oldest  first,  or smallest file size first as appropri-
         ate.


     -R
     --recursive
         Recursively lists subdirectories encountered.


     -s
     --size
         Indicate the total number of file system blocks consumed
         by each file displayed.


     -S
         Sort by file size (in decreasing order)  and  for  files
         with  the  same  size by file name (in increasing alpha-
         betic order) instead of just by name.


     -t
         Sorts by time stamp (latest first) instead of  by  name.
         The  default  is  the last modification time. See -c, -u
         and -%.


     -u
         Uses time of last access instead  of  last  modification
         for  sorting  (with the -t option) or printing (with the
         -l option).


     -U
         Output is unsorted.

     -v
         The same as -l, except that verbose ACL  information  is
         displayed  as  well as the -l output. ACL information is
         displayed even if the file or directory doesn't have  an
         ACL.


     -V
         The same as -l, except that compact ACL  information  is
         displayed after the -l output.

         The -V option is only applicable to  file  systems  that
         support NFSv4 ACLs, such as the Solaris ZFS file system.

         The format of the displayed ACL is as follows:

           entry_type : permissions : inheritance_flags : access_type


         entry_type is displayed as one of the following:

         user:username
             Additional user access for username.


         group:groupname
             Additional group access for group groupname.


         owner@
             File owner.


         group@
             File group owner.


         everyone@
             Everyone access, including file owner and file group
             owner.  This  is  not  equivalent to the POSIX other
             class.

         The following permissions, supported by  the  NFSv4  ACL
         model, are displayed by using the -v or -V options:

         read_data (r)
             Permission to read the data of a file.

         list_directory (r)
             Permission to list the contents of a directory.


         write_data (w)
             Permission to modify a file's data. anywhere in  the
             file's offset range.


         add_file (w)
             Permission to add a new file to a directory.


         append_data (p)
             The ability to modify a file's data, but only start-
             ing at EOF.


         add_subdirectory (p)
             Permission to create a subdirectory to a directory.


         read_xattr (R)
             Ability to read the extended attributes of a file.


         write_xattr (W)
             Ability to create extended attributes  or  write  to
             the extended attribute directory.


         execute (x)
             Permission to execute a file.


         read_attributes (a)
             The ability to read basic attributes (non-ACLs) of a
             file.


         write_attributes (A)
             Permission to change  basic attributes (non-ACLs) of
             a file.


         delete (d)
             Permission to delete a file.

         delete_child (D)
             Permission to delete a file within a directory.


         read_acl (c)
             Permission to read the ACL of a file.


         write_acl (C)
             Permission to write the ACL of a file.


         write_owner (o)
             Permission to change the owner of a file.


         synchronize (s)
             Permission to access file  locally  at  server  with
             synchronize reads and writes.


         -
             No permission granted

         The following inheritance flags, supported by the  NFSv4
         ACL model, are displayed by using the -v or -V options:

         file_inherit (f)
             Inherit to all newly created files.


         dir_inherit (d)
             Inherit to all newly created directories.


         inherit_only (i)
             When placed on a directory,  do  not  apply  to  the
             directory,  only  to  newly created files and direc-
             tories. This flag requires that either  file_inherit
             and or dir_inherit is also specified.


         no_propagate (n)
             Indicates that ACL entries should  be  inherited  to
             objects  in a directory, but inheritance should stop
             after descending one level. This flag  is  dependent
             upon  either  file_inherit  and  or dir_inherit also
             being specified.


         successful_access (S)
             Indicates if an alarm or audit record should be ini-
             tiated   upon   successful   accesses.   Used   with
             audit/alarm ACE types.


         failed_access (F)
             Indicates if an alarm or audit record should be ini-
             tiated  when access fails. Used with audit/alarm ACE
             types.


         inherited (I)
             ACE was inherited.


         -
             No permission granted.

         access_type is displayed as one of the following types:

         alarm
                  Permission  field  that  specifies  permissions
                  that should trigger an alarm.


         allow
                  Permission field that specifies  allow  permis-
                  sions.


         audit
                  Permission  field  that  specifies  permissions
                  that should be audited.


         deny
                  Permission field that  specifies  deny  permis-
                  sions.

