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fsck(1m)

Name
     fsck - check and repair file systems

Synopsis
     fsck [-F FSType] [-m] [-V] [-v] [special]...


     fsck [-F FSType] [-n | N | y | Y] [-V] [-v]
          [-o FSType-specific-options] [special]...

Description
     fsck audits and interactively repairs inconsistent file sys-
     tem  conditions.  If  the  file  system  is inconsistent the
     default action for each correction is to wait for  the  user
     to  respond  yes or no. If the user does not have write per-
     mission fsck  defaults  to  a  no  action.  Some  corrective
     actions will result in loss of data. The amount and severity
     of data loss can be determined from the diagnostic output.


     FSType-specific-options are options specified  in  a  comma-
     separated  (with  no  intervening spaces) list of options or
     keyword-attribute pairs for interpretation  by  the  FSType-
     specific module of the command.


     special represents the character special device on which the
     file  system resides, for example, /dev/rdsk/c1t0d0s7. Note:
     the character special device, not the block special  device,
     should  be  used.  fsck will not work if the block device is
     mounted.


     If no special device is specified fsck checks the file  sys-
     tems  listed  in  /etc/vfstab.  Those entries in /etc/vfstab
     which have a character special device entry in  the  fsckdev
     field  and  have  a  non-zero  numeric entry in the fsckpass
     field will be checked. Specifying -F FSType limits the  file
     systems to be checked to those of the type indicated.


     If special is specified, but -F is not, the file system type
     will  be  determined  by  looking  for  a  matching entry in
     /etc/vfstab. If no entry is found, the  default  local  file
     system type specified in /etc/default/fs will be used.


     If a file system type supports parallel checking, for  exam-
     ple,  ufs,  some  file  systems eligible for checking may be
     checked in parallel. Consult the  file  system-specific  man
     page (for example, fsck_ufs(1M)) for more information.

Options
     The following generic options are supported:

     -F FSType
         Specify the file system type on which to operate.


     -m
         Check but do not repair. This  option  checks  that  the
         file  system  is  suitable  for  mounting, returning the
         appropriate exit status. If the file system is ready for
         mounting, fsck displays a message such as:

           ufs fsck: sanity check: /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s1 okay




     -n | -N
         Assume a no response to all questions asked by fsck;  do
         not open the file system for writing.


     -V
         Echo the expanded command line but do  not  execute  the
         command.  This option may be used to verify and to vali-
         date the command line.


     -v
         Enables verbose output. Might not be  supported  by  all
         filesystem-specific fsck implementations.


     -y | Y
         Assume a yes response to all questions asked by fsck.


     -o specific-options
         These specific-options can be  any  combination  of  the
         following  separated  by  commas  (with  no  intervening
         spaces).

         b=n
             Use block n as the super block for the file  system.
             Block  32  is  always  one  of  the  alternate super
             blocks. Determine the location of other super blocks
             by running newfs(1M) with the -Nv options specified.

         c
             If the file system is in the old (static table) for-
             mat,  convert  it to the new (dynamic table) format.
             If the file system is in the new format, convert  it
             to  the  old format provided the old format can sup-
             port the file system configuration.  In  interactive
             mode, fsck will list the direction the conversion is
             to be made and ask whether the conversion should  be
             done.  If  a  negative  answer  is given, no further
             operations are done on the  file  system.  In  preen
             mode,  the direction of the conversion is listed and
             done if possible without user  interaction.  Conver-
             sion  in  preen  mode is best used when all the file
             systems are being converted at once. The format of a
             file system can be determined from the first line of
             output from fstyp(1M). Note: the c option is  seldom
             used  and  is  included  only for compatibility with
             pre-4.1 releases. There is no  guarantee  that  this
             option will be included in future releases.


         f
             Force checking of file  systems  regardless  of  the
             state of their super block clean flag.


         p
             Check and  fix  the  file  system  non-interactively
             ("preen").  Exit  immediately  if there is a problem
             requiring intervention. This option is  required  to
             enable parallel file system checking.


         w
             Check writable file systems only.

Exit Status
     0
         file system is unmounted and OK


     1
         erroneous parameters are specified


     32
         file system is unmounted and  needs  checking  (fsck  -m
         only)


     33
         file system is already mounted


     34
         cannot stat device


     35
         a filesystem that is mounted read/write was  modified  -
         reboot


     36
         uncorrectable errors detected - terminate normally


     37
         a signal was caught during processing


     39
         uncorrectable errors detected - terminate immediately


     40
         file system is mounted read-only and is OK

Usage
     The fsck command is large file aware for UFS  file  systems,
     per the largefile(5) man page.

Files
     /etc/default/fs
         default local file system type. Default  values  can  be
         set  for  the  following  flags  in /etc/default/fs. For
         example: LOCAL=ufs.

         LOCAL
             The default partition for a command if no FSType  is
             specified.

     /etc/vfstab
         list of default parameters for each file system

Attributes
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:



     tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)  ATTRI-
     BUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  _  Availabilitysystem/core-os  _
     Interface StabilityCommitted

See Also
     clri(1M),    fsck_ufs(1M),    fsdb_ufs(1M),     fsirand(1M),
     fstyp(1M),  mkfs(1M), mkfs_ufs(1M), mountall(1M), newfs(1M),
     reboot(1M), vfstab(4), attributes(5), largefile(5), ufs(7FS)

Warnings
     The operating system buffers file system data. Running  fsck
     on  a  mounted  file system can cause the operating system's
     buffers to become out of date with respect to the disk.  For
     this  reason,  the file system should be unmounted when fsck
     is used. If this is not possible, care should be taken  that
     the  system is quiescent and that it is rebooted immediately
     after fsck is run. Quite often, however, this  will  not  be
     sufficient. A panic will probably occur if running fsck on a
     file system modifies the file system.

Notes
     This command may not be supported for all FSTypes.


     Starting with Solaris 9,  fsck  manages  extended  attribute
     data  on  the  disk.  (See  fsattr(5)  for  a description of
     extended file  attributes.)  A  file  system  with  extended
     attributes  can  be  mounted on versions of Solaris that are
     not attribute-aware (versions prior to Solaris 9),  but  the
     attributes  will  not be accessible and fsck will strip them
     from the files and place them in lost+found. Once the attri-
     butes  have  been  stripped,  the  file system is completely
     stable on versions of Solaris that are not  attribute-aware,
     but  would  be  considered corrupted on attribute-aware ver-
     sions. In the latter circumstance, run  the  attribute-aware
     fsck  to  stabilize  the  file  system before using it in an
     attribute-aware environment.
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