getopt_long(3c) 맨 페이지 - 윈디하나의 솔라나라




     getopt_long, getopt_long_only, getopt_clip - parse long com-
     mand options

     #include <getopt.h>

     int getopt_long(int argc, char * const *argv, const char *shortopts,
          const struct option *longopts, int *indexptr);

     int getopt_long_only(int argc, char * const *argv, const char *shortopts,
          const struct option *longopts, int *indexptr);

     int getopt_clip(int argc, char * const *argv, const char *shortopts,
          const struct option *longopts, int *indexptr);

     extern char *optarg;

     extern int optind, opterr, optopt;

     These  functions  are  provided  as  a   porting   aid   for
     GNU/Freeware/OpenBSD  utilities.  The getopt_long() function
     is intended to be as closely compatible  with  the  GNU  and
     OpenBSD  implementations as possible, but since these public
     implementations differ in some corner cases, it is not  pos-
     sible  to be fully compatible with both. The differences are
     enumerated in the NOTES section.

     The getopt_long() function is an aid  for  implementing  the
     GNU  command line argument conventions. See the GNU documen-
     tation for the details of these conventions  (glibc  2.2.3).
     Note that the GNU conventions are not POSIX-conforming. Most
     notably, the GNU  conventions  allow  for  optional  option-
     arguments  and  do  not  enforce  that  operands must follow
     options on the command line.

     The getopt_clip() function provides an interface similar  to
     getopt_long() except that it implements the Sun CLIP conven-
     tion,  which  is  slightly   more   restrictive   than   the
     GNU/Freeware   conventions.   CLIP   is  modeled  after  the
     GNU/Freeware conventions but removes  POSIX  violations  and
     syntactic    ambiguities   (see   Intro(1)).   Specifically,
     getopt_clip() is a command line parser that can be  used  by
     applications that follow the Command Line Interface Paradigm
     or CLIP syntax guidelines 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 15, and  16.
     The  remaining guidelines are not addressed by getopt_clip()
     and are the responsibility of the application.

     The getopt_long() function is similar to  getopt(3C)  except
     that  it accepts options in two forms: words and characters,
     also referred to as long options and short options.

     The getopt_long() function can be used in two ways.  In  the
     first  way,  every  long option understood by the program is
     mapped to a single character that is usually a corresponding
     short option. The option structure is used only to translate
     from long options to short options. In  the  second  way,  a
     long  option  sets a flag specified in the option structure,
     or stores a pointer to the  command  line  argument  in  the
     address  passed to it for options that take arguments. These
     two methods apply individually to  each  long  option.  Both
     methods can be used in the same application.

     The getopt_long() function accepts command lines that inter-
     leave  options  and  operands.  The  getopt_long()  function
     reorders the elements of the argv argument  such  that  when
     all command line arguments have been processed, all operands
     follow options (and  their  option-arguments)  in  the  argv
     array  and  optind points to the first operand. The order of
     options relative to other options and operands  relative  to
     other  operands is maintained. The argument "--" is accepted
     as a delimiter indicating the end of  options.  No  argument
     reorder  occurs past this delimiter. Argument reordering can
     not  be  unambiguously   performed   in   all   cases.   The
     getopt_long()  function  depends  on  a  number  of internal
     heuristics to perform the  reordering.  The  argc  and  argv
     arguments  are  the  argument  count  and  argument array as
     passed to main() (see exec(2)).

     The shortopts argument contains the short-option  characters
     recognized by the command using these functions. If a letter
     is followed by a colon (:), the option is expected  to  have
     an option-argument that should be separated from it by white
     space. If a character is followed by two  colons  (::),  the
     option takes an optional option-argument. Any text after the
     option name it is returned in optarg; otherwise,  optarg  is
     set  to  0.  A  whitespace  character  can  never be used to
     separate an optional  option-argument  from  its  associated
     option.  If shortopts contains the character "W" followed by
     a semicolon (;), then -W foo is treated as the  long  option

     If the first character of the shortopts argument is the plus
     sign  (+), getopt_long() enforces the POSIX requirement that
     operands follow options on the command line by returning  -1
     and stopping argument processing upon encountering the first
     operand (or "--"). This behavior can also  be  specified  by
     setting the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT.