         For example:

           $ ls -dV /sandbox/dir.1
             drwxr-xr-x+  2 root     root           2 Jan 17 15:09 dir.1
                             user:marks:r-------------:fd-----:allow
                                 owner@:--------------:-------:deny
                                 owner@:rwxp---A-W-Co-:-------:allow
                                 group@:-w-p----------:-------:deny
                                 group@:r-x-----------:-------:allow
                              everyone@:-w-p---A-W-Co-:-------:deny
                              everyone@:r-x---a-R-c--s:-------:allow

           $
                                      ||||||||||||||||:||||||+ inherited access
                                        ||||||||||||||:||||||+ failed access
                                        ||||||||||||||:|||||+--success access
                                        ||||||||||||||:||||+-- no propagate
                                        ||||||||||||||:|||+--- inherit only
                                        ||||||||||||||:||+---- directory inherit
                                        ||||||||||||||:|+----- file inherit
                                        ||||||||||||||
                                        ||||||||||||||+ sync
                                        |||||||||||||+- change owner
                                        ||||||||||||+-- write ACL
                                        |||||||||||+--- read ACL
                                        ||||||||||+---- write extended attributes
                                        |||||||||+----- read extended attributes
                                        ||||||||+------ write attributes
                                        |||||||+------- read attributes
                                        ||||||+-------- delete child
                                        |||||+--------- delete
                                        ||||+---------- append
                                        |||+----------- execute
                                        ||+------------ write data
                                        |+------------- read data




     -w cols
     --width cols
         Multi-column output where the column width is forced  to
         cols.


     -x
         Multi-column output with entries  sorted  across  rather
         than down the page.


     -1
         Prints one entry per line of output.


     -@
         The same as -l, except that extended attribute  informa-
         tion  overrides ACL information. An @ is displayed after
         the file permission bits for files  that  have  extended
         attributes.

     -/
         The -/ option supports two option arguments  c  (compact
         mode)  and  v (verbose mode). Displays the long listing,
         same as -l. In addition, displays  the  extended  system
         attributes associated with the file when extended system
         attributes are fully supported by  the  underlying  file
         system.

         appendonly
             Allows a file to be modified  only  at  offset  EOF.
             Attempts  to  modify a file at a location other than
             EOF fails with EPERM.


         archive
             Indicates if a file has been modified since  it  was
             last  backed  up.  Whenever  the  modification  time
             (mtime) of a file is changed the  archive  attribute
             is set.


         av_modified
             ZFS sets the anti-virus attribute which  whenever  a
             file's  content  or size changes or when the file is
             renamed.


         av_quarantined
             Anti-virus software sets to mark a file  as  quaran-
             tined.


         crtime
             Timestamp when a file is created.


         hidden
             Marks a file as hidden.


         immutable
             Prevents the content of a file from being  modified.
             Also  prevents  all  metadata  changes,  except  for
             access time updates. When  placed  on  a  directory,
             prevents  the  deletion and creation of files in the
             directories. Attempts to modify  the  content  of  a
             file  or  directory  marked  as  immutable fail with
             EPERM. Attempts to modify any attributes  (with  the
             exception  of  access  time  and,  with  the  proper
             privileges, the  immutable)  of  a  file  marked  as
             immutable fails with EPERM.


         nodump
             Solaris systems have no special semantics  for  this
             attribute.


         nounlink
             Prevents a file from being deleted. On a  directory,
             the  attribute also prevents any changes to the con-
             tents of the directory. That is, no files within the
             directory can be removed or renamed. The errno EPERM
             is returned when  attempting  to  unlink  or  rename
             files and directories that are marked as nounlink.


         readonly
             Marks a file as readonly. Once a file is  marked  as
             readonly  the  content  data  of  the file cannot be
             modified. Other metadata for the file can  still  be
             modified.


         sparse
             This attribute is available to  users  and  applica-
             tions  to indicate that a file can be interpreted as
             sparse. It does not indicate whether or not the file
             is  actually  sparse and it has no special semantics
             on the Solaris operating system. The  sparse  attri-
             bute  will  be  cleared  if the file is truncated to
             zero length.


         system
             Solaris systems have no special semantics  for  this
             attribute.


         sensitive
             Some Solaris utilities may  take  different  actions
             based  on this attribute. For example, not recording
             the contents of such files in administrative logs.

