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ar(1)

Name
     ar - maintain portable archive or library

Synopsis
     /usr/bin/ar -d [-SVv] archive file...


     /usr/bin/ar -m [-abiSVv] [posname] archive file...


     /usr/bin/ar -p [-SsVv] archive [file]...


     /usr/bin/ar -q [-cSVv] archive file...


     /usr/bin/ar -r [-abciuSVv] [posname] archive file...


     /usr/bin/ar -t [-SsVv] archive [file]...


     /usr/bin/ar -x [-CSsTVv] archive [file]...


     /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -d [-SVv] archive file...


     /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -m [-abiSVv] [posname] archive file...


     /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -p [-SsVv] archive [file]...


     /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -q [-cSVv] archive file...


     /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -r [-abciuSVv] [posname] archive file...


     /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -t [-SsVv] archive [file]...


     /usr/xpg4/bin/ar -x [-CSsTVv] archive [file]...

Description
     The ar utility maintains groups of  files  combined  into  a
     single  archive  file.  Its main use is to create and update
     library files. However, it can be used for any similar  pur-
     pose.  The magic string and the file headers used by ar con-
     sist  of  printable  ASCII  characters.  If  an  archive  is
     composed  of  printable  files, the entire archive is print-
     able.


     When ar creates an archive, it creates headers in  a  format
     that  is  portable across all machines. The portable archive
     format and structure are described in detail in ar.h(3HEAD).
     The archive symbol table described there is used by the link
     editor ld(1) to effect multiple  passes  over  libraries  of
     object files in an efficient manner. An archive symbol table
     is only created and maintained by ar when there is at  least
     one  object file in the archive. The archive symbol table is
     in a specially named file that is always the first  file  in
     the  archive.  This file is never mentioned or accessible to
     the user. Whenever the ar  command  is  used  to  create  or
     update  the contents of such an archive, the symbol table is
     rebuilt. The -s option described  below  forces  the  symbol
     table to be rebuilt.

Options
     The following options are supported:

     -a
         Positions new files in archive after the file  named  by
         the posname operand.


     -b
         Positions new files in archive before the file named  by
         the posname operand.


     -c
         Suppresses the diagnostic message  that  is  written  to
         standard error by default when archive is created.


     -C
         Prevents extracted files from replacing like-named files
         in  the  file  system.  This option is useful when -T is
         also used to prevent truncated file names from replacing
         files with the same prefix.


     -d
         Deletes one or more files from archive.

     -i
         Positions new files in archive before the file named  by
         the posname operand. This option is equivalent to -b.


     -m
         Moves files. If -a, -b, or -i with the  posname  operand
         are  specified,  the  -m  option  moves files to the new
         position. Otherwise,  -m  moves  files  to  the  end  of
         archive.


     -p
         Prints the contents of files in archive to standard out-
         put.  If  no  files  are  specified, the contents of all
         files in  archive  are  written  in  the  order  of  the
         archive.


     -q
         Quickly appends files to the end of archive. Positioning
         options -a, -b, and -i are invalid. The command does not
         check whether the added files are  already  in  archive.
         This  option  is useful to avoid quadratic behavior when
         creating a large archive piece-by-piece.


     -r
         Replaces or adds files in archive. If archive  does  not
         exist,  a  new  archive file is created and a diagnostic
         message is written to  standard  error,  unless  the  -c
         option  is  specified. If no files are specified and the
         archive exists, the results are  undefined.  Files  that
         replace  existing  files  do not change the order of the
         archive. If the -u option is used with  the  -r  option,
         only  those  files with dates of modification later than
         the archive files are replaced. If the  -a,  -b,  or  -i
         option is used, the posname argument must be present and
         specifies that new files are to be placed after (-a)  or
         before  (-b or -i) posname. Otherwise, the new files are
         placed at the end.


     -s
         Forces the regeneration of the archive symbol table even
         if ar is not invoked with an option that will modify the
         archive contents. This command is useful to restore  the
         archive symbol table after the strip(1) command has been
         used on the archive.

     -S
         When building the archive symbol table, force the use of
         the  64-bit capable symbol table format. By default, the
         32-bit format is used for all archives smaller than 4GB,
         and  the  larger format is used for larger archives that
         exceed the 32-bit limit.


     -t
         Prints a table of contents of archive. The files  speci-
         fied  by  the  file operands are included in the written
         list. If no file operands are specified,  all  files  in
         archive are included in the order of the archive.


