less(1) 맨 페이지 - 윈디하나의 솔라나라

개요

섹션
맨페이지이름
검색(S)

less

Name
     less - opposite of more

Synopsis
     less -?
     less --help
     less -V
     less --version
     less [-[+]aABcCdeEfFgGiIJKLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX~]
          [-b space] [-h lines] [-j line] [-k keyfile]
          [-{oO} logfile] [-p pattern] [-P prompt] [-t tag]
          [-T tagsfile] [-x tab,...] [-y lines] [-[z] lines]
          [-# shift] [+[+]cmd] [--] [filename]...
     (See the OPTIONS section for alternate  option  syntax  with
     long option names.)

Description
     Less is a program similar to  more  (1),  but  which  allows
     backward  movement  in the file as well as forward movement.
     Also, less does not have  to  read  the  entire  input  file
     before starting, so with large input files it starts up fas-
     ter than text editors like vi (1).  Less  uses  termcap  (or
     terminfo  on  some  systems),  so it can run on a variety of
     terminals.  There is even limited support for hardcopy  ter-
     minals.   (On  a  hardcopy  terminal,  lines which should be
     printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret.)

     Commands are based on both more and vi. Commands may be pre-
     ceded  by  a  decimal  number,  called N in the descriptions
     below.  The number is used by some commands, as indicated.

Commands
     In the following  descriptions,  ^X  means  control-X.   ESC
     stands  for  the ESCAPE key; for example ESC-v means the two
     character sequence "ESCAPE", then "v".

     h or H
          Help: display a summary of these commands.  If you for-
          get all the other commands, remember this one.

     SPACE or ^V or f or ^F
          Scroll forward N lines, default one window (see  option
          -z below).  If N is more than the screen size, only the
          final screenful is displayed.   Warning:  some  systems
          use ^V as a special literalization character.

     z    Like SPACE, but if N is specified, it becomes  the  new
          window size.

     ESC-SPACE

          Like SPACE, but scrolls a full screenful,  even  if  it
          reaches end-of-file in the process.

     ENTER or RETURN or ^N or e or ^E or j or ^J
          Scroll forward N lines, default 1.  The entire N  lines
          are displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.

     d or ^D
          Scroll forward N lines, default one half of the  screen
          size.   If  N  is specified, it becomes the new default
          for subsequent d and u commands.

     b or ^B or ESC-v
          Scroll backward N lines, default one window (see option
          -z below).  If N is more than the screen size, only the
          final screenful is displayed.

     w    Like ESC-v, but if N is specified, it becomes  the  new
          window size.

     y or ^Y or ^P or k or ^K
          Scroll backward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines
          are  displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.
          Warning: some systems use ^Y as a special  job  control
          character.

     u or ^U
          Scroll backward N lines, default one half of the screen
          size.   If  N  is specified, it becomes the new default
          for subsequent d and u commands.

     ESC-) or RIGHTARROW
          Scroll horizontally right N  characters,  default  half
          the screen width (see the -# option).  If a number N is
          specified, it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW
          and LEFTARROW commands.  While the text is scrolled, it
          acts as though the  -S  option  (chop  lines)  were  in
          effect.

     ESC-( or LEFTARROW
          Scroll horizontally left N characters, default half the
          screen  width  (see  the  -# option).  If a number N is
          specified, it becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW
          and LEFTARROW commands.

     r or ^R or ^L
          Repaint the screen.

     R    Repaint the  screen,  discarding  any  buffered  input.
          Useful  if  the  file  is  changing  while  it is being
          viewed.

     F    Scroll forward, and keep trying to read when the end of
          file  is  reached.  Normally this command would be used
          when already at the end of the file.  It is  a  way  to
          monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is
          being viewed.  (The behavior is similar  to  the  "tail
          -f" command.)

     ESC-F
          Like F, but as soon as a line is  found  which  matches
          the  last search pattern, the terminal bell is rung and
          forward scrolling stops.

     g or < or ESC-<
          Go to line N in  the  file,  default  1  (beginning  of
          file).  (Warning: this may be slow if N is large.)

     G or > or ESC->
          Go to line N in the file, default the end of the  file.
          (Warning:  this  may  be slow if N is large, or if N is
          not specified and standard input, rather than  a  file,
          is being read.)

     p or %
          Go to a position N percent into the file.  N should  be
          between 0 and 100, and may contain a decimal point.

     P    Go to the line containing byte offset N in the file.

     {    If a  left  curly  bracket  appears  in  the  top  line
          displayed  on  the screen, the { command will go to the
          matching right curly bracket.  The matching right curly
          bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen.
          If there is more than one left curly bracket on the top
          line,  a  number  N  may  be  used  to specify the N-th
          bracket on the line.

     }    If a right curly bracket appears  in  the  bottom  line
          displayed  on  the screen, the } command will go to the
          matching left curly bracket.  The matching  left  curly
          bracket  is  positioned  on the top line of the screen.
          If there is more than one right curly  bracket  on  the
          top  line,  a  number N may be used to specify the N-th
          bracket on the line.

     (    Like {, but applies to parentheses  rather  than  curly
          brackets.

     )    Like }, but applies to parentheses  rather  than  curly
          brackets.

     [    Like {, but applies  to  square  brackets  rather  than
          curly brackets.

     ]    Like }, but applies  to  square  brackets  rather  than
          curly brackets.

     ESC-^F
          Followed by two characters, acts like {, but  uses  the
          two  characters  as  open  and  close brackets, respec-
          tively.  For example, "ESC ^F < >" could be used to  go
          forward  to  the  >  which  matches  the  <  in the top
          displayed line.

     ESC-^B
          Followed by two characters, acts like }, but  uses  the
          two  characters  as  open  and  close brackets, respec-
          tively.  For example, "ESC ^B < >" could be used to  go
          backward  to  the  <  which matches the > in the bottom
          displayed line.

     m    Followed by any lowercase  letter,  marks  the  current
          position with that letter.

     `    (Single quote.)   Followed  by  any  lowercase  letter,
          returns  to  the  position  which was previously marked
          with that letter.  Followed by  another  single  quote,
          returns to the position at which the last "large" move-
          ment command was executed.  Followed by a ^ or $, jumps
          to  the  beginning  or  end  of  the file respectively.
          Marks are preserved when a new file is examined, so the
          ` command can be used to switch between input files.

     ^X^X Same as single quote.

     /pattern
          Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing
          the  pattern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a regu-
          lar expression, as recognized by the regular expression
          library  supplied by your system.  The search starts at
          the first  line  displayed  (but  see  the  -a  and  -j
          options, which change this).

          Certain characters are special if entered at the begin-
          ning  of  the  pattern;  they modify the type of search
          rather than become part of the pattern:

          ^N or !
               Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.

          ^E or *
               Search multiple files.  That  is,  if  the  search
               reaches  the END of the current file without find-
               ing a match, the search continues in the next file
               in the command line list.

          ^F or @
               Begin the search at the first line  of  the  FIRST
               file  in the command line list, regardless of what
               is currently displayed on the screen or  the  set-
               tings of the -a or -j options.

          ^K   Highlight any text which matches  the  pattern  on
               the  current  screen,  but don't move to the first
               match (KEEP current position).

          ^R   Don't interpret regular expression metacharacters;
               that is, do a simple textual comparison.

     ?pattern
          Search backward in the file for the N-th line  contain-
          ing the pattern.  The search starts at the line immedi-
          ately before the top line displayed.

          Certain characters are special as in the / command:

          ^N or !
               Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.

          ^E or *
               Search multiple files.  That  is,  if  the  search
               reaches  the beginning of the current file without
               finding a match, the search continues in the  pre-
               vious file in the command line list.

          ^F or @
               Begin the search at the last line of the last file
               in  the  command  line list, regardless of what is
               currently displayed on the screen or the  settings
               of the -a or -j options.