     A hyphen (-) as the first character of the  shortopts  argu-
     ment  specifies  that options and operands can be intermixed
     in argv but no argument reordering  is  performed.  Operands
     are  returned  as  arguments to option `\1', and option pro-
     cessing does not stop until "--"  or  the  end  of  argv  is

     If the first character of the shortopts  argument  (after  a
     potential  plus  or minus character) is a colon (:), a colon
     is returned by getopt_long() in response to a missing  argu-
     ment;  otherwise,  a  question mark (?) is returned for this

     The longopts argument describes the long options to  accept.
     It  is  an  array  of struct option structures, one for each
     long option. The array is terminated with  an  element  con-
     taining all zeros.

     The struct option structure contains the following members:

     const char *name
                         Contains a pointer to the  name  of  the

     int has_arg
                         Specifies whether the  option  takes  an
                         argument.  The  possible values, defined
                         in    <getopt.h>,    are    no_argument,
                         optional_argument,                 and

     int *flag
                         Contains the address of an int  variable
                         that  is  the  flag for this option. The
                         value contained in val is stored in this
                         location to indicate that the option was
                         seen. If flag is a  null  pointer,  then
                         the  value  contained in val is returned
                         when this option is encountered,  other-
                         wise zero is returned.

     int val
                         Contains the value to be stored  at  the
                         variable  pointed to by flag or returned
                         by  getopt_long()  if  flag  is  a  null

     For any long option, getopt_long() returns the index in  the
     array  longopts  of  the options definition by storing it in
     indexptr. The name of  the  option  can  be  retrieved  with
     longopts[(*indexptr)].name.   Long   options   can  be  dis-
     tinguished either by the values in their val members  or  by
     their  indices.  The  indexptr variable can also distinguish
     long options that set flags. The  value  of  indexptr  after
     encountering a short option is undefined.

     If an option has an argument, the optarg global variable  is
     set  to  point to the start of the option argument on return
     from getopt_long(); otherwise it is  set  to  null.  A  long
     option  can  take  an  argument  in  one  of  two  forms: --
     option=arg or --option arg. If the long option  argument  is
     optional,  only  the  "--option=arg"  form  can  be  used to
     specify the option argument. No argument is specified by the
     simple  form  "--option".  The form "--option=" specifies an
     empty string as the option argument.

     Long-option names can be abbreviated if the abbreviation  is
     unique  or  an exact match for some defined option. An exact
     match takes precedence over an abbreviated match.  Thus,  if
     foo and foobar are acceptable long-option names, then speci-
     fying --foo on the command line always matches  the  former.
     Specifying  --f or --fo would not be accepted as a match for

     The getopt_long() function places in optind the  argv  index
     of  the  next  argument  to  be processed. The optind global
     variable is external and is  initialized  to  1  before  the
     first call to getopt_long(). When all options have been pro-
     cessed (that is,  up  to  the  first  non-option  argument),
     getopt_long()  returns  -1.  The  special  option  "--" (two
     hyphens) can be used to delimit the end of the options; when
     it  is  encountered, -1 is returned and "-" is skipped. This
     ooption is useful in delimiting  non-option  arguments  that
     begin with "-" (hyphen).

     If getopt_long() encounters a short option  character  shor-
     topts  string or a long option not described in the longopts
     array, it returns the question mark (?) character.  It  also
     returns a question mark (?) character in response to a miss-
     ing option argument unless the first character of  shortopts
     is  a colon (:) (or the second character, if the first char-
     acter is either a plus (+) or a minus (-)), in which case it
     returns  a colon (:). In either case, if the application has
     not set opterr to 0 and the first character of shortopts  is
     not  a  colon (:), getopt_long() prints a diagnostic message
     to stderr.

     The  getopt_long_only()  function  is  equivalent   to   the
     getopt_long() function except that it allows the user of the
     application to pass long options with only a  single  hyphen
     (-)  instead  of  "--". The "--" prefix is still recognized.
     However,  when  a  single   hyphen   (-)   is   encountered,
     getopt_long_only() attempts to match this argument to a long
     option, including abbreviations of the  long  option.  If  a
     long  option  starts  with  the  same  character  as a short
     option, a single hyphen followed by that character  (and  no
     other  characters) will be recognized as a short option. Use
     of getopt_long_only() is strongly discouraged by Sun and GNU
     for new applications.