     The display characters used in compact mode (-/  c)  are  as
     follows:

       Attribute Name     Display
       archive            A
       hidden             H
       readonly           R
       system             S
       appendonly         a
       nodump             d
       immutable          i
       av_modified        m
       av_quarantined     q
       sparse             s
       nounlink           u
       sensitive          T




     The display in verbose mode (/ v) uses full attribute  names
     when  it is set and the name prefixed by `no' when it is not
     set.


     The attribute name crtime and all other timestamps are  han-
     dled  by  the option -% with the respective timestamp option
     arguments and also with all  option  argument.  The  display
     positions are as follows: The display in verbose mode (-/ v)
     uses full attribute names  when it is set and the name  pre-
     fixed  by  no  when it is not set. The attribute name crtime
     and all other timestamps are handled by the option  -%  with
     the  respective timestamp option arguments and also with all
     option argument.


     The display positions are as follows:

       {||||||||||}
        |||||||||||||+T (sensitive)
        |||||||||||+- s (sparse)
        ||||||||||+-- O (offline)
        |||||||||+--- u (nounlink)
        ||||||||+---- q (av_quarantined)
        |||||||+----- m (av_modified)
        ||||||+------ i (immutable)
        |||||+------- d (nodump)
        ||||+-------- a (appendonly)
        |||+--------- S (system)
        ||+---------- R (readonly)
        |+----------- H (hidden)
        +------------ A (archive)

       -% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all



     atime
         Equivalent to -u.


     crtime
         Uses the creation time of the file for sorting or print-
         ing.


     ctime
         Equivalent to -c.


     mtime
         Uses the last modification time of the file contents for
         sorting or printing.



     If extended system attributes are not supported  or  if  the
     user  does  not  have  read permission on the file or if the
     crtime extended attribute is not set, crtime is treated as a
     synonym for mtime.


     When option argument -all is specified, all available times-
     tamps  are printed which includes -atime, -ctime, -mtime and
     on the extended system attribute  supporting  file  systems,
     -crtime  (create  time).  The  option -% all does not effect
     which timestamp is displayed in long  format  and  does  not
     affect sorting.

     --block-size size
         Display sizes in multiples of size. Size can  be  scaled
         by  suffixing one of YyZzEePpTtGgMmKk. Additionally, a B
         can be placed at  the  end  to  indicate  powers  of  10
         instead  of  2.  For  example,  .  10mB  means blocks of
         10000000 bytes while 10m  means  blocks  of  10*2^20  --
         10485760  --  bytes. This is mutually exclusive with the
         -h option.


     --color [=when]
     --colour[=when]
         Display   filenames   using   color   on   color-capable
         terminals.  when is an optional argument that determines
         when to display color output.

         Possible values for when are:

         always
         yes
         force
             Always use color.


         auto
         tty
         if-tty
             Use color if a terminal is present.


         no
         never
         none
             Never use color. This is the default

         See the Color Output section of  this  manual  page  for
         information on how to control the output colors.


     --file-type
         Display a suffix after a file depending  on  it's  type,
         similar  to  the  -F option, except * is not appended to
         executable files.


     --si
         Display human scaled sizes similar  to  the  -h  option,
         except  values are repeatedly divided by 1000 instead of
         1024. The last option --si or -h determines the  divisor
         used.


     --time-style style
         Display times using the specified style. This  does  not
         effect the times displayed for extended attributes (-%).

         Possible values for style are:

         full-iso
             Equivalent to -E.

         long-iso
             Display in YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM for all files.


         iso
             Display older files using YYYY-MM-DD and newer files
             with MM-DD HH:MM.


         locale
             Use the default locale format for old and new files.
             This is the default.