          ^K   As in forward searches.

          ^R   As in forward searches.

     ESC-/pattern
          Same as "/*".

     ESC-?pattern
          Same as "?*".

     n    Repeat previous search, for N-th  line  containing  the
          last  pattern.   If the previous search was modified by
          ^N, the search is made for the N-th line NOT containing
          the  pattern.   If  the previous search was modified by
          ^E, the search continues in the next (or previous) file
          if  not satisfied in the current file.  If the previous
          search was modified by ^R, the search is  done  without
          using  regular  expressions.  There is no effect if the
          previous search was modified by ^F or ^K.

     N    Repeat previous search, but in the reverse direction.

     ESC-n
          Repeat previous search, but crossing  file  boundaries.
          The  effect  is as if the previous search were modified
          by *.

     ESC-N
          Repeat previous search, but in  the  reverse  direction
          and crossing file boundaries.

     ESC-u
          Undo search highlighting.   Turn  off  highlighting  of
          strings   matching   the  current  search  pattern.  If
          highlighting is already off because of a previous ESC-u
          command, turn highlighting back on.  Any search command
          will also turn highlighting back on.  (Highlighting can
          also  be  disabled  by  toggling the -G option; in that
          case search commands do not turn highlighting back on.)

     &pattern
          Display only lines which match the pattern; lines which
          do not match the pattern are not displayed.  If pattern
          is empty (if you type & immediately followed by ENTER),
          any   filtering  is  turned  off,  and  all  lines  are
          displayed.  While filtering is in effect, an  ampersand
          is  displayed at the beginning of the prompt, as a rem-
          inder that some lines in the file may be hidden.

          Certain characters are special as in the / command:

          ^N or !
               Display only lines which do NOT match the pattern.

          ^R   Don't interpret regular expression metacharacters;
               that is, do a simple textual comparison.

     :e [filename]
          Examine a new file.  If the filename  is  missing,  the
          "current"  file (see the :n and :p commands below) from
          the list of files in the command line  is  re-examined.
          A  percent  sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the
          name of the current file. A pound sign (#) is  replaced
          by  the name of the previously examined file.  However,
          two consecutive percent signs are simply replaced  with
          a  single  percent  sign.  This  allows  you to enter a
          filename that contains a  percent  sign  in  the  name.
          Similarly,  two  consecutive  pound  signs are replaced
          with a single pound sign.   The  filename  is  inserted
          into  the  command line list of files so that it can be
          seen by subsequent :n and :p commands.  If the filename
          consists  of  several files, they are all inserted into
          the list of files and the first one  is  examined.   If
          the  filename  contains  one or more spaces, the entire
          filename should be enclosed in double quotes (also  see
          the -" option).

     ^X^V or E
          Same as :e.  Warning: some systems use ^V as a  special
          literalization character.  On such systems, you may not
          be able to use ^V.

     :n   Examine the next file (from the list of files given  in
          the  command line).  If a number N is specified, the N-
          th next file is examined.

     :p   Examine the previous file in the command line list.  If
          a  number  N  is  specified,  the N-th previous file is
          examined.

     :x   Examine the first file in the command line list.  If  a
          number  N  is  specified,  the N-th file in the list is
          examined.

     :d   Remove the current file from the list of files.

     t    Go to the next tag, if there were more than one matches
          for  the  current  tag.   See  the  -t  option for more
          details about tags.

     T    Go to the previous tag, if there  were  more  than  one
          matches for the current tag.

     = or ^G or :f
          Prints some information about the  file  being  viewed,
          including  its name and the line number and byte offset
          of the bottom line being displayed.   If  possible,  it
          also prints the length of the file, the number of lines
          in the file and the percent of the file above the  last
          displayed line.

     -    Followed by one of the command line option letters (see
          OPTIONS  below),  this  will change the setting of that
          option and print a message describing the new  setting.
          If  a  ^P  (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the
          dash, the setting of the option is changed but no  mes-
          sage  is  printed.   If the option letter has a numeric
          value (such as -b or -h), or a string value (such as -P
          or  -t),  a  new  value may be entered after the option
          letter.  If no new value is entered, a message describ-
          ing  the  current  setting  is  printed  and nothing is
          changed.

     --   Like the - command, but takes a long option  name  (see
          OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter.  You
          must press ENTER or  RETURN  after  typing  the  option
          name.    A   ^P   immediately  after  the  second  dash
          suppresses printing of a  message  describing  the  new
          setting, as in the - command.

     -+   Followed by one of the command line option letters this
          will  reset the option to its default setting and print
          a message describing the new setting.  (The "-+X"  com-
          mand does the same thing as "-+X" on the command line.)
          This does not work for string-valued options.

     --+  Like the -+ command,  but  takes  a  long  option  name
          rather than a single option letter.

     -!   Followed by one of the  command  line  option  letters,
          this  will  reset  the  option to the "opposite" of its
          default setting and print a message describing the  new
          setting.   This  does  not  work for numeric or string-
          valued options.

     --!  Like the -! command,  but  takes  a  long  option  name
          rather than a single option letter.

     _    (Underscore.)  Followed by  one  of  the  command  line
          option  letters,  this  will print a message describing
          the current setting of that option.  The setting of the
          option is not changed.

     __   (Double underscore.)  Like the _ (underscore)  command,
          but  takes  a  long  option  name  rather than a single
          option letter.  You must press ENTER  or  RETURN  after
          typing the option name.

     +cmd Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new
          file  is examined.  For example, +G causes less to ini-
          tially display each file starting  at  the  end  rather
          than the beginning.

     V    Prints the version number of less being run.

     q or Q or :q or :Q or ZZ
          Exits less.

     The following four commands may or may not be valid, depend-
     ing on your particular installation.

     v    Invokes an  editor  to  edit  the  current  file  being
          viewed.   The  editor  is  taken  from  the environment
          variable VISUAL if defined, or EDITOR if VISUAL is  not
          defined, or defaults to "vi" if neither VISUAL nor EDI-
          TOR is defined.  See also the  discussion  of  LESSEDIT
          under the section on PROMPTS below.

     ! shell-command
          Invokes a shell to run the shell-command given.  A per-
          cent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of
          the current file. A pound sign (#) is replaced  by  the
          name of the previously examined file.  "!!" repeats the
          last shell command.  "!" with no shell  command  simply
          invokes  a  shell.  On Unix systems, the shell is taken
          from the environment variable  SHELL,  or  defaults  to
          "sh".   On  MS-DOS  and  OS/2 systems, the shell is the
          normal command processor.

     | <m> shell-command
          <m> represents any mark letter.  Pipes a section of the
          input  file to the given shell command.  The section of
          the file to be piped is between the first line  on  the
          current  screen  and the position marked by the letter.
          <m> may also be ^ or $ to indicate beginning or end  of
          file respectively.  If <m> is . or newline, the current
          screen is piped.

     s filename
          Save the input to a file.  This only works if the input
          is a pipe, not an ordinary file.

Options
     Command line options are described below.  Most options  may
     be changed while less is running, via the "-" command.

     Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash
     followed  by  a  single  letter, or two dashes followed by a
     long option name.  A long option name may be abbreviated  as
     long  as  the  abbreviation  is  unambiguous.   For example,
     --quit-at-eof may be  abbreviated  --quit,  but  not  --qui,
     since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui.  Some
     long option names are in uppercase, such  as  --QUIT-AT-EOF,
     as distinct from --quit-at-eof.  Such option names need only
     have their first letter capitalized; the  remainder  of  the
     name  may  be in either case.  For example, --Quit-at-eof is
     equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF.

     Options are also taken from the environment variable "LESS".
     For  example,  to avoid typing "less -options ..." each time
     less is invoked, you might tell csh:

     setenv LESS "-options"

     or if you use sh:

     LESS="-options"; export LESS

     On MS-DOS, you don't need the quotes, but you should replace
     any  percent  signs  in the options string by double percent
     signs.