     The  behavior  of  getopt_clip()  differs   from   that   of
     getopt_long() in the following ways:

         o    The getopt_clip() function does not  perform  argu-
              ment  reordering. The getopt_clip() function always
              enforces the POSIX behavior that all options should
              precede operands on the command line. Specifically,
              getopt_clip()  does  not  reorder   arguments   but
              returns  -1  and stops processing upon encountering
              the first operand argument.

         o    The environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is ignored
              (the  getopt_clip()  function  behaves as though it
              were set.)

         o    The plus and minus characters do not have a special
              meaning  as  the  first  character of the shortopts
              argument. They are treated as any  other  character
              (other than the colon) would be treated.

         o    Optional  option-arguments  are  not  allowed.  The
              behavior of getopt_clip() when optional_argument is
              specified as the value of has_arg in  the  longopts
              argument or double colons are included in the shor-
              topts argument is unspecified.

         o    Long-option abbreviations are not recognized.

         o    Short options are required to  have  at  least  one
              long-option  equivalent. That is, each character in
              shortopts must appear as the val member in  one  or
              more option structures. Similarly, each long option
              must have a short option equivalent,  meaning  that
              the val member of each option structure must appear
              in the shortopts string.  If these requirements are
              not met, getopt_clip() returns -1 and sets errno to

Return Values
     For short options (other than -W when W; is  in  shortopts),
     these  functions  return the next option character specified
     on the command line. For long options, the value returned by
     these functions depends upon the value of the flag structure
     element for the identified option.  If  flag  is  NULL,  the
     value  contained  in  the val structure element for the long
     option encountered on the command line is returned.   Other-
     wise,  these  functions return 0 (and the value specified in
     the val member for the long option is stored into the  loca-
     tion  pointed to by flag). When W; is in shortopts and -W is
     encountered in the command line and the option  argument  to
     -W  matches  a long-option name, the return state from these
     functions is as if the long  option  had  been  encountered.
     However,  if  no  argument  is specified to the long option,
     optarg is set to the option argument of -W (the  long-option
     name  or  unique  prefix). If the option argument of -W does
     not match a long option (or unique prefix), the return state
     is as for any other short option.

     A colon (:) is returned if getopt_long() detects  a  missing
     argument  and the first character of shortopts (other than a
     possible initial "+" or "-") was a colon (':').

     A question mark (?) is returned if getopt_long()  encounters
     an  option  letter  not  included  in shortopts or detects a
     missing argument and the first character of shortopts (other
     than a possible initial "+" or "-") was not a colon (:).

     The getopt_clip() function expects all short options to have
     one  or  more long-option equivalent and all long options to
     have one short option equivalent (see NOTES for details). If
     proper  equivalents  are not found, getopt_clip() returns -1
     and sets errno to EINVAL.

     The getopt_clip() function will fail if:

               A short option does not have at  least  one  long-
               option  equivalent, or a long option does not have
               at least one short-option equivalent.

     Example 1 Example using getopt().

       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <getopt.h>

       /* Flag set by `--verbose'. */
       static int verbose_flag;

       main (int argc, char **argv)
         int c;

         while (1) {
           static struct option long_options[] = {
             /* These options set a flag. */
             {"verbose", no_argument, &verbose_flag, 1},
             {"brief",   no_argument, &verbose_flag, 0},
             /* The following options don't set a flag. */
             {"add",     no_argument, NULL, `a'},
             {"append",  no_argument, NULL, `b'},
             {"delete",  required_argument, NULL, `d'},
             {"create",  required_argument, NULL, `c'},
             {"file",    required_argument, NULL, `f'},
             {0, 0, 0, 0}
           /* getopt_long stores the option index here. */
           int option_index = 0;

           c = getopt_long (argc, argv, "abc:d:f:",
                            long_options, &option_index);

           /* Detect the end of the options. */
           if (c == -1)

           switch (c) {
             case 0:
               /* (In this example) only options which set */
               /* a flag return zero, so do nothing. */

             case `a':
               puts ("option --add (-a)\n");

             case `b':
               puts ("option --append (-b)\n");

             case `c':
               printf ("option --create (-c) with value `%s'\n", optarg);

             case `d':
               printf ("option --delete (-d) with value `%s'\n", optarg);

             case `f':
               printf ("option --file (-f) with value `%s'\n", optarg);

             case `?':
               /* getopt_long already printed an error message. */

               abort ();