         +FORMAT
             Use  a  custom  format.  Values  are  the  same   as
             described  in  strftime(3C). If a NEWLINE appears in
             the string, the first line is used for  older  files
             and  the second line is used for newer files. Other-
             wise, the given format is used for all files.



  /usr/bin/ls
     -F
         Marks directories with a trailing slash (/), doors  with
         a  trailing greater-than sign (>), executable files with
         a trailing asterisk (*), FIFOs with a trailing  vertical
         bar  (|),  symbolic links with a trailing "at" sign (@),
         and AF_UNIX  address  family  sockets  with  a  trailing
         equals sign (=). Follows symlinks named as operands.


     --file-type
         Marks entries as with -F with the exception  of  execut-
         able  files.  Executable  files  are not marked. Follows
         symlinks named as operands.



     Specifying more than one of the  options  in  the  following
     mutually  exclusive pairs is not considered an error: -C and
     -l (ell), -m and -l (ell), -x and -l (ell), -@ and -l (ell).
     The  -l  option overrides the other option specified in each
     pair.


     Specifying more than one of the  options  in  the  following
     mutually exclusive groups is not considered an error: -C and
     -1 (one), -H and -L, -c and -u, and -e and -E,  and  -t  and
     -S. The last option specifying a specific timestamp (-c, -u,
     -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime, and -% mtime) determines the
     timestamps  used for sorting or in long format listings. The
     last option -t, -S, or -U determines the sorting behavior.

  /usr/xpg4/bin/ls
     -F
         Marks directories with a trailing slash (/), doors  with
         a  trailing greater-than sign (>), executable files with
         a trailing asterisk (*), FIFOs with a trailing  vertical
         bar  (|),  symbolic links with a trailing "at" sign (@),
         and AF_UNIX  address  family  sockets  with  a  trailing
         equals sign (=). Follows symlinks named as operands.


     --file-type
         Marks entries as with -F with the exception  of  execut-
         able  files.  Executable  files  are not marked. Follows
         symlinks named as operands.



     Specifying more than one of the  options  in  the  following
     groups  of  mutually  exclusive options is not considered an
     error: -C and -l (ell), -m and -l (ell), -x and -l (ell), -@
     and  -l (ell), -C and -1 (one), -H and -L, -c and -u, -e and
     -E, -t and -S and -U. The last option specifying a  specific
     timestamp  (-c,  -u,  -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime, and -%
     mtime) determines the timestamps used for sorting or in long
     format  listings.  The  last -t, -S, or -U option determines
     the sorting behavior.

  /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
     -F
         Marks directories with a trailing slash (/), doors  with
         a  trailing greater-than sign (>), executable files with
         a trailing asterisk (*), FIFOs with a trailing  vertical
         bar  (|),  symbolic links with a trailing "at" sign (@),
         and AF_UNIX  address  family  sockets  with  a  trailing
         equals  sign  (=).  Does  not  follow  symlinks named as
         operands unless the -H or -L option is specified.


     --file-type
         Marks entries as with -F with the exception  of  execut-
         able  files.  Executable  files are not marked. Does not
         follow symlinks named as operands unless the  -H  or  -L
         option is specified.

     Specifying more than one of the  options  in  the  following
     mutually  exclusive pairs is not considered an error: -C and
     -l (ell), m and -l(ell), -x and -l (ell), -@ and  -l  (ell),
     -C and -1 (one), -H and --L, -c and -u, -e and -E, -t and -S
     and -U. The last option specifying a specific timestamp (-c,
     -u, -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime, and -% mtime) determines
     the timestamps used for sorting or in long format  listings.
     The  last  -t,  -S,  or  -U  option  determines  the sorting
     behavior.

Operands
     The following operand is supported:

     file
         A path name of a file to be written. If the file  speci-
         fied  is  not  found,  a diagnostic message is output on
         standard error.