     The environment variable is parsed before the command  line,
     so  command line options override the LESS environment vari-
     able.  If an option appears in the LESS variable, it can  be
     reset  to its default value on the command line by beginning
     the command line option with "-+".

     Some options like -k or -D require a string  to  follow  the
     option  letter.  The string for that option is considered to
     end when a dollar sign ($) is found.  For example,  you  can
     set two -D options on MS-DOS like this:

     LESS="Dn9.1$Ds4.1"

     If  the  --use-backslash  option  appears  earlier  in   the
     options,  then  a  dollar  sign or backslash may be included
     literally in  an  option  string  by  preceding  it  with  a
     backslash.   If the --use-backslash option is not in effect,
     then backslashes are not treated specially, and there is  no
     way to include a dollar sign in the option string.

     -? or --help
          This option displays a summary of the commands accepted
          by less (the same as the h command).  (Depending on how
          your shell interprets the  question  mark,  it  may  be
          necessary to quote the question mark, thus: "-\?".)

     -a or --search-skip-screen
          By default, forward searches start at the  top  of  the
          displayed  screen  and  backwards searches start at the
          bottom of the displayed  screen  (except  for  repeated
          searches  invoked  by  the n or N commands, which start
          after or before the "target" line respectively; see the
          -j  option  for  more  about  the target line).  The -a
          option causes forward searches to instead start at  the
          bottom  of the screen and backward searches to start at
          the  top  of  the  screen,  thus  skipping  all   lines
          displayed on the screen.

     -A or --SEARCH-SKIP-SCREEN
          Causes all  forward  searches  (not  just  non-repeated
          searches)  to start just after the target line, and all
          backward searches to start just before the target line.
          Thus,  forward searches will skip part of the displayed
          screen (from the first line up  to  and  including  the
          target  line).   Similarly backwards searches will skip
          the displayed screen from  the  last  line  up  to  and
          including  the  target  line.   This  was  the  default
          behavior in less versions prior to 441.

     -bn or --buffers=n
          Specifies the amount of buffer space less will use  for
          each  file,  in  units  of  kilobytes (1024 bytes).  By
          default 64K of buffer  space  is  used  for  each  file
          (unless the file is a pipe; see the -B option).  The -b
          option specifies instead that  n  kilobytes  of  buffer
          space should be used for each file.  If n is -1, buffer
          space is unlimited; that is, the  entire  file  can  be
          read into memory.

     -B or --auto-buffers
          By default, when data is read from a pipe, buffers  are
          allocated  automatically  as needed.  If a large amount
          of data is read from the pipe, this can cause  a  large
          amount  of  memory to be allocated.  The -B option dis-
          ables this automatic allocation of buffers  for  pipes,
          so  that  only 64K (or the amount of space specified by
          the -b option) is used for the pipe.  Warning:  use  of
          -B can result in erroneous display, since only the most
          recently viewed part of  the  piped  data  is  kept  in
          memory; any earlier data is lost.

     -c or --clear-screen
          Causes full screen repaints to be painted from the  top
          line  down.   By default, full screen repaints are done
          by scrolling from the bottom of the screen.

     -C or --CLEAR-SCREEN
          Same as -c, for compatibility with  older  versions  of
          less.

     -d or --dumb
          The -d option suppresses  the  error  message  normally
          displayed  if the terminal is dumb; that is, lacks some
          important capability, such as the ability to clear  the
          screen or scroll backward.  The -d option does not oth-
          erwise change the behavior of less on a dumb terminal.

     -Dxcolor or --color=xcolor
          [MS-DOS only] Sets the color of the text displayed.   x
          is  a  single  character which selects the type of text
          whose color is being set: n=normal, s=standout, d=bold,
          u=underlined,  k=blink.   color  is  a  pair of numbers
          separated by a period. The  first  number  selects  the
          foreground  color and the second selects the background
          color of the text.  A single number N is  the  same  as
          N.M, where M is the normal background color.

     -e or --quit-at-eof
          Causes less to automatically exit the  second  time  it
          reaches  end-of-file.  By default, the only way to exit
          less is via the "q" command.

     -E or --QUIT-AT-EOF
          Causes less to automatically exit  the  first  time  it
          reaches end-of-file.

     -f or --force
          Forces non-regular files to be opened.  (A  non-regular
          file  is  a  directory or a device special file.)  Also
          suppresses the warning message when a  binary  file  is
          opened.   By  default,  less  will  refuse to open non-
          regular files.  Note that some operating  systems  will
          not allow directories to be read, even if -f is set.

     -F or --quit-if-one-screen
          Causes less to automatically exit if  the  entire  file
          can be displayed on the first screen.

     -g or --hilite-search
          Normally, less will highlight ALL strings  which  match
          the  last  search  command.  The -g option changes this
          behavior to highlight only the particular string  which
          was  found  by the last search command.  This can cause
          less to run somewhat faster than the default.

     -G or --HILITE-SEARCH
          The -G option suppresses all  highlighting  of  strings
          found by search commands.

     -hn or --max-back-scroll=n
          Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll backward.
          If  it  is  necessary  to  scroll  backward more than n
          lines, the screen is repainted in a  forward  direction
          instead.  (If the terminal does not have the ability to
          scroll backward, -h0 is implied.)

     -i or --ignore-case
          Causes searches to ignore case; that is, uppercase  and
          lowercase  are  considered  identical.   This option is
          ignored if any uppercase letters appear in  the  search
          pattern;  in  other words, if a pattern contains upper-
          case letters, then that search does not ignore case.

     -I or --IGNORE-CASE
          Like -i, but searches ignore case even if  the  pattern
          contains uppercase letters.

     -jn or --jump-target=n
          Specifies a line on the screen where the "target"  line
          is  to  be  positioned.   The  target  line is the line
          specified by any command to search for a pattern,  jump
          to  a line number, jump to a file percentage or jump to
          a tag.  The screen line may be specified by  a  number:
          the  top line on the screen is 1, the next is 2, and so
          on.  The number may be negative to specify a line rela-
          tive  to  the  bottom of the screen: the bottom line on
          the screen is -1, the second to the bottom is  -2,  and
          so  on.   Alternately, the screen line may be specified
          as a fraction of the height  of  the  screen,  starting
          with  a  decimal  point:  .5  is  in  the middle of the
          screen, .3 is three tenths down from  the  first  line,
          and so on.  If the line is specified as a fraction, the
          actual line number is recalculated if the terminal win-
          dow  is resized, so that the target line remains at the
          specified fraction of the screen height.  If  any  form
          of the -j option is used, forward searches begin at the
          line immediately after the target  line,  and  backward
          searches begin at the target line, unless changed by -a
          or -A.  For example, if "-j4" is used, the target  line
          is  the  fourth line on the screen, so forward searches
          begin at the fifth line on the screen.

     -J or --status-column
          Displays a status  column  at  the  left  edge  of  the
          screen.  The status column shows the lines that matched
          the current search.  The status column is also used  if
          the -w or -W option is in effect.

     -kfilename or --lesskey-file=filename
          Causes less to open and interpret the named file  as  a
          lesskey  (1)  file.   Multiple -k options may be speci-
          fied.  If the  LESSKEY  or  LESSKEY_SYSTEM  environment
          variable  is  set,  or  if a lesskey file is found in a
          standard place (see KEY BINDINGS), it is also used as a
          lesskey file.

     -K or --quit-on-intr
          Causes less to exit immediately (with status 2) when an
          interrupt  character  (usually ^C) is typed.  Normally,
          an interrupt character causes less to stop whatever  it
          is  doing  and return to its command prompt.  Note that
          use of this option makes it impossible to return to the
          command prompt from the "F" command.