     -T
         Allows file name truncation  of  extracted  files  whose
         archive  names  are longer than the file system can sup-
         port. By default, extracting a file with a name that  is
         too long is an error. In that case, a diagnostic message
         is written and the file is not extracted.


     -u
         Updates older files. When used with the -r option, files
         within  archive  are  replaced only if the corresponding
         file has a modification time that is at least as new  as
         the modification time of the file within archive.


     -v
         Gives verbose output. When used with options -d, -r,  or
         -x,   the  -v  option  writes  a  detailed  file-by-file
         description of the archive creation and the  constituent
         files,  and  maintenance activity. When used with -p, -v
         writes the name of  the  file  to  the  standard  output
         before  writing  the file itself to the standard output.
         When used with -t, -v includes a long listing of  infor-
         mation  about  the  files  within the archive. When used
         with -x, -v prints the filename preceding  each  extrac-
         tion. When writing to an archive, -v writes a message to
         the standard error.


     -V
         Prints its version number on standard error.

  /usr/xpg4/bin/ar
     The following options are supported for /usr/xpg4/bin/ar:

     -v
           Same as the /usr/bin/ar version, except  when  writing
           to  an  archive, no message is written to the standard
           error.


     -x
           Extracts the files named by  the  file  operands  from
           archive.  The  contents of archive are not changed. If
           no file operands are given, all files in  archive  are
           extracted.  If  the file name of a file extracted from
           archive is longer than that supported in the directory
           to  which it is being extracted, the results are unde-
           fined. The modification time of each file extracted is
           set to the time file is extracted from archive.

Operands
     The following operands are supported:

     archive
                A path name of the archive file.


     file
                A path name. Only the last component is used when
                comparing  against  the  names  of  files  in the
                archive. If two or more file  operands  have  the
                same  last path name component (see basename(1)),
                the results are unspecified. The implementation's
                archive format will not truncate valid file names
                of files added to or replaced in the archive.


     posname
                The name of a file in the archive file, used  for
                relative positioning. See options -m and -r.

Environment Variables
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the  execution of ar: LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.

     TMPDIR
               Determine the pathname that overrides the  default
               directory for temporary files, if any.


     TZ
               Determine the timezone used to calculate date  and
               time  strings written by ar -tv. If TZ is unset or
               null, an unspecified default timezone is used.

Exit Status
     The following exit values are returned:

     0
           Successful completion.


     >0
           An error occurred.

Attributes
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

  /usr/bin/ar
     tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)  ATTRI-
     BUTE   TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  _  Availabilitysystem/linker  _
     Interface StabilityCommitted


  /usr/xpg4/bin/ar
     tab() box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i)  ATTRI-
     BUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/xopen/xcu4 _
     Interface StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee standards(5).

See Also
     basename(1), cpio(1), elffile(1), file(1), ld(1), lorder(1),
     strip(1),   tar(1),  ar.h(3HEAD),  a.out(4),  attributes(5),
     environ(5), standards(5)

Notes
     If the same file is mentioned twice in an argument list,  it
     may be put in the archive twice.


     By convention, archives are suffixed with ".a".


     When inserting ELF objects into an archive  file,  ar  might
     add  \n  characters  to pad these objects to an 8-byte boun-
     dary. Such padding improves the efficiency with which  ld(1)
     can  access the archive. Only ELF object files are padded in
     this way. Other archive members are  not  altered.  When  an
     object  with  such padding is extracted from an archive, the
     padding is not included in the resulting output.


     It is faster to create a new archive from  scratch  than  to
     insert   individual  files  into  an  existing  archive  via
     separate calls to ar. When possible, the  recommended  stra-
     tegy is to remove the existing archive, and recreate it with
     a single ar invocation.

     The overall size of an archive is  allowed  to  exceed  4GB.
     However,  the  size of any individual file within an archive
     is  limited  to  4GB  by  the  archive  file   format.   See
     ar.h(3HEAD).


     The maximum user ID and group  ID  for  an  individual  file
     within  an  archive  are  limited to 6 decimal digits by the
     archive file format. Any  file  with  a  user  or  group  ID
     greater  than  999999  is  quietly  set  to user ID "nobody"
     (60001) or group ID "nobody" (6001). See ar.h(3HEAD).
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