         /* Instead of reporting `--verbose'
            and `--brief' as they are encountered,
            we report the final status resulting from them. */
         if (verbose_flag)
           puts ("verbose flag is set");

         /* Print any remaining command line arguments (not options). */
         if (optind < argc) {
             printf ("non-option ARGV-elements: ");
             while (optind < argc)
               printf ("%s ", argv[optind++]);
             putchar ('\n');

         exit (0);

Environment Variables
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that affect the execution of getopt_long(): LANG,

                        When set (and the first character of  the
                        shortopts  argument  is neither a plus or
                        minus sign),  the  POSIX  rule  that  all
                        operands   must  follow  all  options  is
                        enforced.  Option  processing  terminates
                        when  the  first  operand is encountered.
                        The getopt_clip()  function  ignores  the
                        setting  of  POSIXLY_CORRECT  and  always
                        behaves as if it were set.

                        Determine the locale for the  interpreta-
                        tion  of sequences of bytes as characters
                        in  shortopts  and  the   longopts[].name
                        structure members.

     The getopt_long() function does not fully check  for  manda-
     tory  arguments because there is no unambiguous algorithm to
     do so. Given an option string  a:b  and  the  input  -a  -b,
     getopt_long()  assumes  that -b is the mandatory argument to
     the -a option and not that -a is missing a  mandatory  argu-
     ment. Indeed, the only time a missing option argument can be
     reliably detected is when the option is the final option  on
     the  command  line  and is not followed by any command argu-

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

     tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)  ATTRI-
     BUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  _ Interface StabilityCommitted _

See Also
     Intro(1),     getopts(1),     getopt(3C),     getsubopt(3C),
     gettext(3C), setlocale(3C), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)

     Use of getopt_long() is discouraged  for  applications  tar-
     geted  strictly  for  Solaris.  It  should  be used only for
     applications targeted at Solaris and platforms  that  adhere
     to  the GNU command line conventions. The getopt_long_only()
     function is provided by Solaris and GNU for legacy  applica-
     tions  and  its  use  is discouraged by both current conven-

     The differences between the Solaris/GNU and OpenBSD versions
     of these functions are as follows:

         o    The handling of the hyphen (-) as the first charac-
              ter  of  the  option  string  in  presence  of  the
              environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT:

                             Operands are returned  as  arguments
                             to  option `\1', and option process-
                             ing does not stop until "--" or  the
                             end of argv is found.

                             obeys POSIXLY_CORRECT and  stops  at
                             the first non-option.

         o    The handling of the hyphen (-) within the shortopts
              parameter string when not the first character.

                             treats a single hyphen  (-)  on  the
                             command line as an operand.

                             treats a single hyphen  (-)  on  the
                             command   line  as  an  option.  BSD
                             recognizes    this    behavior    as
                             incorrect, but maintains it for com-

         o    The return value in the event of a missing argument
              if  the  first  character  after  "+" or "-" in the
              option string is not a colon (:)

                             returns "?".

                             returns ":" (since OpenBSD's  getopt

         o    The setting optopt for long options  with  flag  !=

                             sets optopt to val.

                             sets optopt to 0  (since  val  would
                             never be returned).

         o    The setting of optarg for long options  without  an
              argument  that  are  invoked  with -W (W; in option

                             sets optarg to the option name  (the
                             argument of -W).

                             sets optarg to NULL (the argument of
                             the long option).

         o    The  handling of -W with an argument that is not (a
              prefix  to)  a  known  long  option  (W;  in option

                             returns `W' with optarg set  to  the
                             unknown option.

                             treats as an  error (unknown option)
                             and returns "?" with optopt set to 0
                             and optarg set to NULL.

         o    The error messages are different (all).

         o    The implementations do  not  permute  the  argument
              vector  at the same points in the calling sequence.
              The aspects normally used by the  caller  (ordering
              after  -1  is returned, value of optind relative to
              current  positions)  are  the  same.   Applications
              should not depend upon the ordering of the argument
              vector before -1 is returned.
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