     -L or --no-lessopen
          Ignore the LESSOPEN environment variable (see the INPUT
          PREPROCESSOR  section  below).   This option can be set
          from within less, but  it  will  apply  only  to  files
          opened subsequently, not to the file which is currently
          open.

     -m or --long-prompt
          Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more),  with  the
          percent into the file.  By default, less prompts with a
          colon.

     -M or --LONG-PROMPT
          Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more.

     -n or --line-numbers
          Suppresses line numbers.   The  default  (to  use  line
          numbers)  may  cause  less  to  run more slowly in some
          cases,  especially  with  a  very  large  input   file.
          Suppressing  line numbers with the -n option will avoid
          this problem.   Using  line  numbers  means:  the  line
          number  will  be displayed in the verbose prompt and in
          the = command, and the v command will pass the  current
          line  number  to the editor (see also the discussion of
          LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below).

     -N or --LINE-NUMBERS
          Causes a line number to be displayed at  the  beginning
          of each line in the display.

     -ofilename or --log-file=filename
          Causes less to copy its input to the named file  as  it
          is being viewed.  This applies only when the input file
          is a pipe, not an ordinary file.  If the  file  already
          exists, less will ask for confirmation before overwrit-
          ing it.

     -Ofilename or --LOG-FILE=filename
          The -O option is like -o,  but  it  will  overwrite  an
          existing file without asking for confirmation.

          If no log file  has  been  specified,  the  -o  and  -O
          options  can  be used from within less to specify a log
          file.  Without a file name, they will simply report the
          name of the log file.  The "s" command is equivalent to
          specifying -o from within less.

     -ppattern or --pattern=pattern
          The -p option on the  command  line  is  equivalent  to
          specifying  +/pattern;  that is, it tells less to start
          at the first occurrence of pattern in the file.

     -Pprompt or --prompt=prompt
          Provides a way to tailor the  three  prompt  styles  to
          your own preference.  This option would normally be put
          in the LESS environment  variable,  rather  than  being
          typed  in  with each less command.  Such an option must
          either be the last option in the LESS variable,  or  be
          terminated  by a dollar sign.  -Ps followed by a string
          changes the default (short) prompt to that string.  -Pm
          changes  the  medium (-m) prompt.  -PM changes the long
          (-M) prompt.  -Ph  changes  the  prompt  for  the  help
          screen.   -P= changes the message printed by the = com-
          mand.  -Pw changes the message  printed  while  waiting
          for  data  (in the F command).  All prompt strings con-
          sist of  a  sequence  of  letters  and  special  escape
          sequences.    See  the  section  on  PROMPTS  for  more
          details.

     -q or --quiet or --silent
          Causes moderately "quiet" operation:  the terminal bell
          is  not  rung  if an attempt is made to scroll past the
          end of the file or before the beginning  of  the  file.
          If  the  terminal  has  a  "visual  bell",  it  is used
          instead.  The  bell  will  be  rung  on  certain  other
          errors,  such  as  typing  an  invalid  character.  The
          default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases.

     -Q or --QUIET or --SILENT
          Causes totally "quiet" operation:  the terminal bell is
          never rung.

     -r or --raw-control-chars
          Causes "raw" control characters to be  displayed.   The
          default  is  to  display  control  characters using the
          caret notation; for example, a control-A (octal 001) is
          displayed  as  "^A".   Warning:  when  the -r option is
          used, less cannot keep track of the  actual  appearance
          of  the  screen  (since  this depends on how the screen
          responds to each type  of  control  character).   Thus,
          various display problems may result, such as long lines
          being split in the wrong place.

     -R or --RAW-CONTROL-CHARS
          Like -r, but only ANSI  "color"  escape  sequences  are
          output in "raw" form.  Unlike -r, the screen appearance
          is maintained correctly in most  cases.   ANSI  "color"
          escape sequences are sequences of the form:

               ESC [ ... m

          where the "..." is zero  or  more  color  specification
          characters  For  the purpose of keeping track of screen
          appearance, ANSI color escape sequences are assumed  to
          not  move  the  cursor.   You  can make less think that
          characters other than "m" can  end  ANSI  color  escape
          sequences  by  setting the environment variable LESSAN-
          SIENDCHARS to the list of characters which  can  end  a
          color  escape  sequence.   And  you can make less think
          that characters other than the standard ones may appear
          between  the  ESC  and the m by setting the environment
          variable LESSANSIMIDCHARS to  the  list  of  characters
          which can appear.

     -s or --squeeze-blank-lines
          Causes consecutive blank lines to be  squeezed  into  a
          single  blank  line.  This is useful when viewing nroff
          output.

     -S or --chop-long-lines
          Causes lines longer than the screen width to be chopped
          (truncated)  rather than wrapped.  That is, the portion
          of a long line that does not fit in the screen width is
          not shown.  The default is to wrap long lines; that is,
          display the remainder on the next line.

     -ttag or --tag=tag
          The -t option, followed immediately by a TAG, will edit
          the  file  containing  that tag.  For this to work, tag
          information must be available; for example,  there  may
          be a file in the current directory called "tags", which
          was previously built by ctags (1) or an equivalent com-
          mand.   If  the  environment variable LESSGLOBALTAGS is
          set, it is taken to be the name of a command compatible
          with  global  (1), and that command is executed to find
          the                     tag.           (See
          http://www.gnu.org/software/global/global.html).    The
          -t option may also be specified from within less (using
          the  -  command) as a way of examining a new file.  The
          command ":t" is equivalent to specifying -t from within
          less.

     -Ttagsfile or --tag-file=tagsfile
          Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags".

     -u or --underline-special
          Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as
          printable  characters;  that  is,  they are sent to the
          terminal when they appear in the input.

     -U or --UNDERLINE-SPECIAL
          Causes backspaces, tabs  and  carriage  returns  to  be
          treated  as  control characters; that is, they are han-
          dled as specified by the -r option.

          By default, if neither -u nor -U is  given,  backspaces
          which  appear  adjacent  to an underscore character are
          treated specially:  the underlined  text  is  displayed
          using  the  terminal's hardware underlining capability.
          Also, backspaces which  appear  between  two  identical
          characters  are  treated specially: the overstruck text
          is printed using the terminal's hardware boldface capa-
          bility.   Other  backspaces are deleted, along with the
          preceding character.  Carriage returns immediately fol-
          lowed by a newline are deleted.  Other carriage returns
          are handled as specified by the -r option.  Text  which
          is overstruck or underlined can be searched for if nei-
          ther -u nor -U is in effect.

     -V or --version
          Displays the version number of less.

     -w or --hilite-unread
          Temporarily highlights the first  "new"  line  after  a
          forward  movement of a full page.  The first "new" line
          is the line immediately following the  line  previously
          at  the bottom of the screen.  Also highlights the tar-
          get line after a g or  p  command.   The  highlight  is
          removed at the next command which causes movement.  The
          entire line is highlighted, unless the -J option is  in
          effect,  in  which  case  only  the  status  column  is
          highlighted.

     -W or --HILITE-UNREAD
          Like -w, but temporarily highlights the first new  line
          after  any  forward  movement  command  larger than one
          line.

     -xn,... or --tabs=n,...
          Sets tab stops.  If only one n is specified, tab  stops
          are   set  at  multiples  of  n.   If  multiple  values
          separated by commas are specified, tab stops are set at
          those  positions, and then continue with the same spac-
          ing as the last two.  For example, -x9,17 will set tabs
          at  positions 9, 17, 25, 33, etc.  The default for n is
          8.

     -X or --no-init
          Disables sending the termcap initialization and  deini-
          tialization strings to the terminal.  This is sometimes
          desirable if the deinitialization string does something
          unnecessary, like clearing the screen.

     -yn or --max-forw-scroll=n
          Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll  forward.
          If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines,
          the screen is repainted instead.  The -c or  -C  option
          may  be  used  to repaint from the top of the screen if
          desired.   By  default,  any  forward  movement  causes
          scrolling.

