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cat(1)                           User Commands                          cat(1)

       cat - concatenate and display files

       /usr/bin/cat [-nbsuvet] [file...]

       The  cat utility reads each file in sequence and writes its contents on
       the standard output. Thus:

         example% cat file

       prints the contents of file on your terminal, and:

         example% cat file1 file2 >file3

       concatenates file1 and file2, and writes the results in  file3.  If  no
       input file is given, cat reads from the standard input stream.

       The following options are supported by /usr/bin/cat:

       -b    Number  the  lines,  as  -n, but omit the line numbers from blank

       -n    Precede each line output with its line number.

       -s    cat is silent about non-existent files.

       -u    The output is not buffered.

             Buffered output is the default.

       -v    Non-printing characters, with the exception of tabs, NEWLINEs and
             form  feeds, are printed visibly. ASCII control characters (octal
             000 - 037) are printed as ^n, where n is the corresponding  ASCII
             character  in the range octal 100 - 137 (@, A, B, C, . . ., X, Y,
             Z, [, \, ], ^, and _); the DEL character (octal 0177) is  printed
             ^?. Other non-printable characters are printed as M-x, where x is
             the ASCII character specified by the low-order seven bits.

       When used with the -v option, the following options can be used:

       -e    A $ character is printed at the end of each line,  prior  to  the

       -t    Tabs are printed as ^Is and form feeds to be printed as ^Ls.

       The -e and -t options are ignored if the -v option is not specified.

       The following operand is supported:

       file    A  path  name  of  an  input file. If no file is specified, the
               standard input is used. If file is −, cat reads from the  stan‐
               dard  input  at  that point in the sequence. cat does not close
               and reopen standard input when it is referenced  in  this  way,
               but accepts multiple occurrences of − as file.

       Example 1 Concatenating a File

       The  following  command writes the contents of the file myfile to stan‐
       dard output:

         example% cat myfile

       Example 2 Concatenating Two files into One

       The following command concatenates the files doc1 and doc2  and  writes
       the result to doc.all.

         example% cat doc1 doc2 > doc.all

       Example  3  Concatenating  Two  Arbitrary Pieces of Input with a Single

       When standard input is a terminal, the following command gets two arbi‐
       trary  pieces  of  input  from the terminal with a single invocation of

         example% cat start - middle - end > file

       However, if standard input is a regular file, the above  command  would
       be equivalent to the following command:

         example% cat start - middle /dev/null end > file

       because  the  entire  contents of the file would be consumed by cat the
       first time − was used as a file operand and  an  end-of-file  condition
       would be detected immediately when − was referenced the second time.

       See  environ(7) for descriptions of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of cat: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE,  LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

       The following exit values are returned:

       0      All input files were output successfully.

       > 0    An error occurred.

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()  box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i) ATTRIBUTE TYPEAT‐
       TRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os  _  CSIEnabled  _  Interface
       StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee standards(7).

       tac(1), touch(1), attributes(7), environ(7), standards(7)

       Redirecting  the  output of cat onto one of the files being read causes
       the loss of the data originally in the file being read. For example,

         example% cat filename1 filename2 > filename1

       causes the original data in filename1 to be lost.

Oracle Solaris 11.4               19 Sep 2020                           cat(1)
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