Color Output
     If  color  output  is  enabled,  the  environment   variable
     LS_COLORS  is  checked.  If it exists, its contents are used
     to control the colors used to display filenames.  If  it  is
     not  set,  a  default  list of colors is used. The format of
     LS_COLORS is a colon separated list of attribute  specifica-
     tions.  Each attribute specification is of the format

       filespec=attr[;attr..]




     filespec is either of the form *.SUFFIX, for example,  *.jar
     or *.Z, or one of the following file types:

     no
                                 Normal file


     fi
                                 Regular file


     di
                                 Directory


     ln
                                 Symbolic link


     pi
                                 FIFO or named pipe

     so
                                 Socket


     do
                                 Door file


     bd
                                 Block device


     cd
                                 Character device


     ex
                                 Execute bit (either user, group,
                                 or other) set


     po
                                 Event port


     st
                                 Sticky bit set


     or
                                 Orphaned symlink


     sg
                                 setgid binary


     su
                                 setuid binary


     ow
                                 world writable


     tw
                                 Sticky bit and world writable



     attr is a semicolon delimited  list  of  color  and  display
     attributes  which are combined to determine the final output
     color. Any combination of attr values can be specified. Pos-
     sible attr values are:

     00
                                 All attributes off (default ter-
                                 minal color)


     01
                                 Display text in bold


     04
                                 Display text with an underscore

     05
                                 Display text in bold


     07
                                 Display text with foreground and
                                 background colors reversed


     08
                                 Display using concealed text.



     One of the following  values  can  be  chosen.  If  multiple
     values are specified, the last specified value is used.

     30
                                 Set foreground to black.


     31
                                 Set foreground to red.


     32
                                 Set foreground to green.


     33
                                 Set foreground to yellow.


     34
                                 Set foreground to blue.


     35
                                 Set foreground to magenta  (pur-
                                 ple).


     36
                                 Set foreground to cyan.


     37
                                 Set foreground to white.


     39
                                 Set foreground to default termi-
                                 nal color.



     One of the following can be specified.  If  multiple  values
     are specified, the last value specified is used.

     40
                                 Set foreground to black.


     41
                                 Set foreground to red.

     42
                                 Set foreground to green.


     43
                                 Set foreground to yellow.


     44
                                 Set foreground to blue.


     45
                                 Set foreground to magenta  (pur-
                                 ple).


     46
                                 Set foreground to cyan.


     47
                                 Set foreground to white.


     49
                                 Set foreground to default termi-
                                 nal color.



     On some terminals, setting the  bold  attribute  causes  the
     foreground  colors  to be high-intensity, that is, brighter.
     In such cases the low-intensity yellow is often displayed as
     a brown or orange color.


     At least one attribute must be listed for a file  specifica-
     tion.


     The appropriate color codes are chosen by selecting the most
     specific match, starting with the file suffixes and proceed-
     ing with the file types until a match is found. The no (nor-
     mal file) type matches any file.

Usage
     See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior  of  ls
     when  encountering  files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (
     2^31 bytes).

Examples
     Example 1 Viewing File Permissions


     The following example shows how to display detailed informa-
     tion about a file.

       % ls -l file.1
       -rw-r--r--   1 gozer    staff     206663 Mar 14 10:15 file.1




     The permissions string above (-rw-r--r--) describes that the
     file  owner has read and write permissions, the owning group
     has read permissions, and others have read permissions.



     The following example shows how to display detailed informa-
     tion about a directory.


       % ls -ld test.dir
       drwxr-xr-x   2 gozer    staff          2 Mar 14 10:17 test.dir




     The permissions string above (drwxr-xr-x) describes that the
     directory owner has read, write, and search permissions, the
     owning group has read and  search  permissions,  and  others
     have read and search permissions.



     Another example of listing file permissions is as follows:


       % ls -l file.2
       -rw-rwl---   1 gozer    staff     206663 Mar 14 10:47 file.2




     The permissions string above (-rw-rwl---) describes that the
     file  owner has read and write permissions, the owning group
     has read and write permissions, and the file can  be  locked
     during access.