     -[z]n or --window=n
          Changes the default scrolling window size to  n  lines.
          The default is one screenful.  The z and w commands can
          also be used to change the window size.  The "z" may be
          omitted  for  compatibility with some versions of more.
          If the number n is negative, it indicates n lines  less
          than  the  current  screen  size.   For example, if the
          screen is 24 lines, -z-4 sets the scrolling  window  to
          20  lines.   If  the screen is resized to 40 lines, the
          scrolling window automatically changes to 36 lines.

     -cc or --quotes=cc
          Changes the filename quoting character.   This  may  be
          necessary  if  you are trying to name a file which con-
          tains both spaces and quote characters.  Followed by  a
          single  character,  this changes the quote character to
          that character.  Filenames containing  a  space  should
          then  be  surrounded  by  that character rather than by
          double quotes.  Followed by two characters, changes the
          open  quote to the first character, and the close quote
          to the second character.  Filenames containing a  space
          should then be preceded by the open quote character and
          followed by the close quote character.  Note that  even
          after  the  quote  characters  are changed, this option
          remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote).

     -~ or --tilde
          Normally lines after end of file  are  displayed  as  a
          single  tilde  (~).  This option causes lines after end
          of file to be displayed as blank lines.

     -# or --shift
          Specifies the default number  of  positions  to  scroll
          horizontally  in the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands.
          If the number specified is zero, it  sets  the  default
          number  of  positions  to one half of the screen width.
          Alternately, the number may be specified as a  fraction
          of  the  width  of  the screen, starting with a decimal
          point: .5 is half of the  screen  width,  .3  is  three
          tenths  of  the screen width, and so on.  If the number
          is specified as a fraction, the actual number of scroll
          positions  is  recalculated  if  the terminal window is
          resized, so that  the  actual  scroll  remains  at  the
          specified fraction of the screen width.

     --follow-name
          Normally, if the input file is renamed while an F  com-
          mand  is  executing,  less will continue to display the
          contents of the original file despite its name  change.
          If --follow-name is specified, during an F command less
          will periodically attempt to reopen the file  by  name.
          If the reopen succeeds and the file is a different file
          from the original (which means that a new file has been
          created  with  the  same  name  as  the  original  (now
          renamed) file), less will display the contents of  that
          new file.

     --no-keypad
          Disables sending the keypad initialization  and  deini-
          tialization strings to the terminal.  This is sometimes
          useful if the keypad strings make  the  numeric  keypad
          behave in an undesirable manner.

     --use-backslash
          This option  changes  the  interpretations  of  options
          which  follow  this  one.   After  the  --use-backslash
          option, any backslash in an option  string  is  removed
          and  the  following character is taken literally.  This
          allows a dollar sign to be included in option strings.

     --   A command line argument of "--" marks the end of option
          arguments.   Any  arguments  following  this are inter-
          preted as filenames.  This can be useful when viewing a
          file whose name begins with a "-" or "+".

     +    If a command line option begins with +,  the  remainder
          of  that  option  is  taken to be an initial command to
          less. For example, +G tells less to start at the end of
          the  file rather than the beginning, and +/xyz tells it
          to start at the first occurrence of "xyz" in the  file.
          As a special case, +<number> acts like +<number>g; that
          is, it starts the display at the specified line  number
          (however,  see the caveat under the "g" command above).
          If the option  starts  with  ++,  the  initial  command
          applies  to every file being viewed, not just the first
          one.  The + command described previously  may  also  be
          used  to  set  (or change) an initial command for every
          file.

Line Editing
     When entering command line at the bottom of the screen  (for
     example, a filename for the :e command, or the pattern for a
     search command), certain keys can be used to manipulate  the
     command  line.   Most  commands  have an alternate form in [
     brackets ] which can be used if a key does not  exist  on  a
     particular keyboard. (Note that the forms beginning with ESC
     do not work in some MS-DOS and Windows systems  because  ESC
     is the line erase character.)  Any of these special keys may
     be entered literally by  preceding  it  with  the  "literal"
     character,  either ^V or ^A.  A backslash itself may also be
     entered literally by entering two backslashes.

     LEFTARROW [ ESC-h ]
          Move the cursor one space to the left.

     RIGHTARROW [ ESC-l ]
          Move the cursor one space to the right.

     ^LEFTARROW [ ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW ]
          (That is, CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously.)   Move
          the cursor one word to the left.

     ^RIGHTARROW [ ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW ]
          (That is, CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously.)  Move
          the cursor one word to the right.

     HOME [ ESC-0 ]
          Move the cursor to the beginning of the line.

     END [ ESC-$ ]
          Move the cursor to the end of the line.

     BACKSPACE
          Delete the character to the left of the cursor, or can-
          cel the command if the command line is empty.

     DELETE or [ ESC-x ]
          Delete the character under the cursor.

     ^BACKSPACE [ ESC-BACKSPACE ]
          (That  is,  CONTROL  and   BACKSPACE   simultaneously.)
          Delete the word to the left of the cursor.

     ^DELETE [ ESC-X or ESC-DELETE ]
          (That is, CONTROL and DELETE  simultaneously.)   Delete
          the word under the cursor.

     UPARROW [ ESC-k ]
          Retrieve the previous command line.  If you first enter
          some  text and then press UPARROW, it will retrieve the
          previous command which begins with that text.

     DOWNARROW [ ESC-j ]
          Retrieve the next command line.   If  you  first  enter
          some  text  and  then press DOWNARROW, it will retrieve
          the next command which begins with that text.

     TAB  Complete the partial filename to the left of  the  cur-
          sor.   If  it matches more than one filename, the first
          match is entered into the command line.  Repeated  TABs
          will  cycle  thru the other matching filenames.  If the
          completed filename is a directory, a "/" is appended to
          the  filename.  (On MS-DOS systems, a "\" is appended.)
          The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR can be  used  to
          specify  a different character to append to a directory
          name.

     BACKTAB [ ESC-TAB ]
          Like, TAB, but cycles in the reverse direction thru the
          matching filenames.

     ^L   Complete the partial filename to the left of  the  cur-
          sor.  If it matches more than one filename, all matches
          are entered into the command line (if they fit).

     ^U (Unix and OS/2) or ESC (MS-DOS)
          Delete the entire command line, or cancel  the  command
          if the command line is empty.  If you have changed your
          line-kill character in Unix to something other than ^U,
          that character is used instead of ^U.

     ^G   Delete the entire command line and return to  the  main
          prompt.

Key Bindings
     You may define your own less commands by using  the  program
     lesskey (1) to create a lesskey file.  This file specifies a
     set of command keys and an action associated with each  key.
     You  may  also  use  lesskey to change the line-editing keys
     (see LINE EDITING), and to set  environment  variables.   If
     the  environment  variable LESSKEY is set, less uses that as
     the name of the lesskey file.  Otherwise, less  looks  in  a
     standard  place for the lesskey file:  On Unix systems, less
     looks for a lesskey file called  "$HOME/.less".   On  MS-DOS
     and  Windows  systems,  less looks for a lesskey file called
     "$HOME/_less", and if it is not found there, then looks  for
     a  lesskey file called "_less" in any directory specified in
     the PATH environment variable.  On OS/2 systems, less  looks
     for a lesskey file called "$HOME/less.ini", and if it is not
     found, then looks for a lesskey file  called  "less.ini"  in
     any  directory  specified  in the INIT environment variable,
     and if it not found there, then looks  for  a  lesskey  file
     called  "less.ini"  in  any  directory specified in the PATH
     environment variable.  See the lesskey manual page for  more
     details.

