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cat

Name
     cat - concatenate and display files

Synopsis
     /usr/bin/cat [-nbsuvet] [file...]

Description
     The cat utility reads each file in sequence and writes it on
     the standard output. Thus:

       example% cat file




     prints file on your terminal, and:

       example% cat file1 file2 >file3




     concatenates file1 and file2,  and  writes  the  results  in
     file3.  If  no input file is given, cat reads from the stan-
     dard input file.

Options
     The following options are supported by /usr/bin/cat:

     -b
           Number the lines, as -n, but  omit  the  line  numbers
           from blank lines.


     -n
           Precede each line output with its line number.


     -s
           cat is silent about non-existent files.


     -u
           The output is not buffered.

           Buffered output is the default.


     -v
           Non-printing characters, with the exception  of  tabs,
           NEWLINEs  and  form  feeds, are printed visibly. ASCII
           control characters (octal 000 - 037)  are  printed  as
           ^n,  where  n  is the corresponding ASCII character in
           the range octal 100 - 137 (@, A, B, C, . . ., X, Y, Z,
           [,  \, ], ^, and _); the DEL character (octal 0177) is
           printed ^?. Other non-printable characters are printed
           as  M-x,  where  x is the ASCII character specified by
           the low-order seven bits.



     When used with the -v option, the following options  can  be
     used:

     -e
           A $ character is printed at  the  end  of  each  line,
           prior to the NEWLINE.


     -t
           Tabs are printed as ^Is and form feeds to  be  printed
           as ^Ls.



     The -e and -t options are ignored if the -v  option  is  not
     specified.

Operands
     The following operand is supported:

     file
             A path name of an input file. If no file  is  speci-
             fied,  the standard input is used. If file is -, cat
             reads from the standard input at that point  in  the
             sequence.  cat  does  not  close and reopen standard
             input when it is referenced in this way, but accepts
             multiple occurrences of - as file.

Usage
     See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of  cat
     when  encountering  files  greater  than or equal to 2 Gbyte
     (2^31 bytes).

Examples
     Example 1 Concatenating a File


     The following command writes the contents of the file myfile
     to standard output:


       example% cat myfile



     Example 2 Concatenating Two files into One

     The following command concatenates the files doc1  and  doc2
     and writes the result to doc.all.


       example% cat doc1 doc2 > doc.all



     Example 3 Concatenating Two Arbitrary Pieces of Input with a
     Single Invocation


     When standard input is a  terminal,  the  following  command
     gets  two arbitrary pieces of input from the terminal with a
     single invocation of cat:


       example% cat start - middle - end > file




     when standard input is a terminal, gets two arbitrary pieces
     of input from the terminal with a single invocation of cat.



     If standard input is a regular file,


       example% cat start - middle - end > file




     would be equivalent to the following command:


       cat start - middle /dev/null end > file




     because the entire contents of the file would be consumed by
     cat  the first time - was used as a file operand and an end-
     of-file condition would be detected  immediately  when  -was
     referenced the second time.

Environment Variables
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the execution of cat: LANG, LC_ALL,

     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

Exit Status
     The following exit values are returned:

     0
           All input files were output successfully.


     >0
           An error occurred.

Attributes
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:



     tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)  ATTRI-
     BUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  _  Availabilitysystem/core-os  _
     CSIEnabled  _  Interface  StabilityCommitted  _  StandardSee
     standards(5).

See Also
     touch(1),  attributes(5),  environ(5),  largefile(5),  standards(5)

Notes
     Redirecting the output of cat onto one of  the  files  being
     read  causes  the  loss  of  the data originally in the file
     being read. For example,

       example% cat filename1 filename2 > filename1




     causes the original data in filename1 to be lost.
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