     Example 2 Displaying ACL Information  on  Files  and  Direc-
     tories


     The following example  shows  how  to  display  verbose  ACL
     information on a ZFS file.

       % ls -v file.1
       -rw-r--r--   1 marks    staff     206663 Mar 14 10:15 file.1
            0:owner@:execute:deny
            1:owner@:read_data/write_data/append_data/write_xattr/write_attributes
                 /write_acl/write_owner:allow
            2:group@:write_data/append_data/execute:deny
            3:group@:read_data:allow
            4:everyone@:write_data/append_data/write_xattr/execute/write_attributes
                 /write_acl/write_owner:deny
            5:everyone@:read_data/read_xattr/read_attributes/read_acl/synchronize
                 :allow




     The following example  shows  how  to  display  compact  ACL
     information on a ZFS  directory.


       % ls -dV test.dir
       drwxr-xr-x   2 marks    staff          2 Mar 14 10:17 test.dir
                   owner@:--------------:------:deny
                   owner@:rwxp---A-W-Co-:------:allow
                   group@:-w-p----------:------:deny
                   group@:r-x-----------:------:allow
                   everyone@:-w-p---A-W-Co-:------:deny
                   everyone@:r-x---a-R-c--s:------:allow




     The following example illustrates the ls  -v  behavior  when
     listing ACL  information on a UFS file.


       $ ls -v file.3
       -rw-r--r--   1 root     root        2703 Mar 14 10:59 file.3
            0:user::rw-
            1:group::r--               #effective:r--
            2:mask:r--
            3:other:r--



     Example 3 Printing the Names of All Files


     The following example prints the names of all files  in  the
     current  directory,  including  those  that begin with a dot
     (.), which normally do not print:

       example% ls -a



     Example 4 Providing File Information


     The following example provides file information:


       example% ls -aisn




     This command provides information on  all  files,  including
     those  that  begin  with a dot (a), the i-number, the memory
     address of the i-node associated with  the  file-printed  in
     the left-hand column (i); the size (in blocks) of the files,
     printed in the column to the right  of  the  i-numbers  (s);
     finally,  the  report is displayed in the numeric version of
     the long list, printing the UID (instead of user  name)  and
     GID  (instead  of  group  name)  numbers associated with the
     files.



     When the sizes of the files in a  directory  are  listed,  a
     total   count  of  blocks,  including  indirect  blocks,  is
     printed.


     Example 5 Providing Extended System Attributes Information

       example% ls -/ c file    (extended system attribute in compact mode)
       -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
                                {AHRSadim-u}




     In this example, av_quarantined is not set.

       example% ls -/ v file (extended system attribute in verbose mode)
       -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
                       {archive,hidden,readonly,system,appendonly\
                        nodump,immutable,av_modified,\
                        noav_quarantined,nounlink}

       example% ls -/ v file     (no extended system attribute)
       -rw-r--r--  1 root    staff        0 May 16 14:48 file
                      {}

       example% ls -/ c file        (extended system attribute
                                     supported file system)

       -rw-r--r--  1 root staff        3 Jun  4 22:04 file
                      {A------m--}




     archive and av_modified attributes are set by default on  an
     extended system attribute supported file.

       example% ls -/ c  -%crtime file

       -rw-r--r--    root     root          0 May 10 14:17 file
                      {AHRSadim-u}




     This example displays the timestamp as the creation time:

       example% ls -l -%all file
       -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17    file
                       timestamp: atime    Jun 14 08:47:37 2007
                       timestamp: ctime    May 10 14:20:23 2007
                       timestamp: mtime    May 10 14:17:56 2007
                       timestamp: crtime   May 10 14:17:56 2007

       example% ls -%crtime -tl file*

       -rw-r--r--   1 foo      staff          3 Jun  4 22:04 file1
       -rw-r--r--   1 root     root           0 May 10 14:17 file
       -rw-r--r--   1 foo      staff          0 May  9 13:49 file.1




     In this example the files are sorted by creation time.

Environment Variables
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the  execution of ls: LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_TIME, LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, and TZ.