     A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key
     bindings.   If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file
     and in the system-wide file, key bindings in the local  file
     take  precedence over those in the system-wide file.  If the
     environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set, less  uses  that
     as  the  name  of  the system-wide lesskey file.  Otherwise,
     less looks in a standard place for the  system-wide  lesskey
     file:   On  Unix  systems,  the  system-wide lesskey file is
     /usr/local/etc/sysless.  (However, if less was built with  a
     different sysconf directory than /usr/local/etc, that direc-
     tory is where the sysless file is  found.)   On  MS-DOS  and
     Windows   systems,   the   system-wide   lesskey   file   is
     c:\_sysless.  On OS/2 systems, the system-wide lesskey  file
     is c:\sysless.ini.

Input Preprocessor
     You may define an "input preprocessor" for less. Before less
     opens  a  file,  it  first  gives  your input preprocessor a
     chance to modify the  way  the  contents  of  the  file  are
     displayed.   An  input  preprocessor is simply an executable
     program (or shell script), which writes the contents of  the
     file  to a different file, called the replacement file.  The
     contents of the replacement file are then displayed in place
     of  the  contents  of  the  original file.  However, it will
     appear to the user as if the original file is  opened;  that
     is,  less  will display the original filename as the name of
     the current file.

     An input preprocessor receives one  command  line  argument,
     the  original  filename,  as entered by the user.  It should
     create the replacement file, and when  finished,  print  the
     name of the replacement file to its standard output.  If the
     input preprocessor does not output a  replacement  filename,
     less  uses  the original file, as normal.  The input prepro-
     cessor is not called when viewing standard input.  To set up
     an input preprocessor, set the LESSOPEN environment variable
     to a command line which will invoke your input preprocessor.
     This  command  line  should  include  one  occurrence of the
     string "%s", which will be replaced by the filename when the
     input preprocessor command is invoked.

     When less closes a file opened in such a way, it  will  call
     another  program,  called the input postprocessor, which may
     perform any desired clean-up action (such  as  deleting  the
     replacement   file   created  by  LESSOPEN).   This  program
     receives two command line arguments, the  original  filename
     as  entered  by  the  user,  and the name of the replacement
     file.  To set up an input postprocessor, set  the  LESSCLOSE
     environment  variable  to  a  command line which will invoke
     your input postprocessor.  It may include two occurrences of
     the  string  "%s";  the  first is replaced with the original
     name of the file  and  the  second  with  the  name  of  the
     replacement file, which was output by LESSOPEN.

     For example, on many Unix systems, these  two  scripts  will
     allow  you to keep files in compressed format, but still let
     less view them directly:

     lessopen.sh:
          #! /bin/sh
          case "$1" in
          *.Z) uncompress -
               if [ -s /tmp/less.$$ ]; then
                    echo /tmp/less.$$
               else
                    rm -f /tmp/less.$$
               fi
               ;;
          esac

     lessclose.sh:
          #! /bin/sh
          rm $2

     To use these scripts, put them both where they can  be  exe-
     cuted     and     set     LESSOPEN="lessopen.sh %s",     and
     LESSCLOSE="lessclose.sh %s %s".  More complex  LESSOPEN  and
     LESSCLOSE  scripts  may  be written to accept other types of
     compressed files, and so on.

     It is also possible to set up an input preprocessor to  pipe
     the file data directly to less, rather than putting the data
     into a replacement file.  This avoids the need to decompress
     the  entire  file  before  starting  to  view  it.  An input
     preprocessor that works this way is called  an  input  pipe.
     An  input pipe, instead of writing the name of a replacement
     file on its standard output, writes the entire  contents  of
     the  replacement  file on its standard output.  If the input
     pipe does not write any characters on its  standard  output,
     then there is no replacement file and less uses the original
     file, as normal.  To use an input pipe, make the first char-
     acter  in  the  LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar
     (|) to signify that the input preprocessor is an input pipe.

     For example, on many Unix systems,  this  script  will  work
     like the previous example scripts:

     lesspipe.sh:
          #! /bin/sh
          case "$1" in
          *.Z) uncompress -c $1  2>/dev/null
          *)   exit 1
               ;;
          esac
          exit $?

     To use this script, put it where it can be executed and  set
     LESSOPEN="|lesspipe.sh %s".

     Note that a preprocessor cannot output an empty file,  since
     that  is interpreted as meaning there is no replacement, and
     the original file is  used.   To  avoid  this,  if  LESSOPEN
     starts with two vertical bars, the exit status of the script
     becomes meaningful.  If the exit status is zero, the  output
     is  considered to be replacement text, even if it empty.  If
     the exit status is nonzero, any output is  ignored  and  the
     original file is used.  For compatibility with previous ver-
     sions of less, if LESSOPEN starts  with  only  one  vertical
     bar, the exit status of the preprocessor is ignored.

     When an input pipe is used, a LESSCLOSE postprocessor can be
     used,  but  it  is  usually  not necessary since there is no
     replacement file to clean up.  In this case, the replacement
     file name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-".

     For compatibility with previous versions of less, the  input
     preprocessor or pipe is not used if less is viewing standard
     input. However, if the first character of LESSOPEN is a dash
     (-),  the  input  preprocessor  is used on standard input as
     well as other files.  In this case, the  dash  is  not  con-
     sidered to be part of the preprocessor command.  If standard
     input is being viewed, the input preprocessor  is  passed  a
     file  name  consisting  of a single dash.  Similarly, if the
     first two characters of LESSOPEN are vertical bar  and  dash
     (|-)  or  two vertical bars and a dash (||-), the input pipe
     is used on standard input as well as other files.  Again, in
     this case the dash is not considered to be part of the input
     pipe command.

National Character Sets
     There are three types of characters in the input file:

     normal characters
          can be displayed directly to the screen.

     control characters
          should not be displayed directly, but are  expected  to
          be  found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and
          tab).

     binary characters
          should not be displayed directly and are  not  expected
          to be found in text files.

     A "character set" is simply a description of  which  charac-
     ters  are to be considered normal, control, and binary.  The
     LESSCHARSET environment variable may be  used  to  select  a
     character set.  Possible values for LESSCHARSET are:

     ascii
          BS, TAB, NL, CR, and formfeed are  control  characters,
          all  chars  with  values between 32 and 126 are normal,
          and all others are binary.

     iso8859
          Selects an ISO 8859 character set.  This is the same as
          ASCII,  except  characters  between  160  and  255  are
          treated as normal characters.

     latin1
          Same as iso8859.

     latin9
          Same as iso8859.

     dos  Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS.

     ebcdic
          Selects an EBCDIC character set.

     IBM-1047
          Selects an EBCDIC character set  used  by  OS/390  Unix
          Services.   This is the EBCDIC analogue of latin1.  You
          get similar results by setting either  LESSCHARSET=IBM-
          1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environment.

     koi8-r
          Selects a Russian character set.

     next Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers.

     utf-8
          Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO  10646  character
          set.   UTF-8  is special in that it supports multi-byte
          characters in the input file.  It is the only character
          set that supports multi-byte characters.

     windows
          Selects a character set appropriate for Microsoft  Win-
          dows (cp 1251).

     In rare cases, it may be desired to tailor  less  to  use  a
     character  set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET.
     In this case, the environment variable  LESSCHARDEF  can  be
     used  to  define  a  character  set.   It should be set to a
     string where each character in  the  string  represents  one
     character  in  the character set.  The character "." is used
     for a normal character, "c" for control, and "b" for binary.
     A  decimal  number may be used for repetition.  For example,
     "bccc4b." would mean character 0 is binary, 1, 2 and  3  are
     control,  4,  5,  6  and 7 are binary, and 8 is normal.  All
     characters after the last are taken to be the  same  as  the
     last, so characters 9 through 255 would be normal.  (This is
     an example, and does  not  necessarily  represent  any  real
     character set.)

