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cat(1)

cat(1)                           User Commands                          cat(1)



NAME
       cat - concatenate and display files

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/cat [-nbsuvet] [file...]


DESCRIPTION
       The  cat utility reads each file in sequence and writes it on the stan‐
       dard output. Thus:

         example% cat file




       prints file on your terminal, and:

         example% cat file1 file2 >file3




       concatenates file1 and file2, and writes the results in  file3.  If  no
       input file is given, cat reads from the standard input file.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported by /usr/bin/cat:

       -b    Number  the  lines,  as  -n, but omit the line numbers from blank
             lines.


       -n    Precede each line output with its line number.


       -s    cat is silent about non-existent files.


       -u    The output is not buffered.

             Buffered output is the default.


       -v    Non-printing characters, with the exception of tabs, NEWLINEs and
             form  feeds, are printed visibly. ASCII control characters (octal
             000 − 037) are printed as ^n, where n is the corresponding  ASCII
             character  in the range octal 100 − 137 (@, A, B, C, . . ., X, Y,
             Z, [, \, ], ^, and _); the DEL character (octal 0177) is  printed
             ^?. Other non-printable characters are printed as M-x, where x is
             the ASCII character specified by the low-order seven bits.



       When used with the -v option, the following options can be used:

       -e    A $ character is printed at the end of each line,  prior  to  the
             NEWLINE.


       -t    Tabs are printed as ^Is and form feeds to be printed as ^Ls.



       The -e and -t options are ignored if the -v option is not specified.

OPERANDS
       The following operand is supported:

       file    A  path  name  of  an  input file. If no file is specified, the
               standard input is used. If file is −, cat reads from the  stan‐
               dard  input  at  that point in the sequence. cat does not close
               and reopen standard input when it is referenced  in  this  way,
               but accepts multiple occurrences of − as file.


USAGE
       See  largefile(5)  for  the  description  of  the  behavior of cat when
       encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (2^31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Concatenating a File


       The following command writes the contents of the file myfile  to  stan‐
       dard output:


         example% cat myfile



       Example 2 Concatenating Two files into One


       The  following  command concatenates the files doc1 and doc2 and writes
       the result to doc.all.


         example% cat doc1 doc2 > doc.all



       Example 3 Concatenating Two Arbitrary Pieces of  Input  with  a  Single
       Invocation


       When standard input is a terminal, the following command gets two arbi‐
       trary pieces of input from the terminal with  a  single  invocation  of
       cat:


         example% cat start - middle - end > file




       when  standard  input is a terminal, gets two arbitrary pieces of input
       from the terminal with a single invocation of cat.



       If standard input is a regular file,


         example% cat start - middle - end > file




       would be equivalent to the following command:


         cat start - middle /dev/null end > file




       because the entire contents of the file would be consumed  by  cat  the
       first  time  −  was used as a file operand and an end-of-file condition
       would be detected immediately when −was referenced the second time.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect the execution of cat: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     All input files were output successfully.


       >0    An error occurred.


ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:




       tab()  box;  cw(2.75i)  |cw(2.75i)  lw(2.75i)   |lw(2.75i)   ATTRIBUTE
       TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  _  Availabilitysystem/core-os  _  CSIEnabled _
       Interface StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee standards(5).


SEE ALSO
       touch(1), attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5), standards(5)

NOTES
       Redirecting the output of cat onto one of the files being  read  causes
       the loss of the data originally in the file being read. For example,

         example% cat filename1 filename2 > filename1




       causes the original data in filename1 to be lost.



SunOS 5.11                        25 Jul 2011                           cat(1)
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