     COLUMNS
                                 Determines the user's  preferred
                                 column  position width for writ-
                                 ing multiple text-column output.
                                 If   this  variable  contains  a
                                 string  representing  a  decimal
                                 integer,  the  ls utility calcu-
                                 lates how many  path  name  text
                                 columns  to write (see -C) based
                                 on  the   width   provided.   If
                                 COLUMNS   is   not   set  or  is
                                 invalid, 80 is used. The  column
                                 width  chosen to write the names
                                 of files in any given  directory
                                 is  constant. File names are not
                                 be truncated  to  fit  into  the
                                 multiple text-column output.


     LS_COLORS
                                 Determines the  coloring  scheme
                                 used  when displaying color out-
                                 put. If not set and color output
                                 is  specified,  a default scheme
                                 is used. If TERM is not set,  no
                                 color output is used.


     TERM
                                 Determine the terminal type.  If
                                 this  variable is unset or NULL,
                                 no  color  output  is  generated
                                 regardless  of  the value of the
                                 --color option.

Exit Status
     0
           All information was written successfully.


     >0
           An error occurred.

Files
     /etc/group
         group IDs for ls -l and ls -g


     /etc/passwd
         user IDs for ls -l and ls -o


     /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/*
         terminal information database

Attributes
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

  /usr/bin/ls
     tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)  ATTRI-
     BUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  _  Availabilitysystem/core-os  _
     CSIEnabled  _  Interface  StabilityCommitted  _  StandardSee
     below.



     For all options except -A, -b, -e, -E, -h, -S, U -v, -V, -@,
     -/,  -%,  --all,  --almost-all, --block-size, --classify, --
     color, --colour, --dereference,  --dereference-command-line,
     --escape,  --file-type,  --full-time,  --human-readable,  --
     ignore-backups, --inode, --no-group,  --numeric-uid-gid,  --
     reverse,  --recursive,  --si,  --size, and --time-style, see
     standards(5).

  /usr/xpg4/bin/ls
     tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)  ATTRI-
     BUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/xopen/xcu4 _
     CSIEnabled  _  Interface  StabilityCommitted  _  StandardSee
     below.



     For all options except -A, -b, -e, -E, -h, -S, U -v, -V, -@,
     -/,  -%,  --all,  --almost-all, --block-size, --classify, --
     color, --colour, --dereference,  --dereference-command-line,
     --escape,  --file-type,  --full-time,  --human-readable,  --
     ignore-backups, --inode, --no-group,  --numeric-uid-gid,  --
     reverse,  --recursive,  --si,  --size, and --time-style, see
     standards(5).

  /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
     tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)  ATTRI-
     BUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/xopen/xcu6 _
     CSIEnabled  _  Interface  StabilityCommitted  _  StandardSee
     below.



     For all options except -A, -b, -e, -E, -h, -S, U -v, -V, -@,
     -/,  -%,  --all,  --almost-all, --block-size, --classify, --
     color, --colour, --dereference,  --dereference-command-line,
     --escape,  --file-type,  --full-time,  --human-readable,  --
     ignore-backups, --inode, --no-group,  --numeric-uid-gid,  --
     reverse,  --recursive,  --si,  --size, and --time-style, see
     standards(5).

See Also
     chmod(1),  cp(1),  setfacl(1),  fgetattr(3C),  strftime(3C),
     terminfo(4),  acl(5),  attributes(5), environ(5), fsattr(5),
     largefile(5), standards(5)

Notes
     Unprintable characters in file names can confuse the  colum-
     nar output options.


     The total block count is incorrect if there are  hard  links
     among the files.


     The sort order of ls output is affected by  the  locale  and
     can  be  overridden  by the LC_COLLATE environment variable.
     For example, if LC_COLLATE equals C, dot files appear first,
     followed  by  names  beginning with upper-case letters, then
     followed by names beginning with lower-case letters. But  if
     LC_COLLATE equals en_US.ISO8859-1, then leading dots as well
     as case are ignored in determining the sort order.
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