     This  table  shows  the  value  of  LESSCHARDEF   which   is
     equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET:

          ascii     8bcccbcc18b95.b
          dos       8bcccbcc12bc5b95.b.
          ebcdic    5bc6bcc7bcc41b.9b7.9b5.b..8b6.10b6.b9.7b
                    9.8b8.17b3.3b9.7b9.8b8.6b10.b.b.b.
          IBM-1047  4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc

                    191.b
          iso8859   8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
          koi8-r    8bcccbcc18b95.b128.
          latin1    8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
          next      8bcccbcc18b95.bb125.bb

     If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set,  but  any  of
     the  strings  "UTF-8", "UTF8", "utf-8" or "utf8" is found in
     the LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE or LANG environment variables, then the
     default character set is utf-8.

     If that string is not found, but your  system  supports  the
     setlocale  interface,  less  will use setlocale to determine
     the character set.  setlocale is controlled by  setting  the
     LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables.

     Finally, if the setlocale interface is also  not  available,
     the default character set is latin1.

     Control and binary  characters  are  displayed  in  standout
     (reverse  video).  Each such character is displayed in caret
     notation if possible (e.g. ^A for control-A).   Caret  nota-
     tion  is  used  only  if inverting the 0100 bit results in a
     normal printable character.   Otherwise,  the  character  is
     displayed  as  a  hex number in angle brackets.  This format
     can be changed by setting the LESSBINFMT  environment  vari-
     able.   LESSBINFMT may begin with a "*" and one character to
     select the display attribute:  "*k"  is  blinking,  "*d"  is
     bold, "*u" is underlined, "*s" is standout, and "*n" is nor-
     mal.  If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "*", normal attri-
     bute  is  assumed.   The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string
     which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % fol-
     lowed  by  x, X, o, d, etc.).  For example, if LESSBINFMT is
     "*u[%x]", binary characters are displayed in underlined hex-
     adecimal  surrounded  by  brackets.  The default if no LESS-
     BINFMT is specified is "*s<%02X>".  Warning: the  result  of
     expanding  the character via LESSBINFMT must be less than 31
     characters.

     When the character set is utf-8, the LESSUTFBINFMT  environ-
     ment variable acts similarly to LESSBINFMT but it applies to
     Unicode code points that were successfully decoded  but  are
     unsuitable  for display (e.g., unassigned code points).  Its
     default value is "<U+%04lX>".  Note that  LESSUTFBINFMT  and
     LESSBINFMT  share  their display attribute setting ("*x") so
     specifying one will affect both; LESSUTFBINFMT is read after
     LESSBINFMT so its setting, if any, will have priority. Prob-
     lematic octets in  a  UTF-8  file  (octets  of  a  truncated
     sequence,   octets  of  a  complete  but  non-shortest  form
     sequence, illegal octets, and  stray  trailing  octets)  are
     displayed  individually using LESSBINFMT so as to facilitate
     diagnostic of how the UTF-8 file is ill-formed.

Prompts
     The -P option allows  you  to  tailor  the  prompt  to  your
     preference.   The string given to the -P option replaces the
     specified prompt string.  Certain characters in  the  string
     are  interpreted  specially.  The prompt mechanism is rather
     complicated to provide flexibility, but  the  ordinary  user
     need not understand the details of constructing personalized
     prompt strings.

     A percent sign followed by a single  character  is  expanded
     according to what the following character is:

     %bX  Replaced by the byte  offset  into  the  current  input
          file.   The  b is followed by a single character (shown
          as X above) which specifies the line whose byte  offset
          is  to  be  used.   If the character is a "t", the byte
          offset of the top line in the display is used,  an  "m"
          means  use  the middle line, a "b" means use the bottom
          line, a "B" means use the line just  after  the  bottom
          line,  and a "j" means use the "target" line, as speci-
          fied by the -j option.

     %B   Replaced by the size of the current input file.

     %c   Replaced by the column number of the text appearing  in
          the first column of the screen.

     %dX  Replaced by the page number of  a  line  in  the  input
          file.   The  line to be used is determined by the X, as
          with the %b option.

     %D   Replaced by the number of pages in the input  file,  or
          equivalently,  the  page number of the last line in the
          input file.

     %E   Replaced by the name of the  editor  (from  the  VISUAL
          environment  variable,  or the EDITOR environment vari-
          able if VISUAL is not defined).  See the discussion  of
          the LESSEDIT feature below.

     %f   Replaced by the name of the current input file.

     %F   Replaced by the last  component  of  the  name  of  the
          current input file.

     %i   Replaced by the index of the current file in  the  list
          of input files.

     %lX  Replaced by the line number of  a  line  in  the  input
          file.   The  line to be used is determined by the X, as
          with the %b option.

     %L   Replaced by the line number of the  last  line  in  the
          input file.

     %m   Replaced by the total number of input files.

     %pX  Replaced by the percent into the  current  input  file,
          based  on byte offsets.  The line used is determined by
          the X as with the %b option.

     %PX  Replaced by the percent into the  current  input  file,
          based  on line numbers.  The line used is determined by
          the X as with the %b option.

     %s   Same as %B.

     %t   Causes any trailing spaces to be removed.  Usually used
          at the end of the string, but may appear anywhere.

     %x   Replaced by the name of the  next  input  file  in  the
          list.

     If any item is unknown (for example, the file size if  input
     is a pipe), a question mark is printed instead.

     The format of the prompt string can be changed depending  on
     certain  conditions.   A  question mark followed by a single
     character acts like an "IF":   depending  on  the  following
     character,  a  condition  is evaluated.  If the condition is
     true, any characters following the question mark and  condi-
     tion  character, up to a period, are included in the prompt.
     If the condition is false, such characters are not included.
     A  colon  appearing between the question mark and the period
     can be used to establish an "ELSE": any  characters  between
     the  colon  and the period are included in the string if and
     only if the IF condition  is  false.   Condition  characters
     (which follow a question mark) may be:

     ?a   True if any characters have been included in the prompt
          so far.

     ?bX  True if the byte offset of the specified line is known.

     ?B   True if the size of current input file is known.

     ?c   True if the text is horizontally  shifted  (%c  is  not
          zero).

     ?dX  True if the page number of the specified line is known.

     ?e   True if at end-of-file.

     ?f   True if there is an input filename (that is,  if  input

          is not a pipe).

     ?lX  True if the line number of the specified line is known.

     ?L   True if the line number of the last line in the file is
          known.

     ?m   True if there is more than one input file.

     ?n   True if this is the first prompt in a new input file.

     ?pX  True if the percent into the current input file,  based
          on byte offsets, of the specified line is known.

     ?PX  True if the percent into the current input file,  based
          on line numbers, of the specified line is known.

     ?s   Same as "?B".

     ?x   True if there is a next input file  (that  is,  if  the
          current input file is not the last one).

     Any characters other than the special ones  (question  mark,
     colon, period, percent, and backslash) become literally part
     of the  prompt.   Any  of  the  special  characters  may  be
     included  in  the  prompt  literally  by preceding it with a
     backslash.

     Some examples:

     ?f%f:Standard input.

     This prompt prints the filename,  if  known;  otherwise  the
     string "Standard input".

     ?f%f .?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-...

     This  prompt  would  print  the  filename,  if  known.   The
     filename is followed by the line number, if known, otherwise
     the percent if known, otherwise the byte  offset  if  known.
     Otherwise, a dash is printed.  Notice how each question mark
     has a matching period, and  how  the  %  after  the  %pt  is
     included literally by escaping it with a backslash.

     ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x..%t

     This prints the filename if this is the first  prompt  in  a
     file, followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more
     than one input file.  Then, if we are  at  end-of-file,  the
     string  "(END)"  is printed followed by the name of the next
     file, if there is one.  Finally,  any  trailing  spaces  are
     truncated.  This is the default prompt.  For reference, here
     are the defaults for  the  other  two  prompts  (-m  and  -M
     respectively).   Each is broken into two lines here for rea-
     dability only.

     ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:
          ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s...%t

     ?f%f .?n?m(file %i of %m) ..?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. :
          byte %bB?s/%s. .?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:?pB%pB\%..%t

     And here is the default message produced by the = command:

     ?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) .?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. .
          byte %bB?s/%s. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%..%t

     The prompt expansion features are also used for another pur-
     pose:  if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined, it is
     used as the command to be executed when  the  v  command  is
     invoked.  The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as
     the prompt strings.  The default value for LESSEDIT is:

          %E ?lm+%lm. %f

     Note that this expands to the editor name, followed by  a  +
     and  the  line  number,  followed by the file name.  If your
     editor does not accept  the  "+linenumber"  syntax,  or  has
     other  differences  in invocation syntax, the LESSEDIT vari-
     able can be changed to modify this default.

Security
     When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to  1,  less
     runs in a "secure" mode.  This means these features are dis-
     abled:

          !    the shell command

          |    the pipe command

          :e   the examine command.

          v    the editing command

          s  -o
               log files

          -k   use of lesskey files

          -t   use of tags files

               metacharacters in filenames, such as *
               filename completion (TAB, ^L)

     Less can also be compiled  to  be  permanently  in  "secure"
     mode.

Compatibility with More
     If the environment variable LESS_IS_MORE is set to 1, or  if
     the  program  is  invoked via a file link named "more", less
     behaves (mostly) in conformance with the POSIX  "more"  com-
     mand  specification.  In this mode, less behaves differently
     in these ways:

     The -e option works differently.  If the -e  option  is  not
     set,  less  behaves as if the -E option were set.  If the -e
     option is set, less behaves as if the -e and -F options were
     set.

     The -m option works differently.  If the -m  option  is  not
     set,  the medium prompt is used, and it is prefixed with the
     string "--More--".  If the  -m  option  is  set,  the  short
     prompt is used.

     The -n option acts like the -z option.  The normal  behavior
     of the -n option is unavailable in this mode.

     The parameter to the -p option is taken to be a less command
     rather than a search pattern.

     The LESS environment  variable  is  ignored,  and  the  MORE
     environment variable is used in its place.

Environment Variables
     Environment variables may be specified either in the  system
     environment as usual, or in a lesskey (1) file.  If environ-
     ment variables are defined in more than one place, variables
     defined  in  a local lesskey file take precedence over vari-
     ables defined in the system  environment,  which  take  pre-
     cedence  over  variables  defined in the system-wide lesskey
     file.

     COLUMNS
          Sets the number of columns on the screen.   Takes  pre-
          cedence  over  the  number  of columns specified by the
          TERM variable.  (But if you  have  a  windowing  system
          which  supports  TIOCGWINSZ  or  WIOCGETD,  the  window
          system's idea of the screen size takes precedence  over
          the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.)

     EDITOR
          The name of the editor (used for the v command).

     HOME Name of the user's home directory (used to find a less-
          key file on Unix and OS/2 systems).

     HOMEDRIVE, HOMEPATH
          Concatenation of the HOMEDRIVE and HOMEPATH environment
          variables  is  the name of the user's home directory if
          the HOME variable is not set (only in the Windows  ver-
          sion).

     INIT Name of the user's init directory (used to find a less-
          key file on OS/2 systems).

     LANG Language for determining the character set.

     LC_CTYPE
          Language for determining the character set.

     LESS Options which are passed to less automatically.

     LESSANSIENDCHARS
          Characters which may end an ANSI color escape  sequence
          (default "m").

     LESSANSIMIDCHARS
          Characters which may appear between the  ESC  character
          and  the end character in an ANSI color escape sequence
          (default "0123456789;[?!"'#%()*+ ".

     LESSBINFMT
          Format for displaying non-printable, non-control  char-
          acters.

     LESSCHARDEF
          Defines a character set.

     LESSCHARSET
          Selects a predefined character set.

     LESSCLOSE
          Command  line   to   invoke   the   (optional)   input-
          postprocessor.

     LESSECHO
          Name of the lessecho program (default "lessecho").  The
          lessecho  program  is  needed to expand metacharacters,
          such as * and ?, in filenames on Unix systems.

     LESSEDIT
          Editor prototype string (used for the v command).   See
          discussion under PROMPTS.

     LESSGLOBALTAGS

          Name of the command used by the -t option to find  glo-
          bal  tags.   Normally should be set to "global" if your
          system has the global (1) command.  If not set,  global
          tags are not used.

     LESSHISTFILE
          Name of the history file used to remember  search  com-
          mands  and  shell commands between invocations of less.
          If set to "-" or "/dev/null", a  history  file  is  not
          used.  The default is "$HOME/.lesshst" on Unix systems,
          "$HOME/_lesshst"  on  DOS  and  Windows   systems,   or
          "$HOME/lesshst.ini" or "$INIT/lesshst.ini" on OS/2 sys-
          tems.

     LESSHISTSIZE
          The maximum number of commands to save in  the  history
          file.  The default is 100.

     LESSKEY
          Name of the default lesskey(1) file.

     LESSKEY_SYSTEM
          Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file.

     LESSMETACHARS
          List of characters which  are  considered  "metacharac-
          ters" by the shell.

     LESSMETAESCAPE
          Prefix which less will add before each metacharacter in
          a  command  sent to the shell.  If LESSMETAESCAPE is an
          empty string, commands containing  metacharacters  will
          not be passed to the shell.

     LESSOPEN
          Command  line   to   invoke   the   (optional)   input-
          preprocessor.

     LESSSECURE
          Runs less in "secure" mode.  See discussion under SECU-
          RITY.

     LESSSEPARATOR
          String to be appended to a directory name  in  filename
          completion.

     LESSUTFBINFMT
          Format  for  displaying  non-printable   Unicode   code
          points.

     LESS_IS_MORE
          Emulate the more (1) command.

     LINES
          Sets the number of lines on  the  screen.   Takes  pre-
          cedence  over the number of lines specified by the TERM
          variable.  (But if you have a  windowing  system  which
          supports  TIOCGWINSZ  or  WIOCGETD, the window system's
          idea of the screen size takes precedence over the LINES
          and COLUMNS environment variables.)

     MORE Options which are passed  to  less  automatically  when
          running in more compatible mode.

     PATH User's search path (used to find a lesskey file on  MS-
          DOS and OS/2 systems).

     SHELL
          The shell used to execute the ! command, as well as  to
          expand filenames.

     TERM The type of terminal on which less is being run.

     VISUAL
          The name of the editor (used for the v command).

Attributes
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

     box; cbp-1 | cbp-1 l | l .  ATTRIBUTE TYPE ATTRIBUTE VALUE =
     Availability   text/less = Stability Volatile

See Also
     lesskey(1)

Copyright
     Copyright (C) 1984-2012  Mark Nudelman

     less is part of the GNU project and is free  software.   You
     can  redistribute  it  and/or  modify  it under the terms of
     either (1) the GNU General Public License  as  published  by
     the  Free Software Foundation; or (2) the Less License.  See
     the file README in the less distribution  for  more  details
     regarding  redistribution.   You should have received a copy
     of the GNU General Public License along with the source  for
     less;  see  the  file  COPYING.   If  not, write to the Free
     Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,  MA
     02111-1307,  USA.   You  should also have received a copy of
     the Less License; see the file LICENSE.
     less is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,  but
     WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A  PARTICULAR  PURPOSE.   See
     the GNU General Public License for more details.

Author
     Mark Nudelman
     Send bug reports or comments to <bug-less@gnu.org>
     See http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less/bugs.html for  the
     latest list of known bugs in less.
     For more information, see the less homepage at
     http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less.

Notes
     This  software  was   built   from   source   available   at
     https://java.net/projects/solaris-userland.    The  original
     community       source       was       downloaded       from
     http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less/less-458.tar.gz

     Further information about this software can be found on  the
     open        source        community        website        at
     http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less/.
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